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Comparison of apricot cultivars for suitability for organic growing
Published October 5, 2010
63-65

Nowadays, important task is using more widely the environmentally friendly production technologies. There are considerable differences
among technologies using reduced spray programs (integrated and organic) in plant protection and plant nutrition.
In this case integrated production has a better position as roles for organic production mo...re strict and due to this fruits has an obvious
temporal and permanent reduction in tree conditions. Fitotechnical elements and renewal and regeneration of cultivars are important
factors for offseting or delaying of condition weakening.
In this study, 5 apricot cultivars (not pruned for 8 years) were compared in their characteristics (assessment of inactive, semi-active and
active plant parts).
Our study showed that there were 50-70% differences among observed characteristics. Our study confirmed those cultivars which are
suitable for organic production and which one more resistant to condition weakening and which one able to tolerate negative technological
effects.

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Correlation of pruning time and fruiting part differentiation of sweet cherry cultivars
Published December 15, 2010
131-134

There are several extended studies in sweet cherry production in Hungary and all over the world i.e. for creation and maintainence of smaller tree crown and high density orchards. The use of suitable dwarf rootstocks for this fruit species are very limited. On one hand, most of the draf rootstocks do not cause enough growth reduction and on the... other hand these rootstocks are get old very quikcly and their fruits become small, and therefore, they not serve the requirements for intensification. In summary, there is a need for those rootstock which are vital, regeneration enhanching and delay ageing. Due to ensuring above features, Prunus mahaleb is still an obvious solution for intesive production. Increasing intensification can be obtained by use of modernisation of technological elements and suitable cultivar choice. 
According to this increasement of intensity through application of novel technological elements (timing, manner and severity of pruning) and selection of the proper cultivar is implement able. Important differences are experienced between sweet cherry cultivars in their growth attributes, light demand and dynamics of fall back in regenerative potencial of different aged wood parts. From this point knowledge of the abow detailed is very important in order to maintain rentability of already established plantations. Our work shows the formation of production part in
9-year old plantation with spike spindle and free spindle crown forms depending on pruning timing (winter, summer) and determining of their various effects. 

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Physiological plasticity of main tree species of lowland hornbeamoak forest as a results of forest gap regeneration
Published February 18, 2016
99-103

Specific leaf area (SLA) of English oak (Quercus robur L.) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) as members of Querco robori-Carpinetum were investigated in two different habitat in terms of gap forest management: in the gap and in the inert forest. The artificial opening process of the forest resulted in more light for growing saplings and need f...or acclimatization. Photosynthesis is one of the most important ways for plant life and plant production basically influenced by altered light condition resulted in opening process. Efficient photosynthesis is important for plant life, plant production, but species-dependent plasticity of photosynthesis makes one species more tolerant, than others. The specific leaf area is acceptable parameters for characterising plant production, dry matter content and leaf structure. The dry matter content based on known leaf area is higher in oak both sun and shade leaves, than hornbeam. The different place of leaves in the canopy of trees did not influence the values of SLA.

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Crop Load, Fruit Thinning and their Effects on Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published October 11, 2006
29-35

Crop load, a quantitative parameter used by industry, is generally defined as the number of fruit per tree. It is often expressed in terms of number of fruit per trunk cross-sectional area (fruit/TCSA). Crop load is the most important of all factors that influence fruit size, and the removing of a part of the crop is the most effective way to i...mprove fruit size.
The potential size of a given pome fruit is determined early in the season and growth proceeds at a relatively uniform rate thereafter. This uniform growth rate permits the accurate prediction of the harvest size of the fruit as early as mid-summer. The growth rate, once established, is not easily altered, and fruit numbers, therefore, can affect fruit size only within definite limits and maximum effectiveness requires adjustment in fruit numbers relatively early in the season. It was established, that „thinning does not change a potentially small fruit into a large fruit, but rather insures that a potentially large fruit will size properly.” Emphasis should be on estimating fruit numbers rather than fruit size.
Fruit thinning can quickly reach the point of diminishing returns. Rather than a high percentage of large fruits, the objectives of thinning should be the elimination of the smallest fruits, improved fruit quality and annual production. Fruit thinning is accomplished by hand or chemical thinning. Chemical thinners are separated into categories as bloom thinners and post-bloom thinners. Early removal of potential fruit (blossom thinning) is currently used in many apple producing areas to enhance flower initiation for next year’s crop and thus, return bloom. It also results in reduced competition for photosynthates. Blossom thinners usually have a caustic effect on floral parts.
The amount of fruit left on a tree should be determined by the vigor and general condition of the tree. Leaf area per fruit affects the number of spurs flowering the following season. It can be difficult to separate timing and fruit number effects in crop loading studies, as abscission rates after hand thinning of retained flowers/fruitlets tend to very with the time of hand thinning.

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Correlations Between the Crown Sizes, Pruning Times and Fruit Quality of Sour Cherry Cultivars
Published December 6, 2005
90-94

To increase the intensiveness of sour cherry production, i.e. the use of smaller trees, it is necessary to adopt growth-moderating techniques rather than using dwarfing rootstocks. Apart from the traditional technique of using rootstocks that support stronger growth, new or rarely-used techniques and methods must be adopted. Pruning should be c...arried out in the summer rather than in the winter, the optimal period being 1-3 weeks after harvest.
A combination of the increase in favourable exposure-time and smaller crown sizes make higher tree densities (tree/ha) and better utilisation of the crown (specific cropload) possible.
The systematic use of summer pruning leads to better quality fruit.

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Economics of hail protection net installation in super intensive apple orchards
Published February 18, 2016
27-35

The main objective of this study was to determine and organize beneficial and detrimental effects of hail protection nets, and as far as possible to quantify their economic impact. The main factors were determined, through which hail protection nets can affect the costs and incomes of the production, and as their sum the economic result. Consid...ering these factors together with the investment cost and the annual maintenance costs allows the economic evaluation of purchasing of hail protection nets. The analysis was carried out using a deterministic simulation model based on primary data collection from apple producing businesses. Installing hail protection nets as additional technological elements of intensive apple orchards can be concluded by all means as an economic investment – trough their protective effect. However, to achieve really favourable economic indicators, definitely bigger tree height is needed making possible the realisation of around 8.0 t ha-1 extra yield. The main root of this phenomena are obviously the extremely high investment costs of hail protection nets, which result in a large mass of fixed costs during the production period. Therefore the basic economic interest is reaching higher yields and thereby higher profits per unit area.

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62
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Optimising intensive apple crown pruning by IT improvements
Published September 5, 2018
165-173

Prunig is a key element of fruit production technology and is affected by a number of subjective factors. Putting research findings into practice is often hindered by bad and harmful habits that make plantations and trees heterogenious in terms of growth and fruiting features, which can even lead to significant financial losses. Having identifi...ed this challenge, in this publication we aim to present some guidelines for those who are open to new ways and believe in the power of innovation. The 21st century is undoubtedly the century of unstoppable IT innovations filtering through into our everyday lives. The fact that our project is based on IT innovations is not only essential due to the subject matter itself but also because it makes it easier to address younger generations. Whichever tool they choose to use (smartphone, tablet, laptop), all registered students have access to our web contents, making it super easy for them to practice pruning techniques. Students don’t just read texts in our training materials but have access to a pool of pictures and images to illustrate the different procecces and phenomena. All the different phrases have explanations against them, so anyone can understand the ins and outs of why and how to prune or remove the different crown parts (5-year-old and above crown parts, 2–4-year old parts or 1-year-old parts) to achieve specific results, whether it be apple, pear or cherry trees etc. Our database comprises thousands of pictures that will walk you through the entire fruit tree pruning process, without you even having to leave your desk. There is an old proverb that also applies to pruning: „The wise man learns from the mistakes of others, the fool has to learn from his own”. Our program aims to help students by presenting a number of bad examples along with their corrections as well as photos of ideal ways to prune multiple different crown shapes. Using our web-based tool eliminates time and space limitations, i.e. you can access our interactive contents to gain or extend your pruning skills, irrespective of the pruning time and location.

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Fruit quality parameters of sweet cherry cultivars produced under rain protected plastic foil and general orchard conditions
Published October 5, 2010
66-69

Due to global climate warming, frequency of negative weather effects (rainfall amounts, distribution, sortness) are increasing. Rainfall
amounts and frequency has also great effect of sweet cherry fruit quality around fruit ripening. Determination of optimal technological
basics (such as first class fruit quality and economic value) are a...n important task in dynamically growing sweet cherry production. This can
be solved with introduction of a new intensive training system. One of the solutions can be rain protecting foil which can reduce fruit
cracking and fruit rot. Without this option sweet cherry can not be grown in many countries. In this study, fruit quality parameters were
compared from a 10 year old intensive (4 x 1m) sweet cherry orchard. The effect of rain protecting foil was tested in comparison with fruits
from not covered tree

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