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Tanult orvosok a középkori Magyar Királyságban
Published April 10, 2016

learned Medical doctors of the Medieval hungarian KingdoM. he present paper aims at collecting the particulars of medical doctors of the medieval Hungarian kingdom, primarily the ones belonging to persons who attended a university. he research had to reckon with the fact that the doctors were referred to in the re...spective sources by several Latin names (doctor in medicine, medicus, physicus, barbitonsor, etc.) but not all of these refer to a person who attended a university. We accept only the person as a learned doctor whose university attendance can be documented either by his presence in the matricula of a university or by his degree mentioned in a source. Another attendant problem was the deinition of Hungarian, since, for example, most doctors practising in the royal court came from abroad but owing to their service they often gained Hungarian citizenship or, moreover, nobility. After examinig these questions we managed to collect 69 persons who have evidence of their studies or graduation from 1226 till 1525, mainly from the second part of the 15th century or the irst quarter of the 16th century. heir prosopographical data can be found in the Database at the end of the paper. Most of the students studied medicine in Vienna (22 persons) or at an
Italian university (31 persons) and almost half of them gained a degree (35 persons). In accordance with the present phase of the research most doctors had an ecclesiastical career, mainly as a canon (12 persons), however, a few of them practised as municipal physicians (15 persons).

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Published June 24, 2022

A significant part of the Hungarian scholars at the University of Vienna between 1365/1377–1450 considered as poor students. From the nearly 3200 students almost 800 didn’t pay anything or could promise to be pay, however further 560 young people paid less than the prescribed taxes. In total 42,5% of them can be placed in different stages o...f poverty, but there were significant differences among them. This poverty although does not indicate their actual financial situation, only their financial condition in the time they were enrolled. The noteworthy political, military, or natural conflicts and phenomenon not necessarily affected them in their peregrination, only those which had influence on their financial situation. They can be divided into three groups. In the first can be found the non-paying students (pauper, nihil dedit). The second contains students with a little advantageous situation, namely who promised to pay the taxes (promisit, tenetur), or only asked a delay for fulfilling their obligation or an exemption from the regulated cloth-wearing. The third group concluded those who paid reduced taxes. Knowing their financial situation, the first two can be considered as pauperes, and the last is non bene habentes. Most of them came from the largest cities and towns (53%), however considerable the number of those who had a rural background (18%). Though their geographical origins do not shape a specific pattern, but their social background does.

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