An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to diseases.
Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
(60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.
The effect of N doses on the yield and nutritional values of the Sushi (FAO 340) maize hybrid were analysed in three years (2018, 2019, and 2020). The analyses were performed at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil, in a striped, small-plot, non-irrigated long-term field experiment. In the experiment, in addition to the non-fertilized treatment (A0), the N-fertilizer doses were applied as basic fertilizer and top dressing. The 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 dose (A60, A120) applied as spring basic fertilizer were followed by two phases of top-dressing in V6 (V690, V6120) and V12 (V12150, V12180) phenophases; the amounts were +30 and +30 kg N ha-1.
Maize yields were affected to varying degrees by crop year. The highest yields in 2018 and 2020 were recorded in the same V6150 treatment, while in 2019 the highest yield was obtained in the A120 treatment.
Increasing the N doses resulted in an increase in the protein content of the maize kernel. Depending on the fertilizer treatments and the crop year effect, the protein content of maize kernels varied between 6.2–10.2 g x 100 g-1. In all three years, the protein content was the lowest in the control treatment (A0) and the highest in the V6150 treatment.
The starch content ranged from 70.7 to 77.9 g x 100 g-1 in the average of the three years. In 2020, it was significantly higher in all nutrient treatments than in the other examined two years. The highest starch content - except for 2020 (A120, 77.9 g x 100 g-1) - was recorded in the A0 treatment (74.2, 72.3 g x 100 g-1).
The oil content of maize kernels varied between the values of 3.8 and 5.2 g x 100 g-1 in the average of three years. In terms of oil content, the results for 2018 and 2019 can be considered the same, while in 2020 it was significantly lower. Fertilizer treatments did not significantly affect the oil content of maize in any of the years.
The fertilizer dose applied in the V12 phenological phase was not effective in terms of yield and nutritional content (protein, starch and oil content).
Protein requirement and its demand of farm animals became one of the critical problems in nutrition on a global scale. Protein requirement has been an explicit demand for a long period with soybean meal and animal protein, but recently there are some limitations in relation to their use and the availability of the high quality fishmeal decreases constantly. For this reason there is increased demand for finding new protein sources which could be the alternatives of soybean meal and fishmeal. Alternative protein sources can be divided into seven categories, according to their origin. In different countries, their use depends on the availability in large quantity and at reasonable price.
There is a long tradition of using legume seeds, as alternatives of soybean. Most of them contain some anti-nutritive compounds, but it can be reduced with systematic selection. Oilseed meals are also generally use in poultry and pig nutrition, but those crude protein content varied, depending on the oil extraction technology. Green fodder and leaf protein was also proposed as alternative protein sources, but their use is limited, in particular because of the market price. The amount of bioethanol and starch industry by-products increases gradually in recent years, therefore those became alternatives of soybean meal, or in much less extend, fishmeal. However, amino acid composition of such by-products are far from optimal for poultry and pig; therefore, in the case of their use amino acid supplementation is necessary. Several novel protein sources are proposed in the last decade, such as algae or insect proteins. Recently, their availability and use is limited, but in the near future those would be alternative protein sources in monogastric animal nutrition.
The comparative trial has been set up in the Demonstration Garden of the Institute of Crop Sciences of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Studies, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management in 2012, with 24 hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing periods. The soil of the trial is lime-coated chernozem, with a humus layer of 50–70 cm.
In many places in Hungary, early maturity soybean can be successfully grown. The earlier maturity group of soy which ripened in 110–125 days in most crop areas in Hungary. However, to achieve excellent results, the selection of proper varieties is important too. Successful cultivation is largely dependent on the macro and microclimate of the production area, the nutrient supply of the soil and the cultivation technology. Soybean can be produced in places where the amount of precipitation is right, as the lack of water results in lower yields and deteriorated oil and protein concentrations. In the following study, 2 years (2016 and 2017) are compared to the yield, protein and oil content of the soybeans of the early maturation group in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. Based on our experiment, it can be stated that, during the irrigation of soybean, oil and protein content and yields did not always change.
The yielding capacity and quality parameters of 11 maize hybrids were studied in 2011 on calcareous chernozem soil in a 25-year long-term fertilization experiment in the control (without fertilization), in the base treatment of N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 and in five treatments which were the multiplied doses of the base treatment. The N fertilizer was applied in the autumn and in the spring, while P and K fertilizers were applied in the autumn.The sowing time was 17–18 April, the time of harvest was 8 October. The 30-year average of precipitation (April–Sept) was 345.1 mm, the amount of precipitation did not differ greatly from that, however, its distribution was very unfavourable.
It was found that the largest yield increment (as compared to the control) was in the treatment N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 in the long-term experiment. The largest yields were obtained for the hybrids P9494, PR37N01 and PR35F38 (13.64–13.71 t ha-1). Due to the dry period at the end of the summer – beginning of autumn, the grain moisture content at harvest was favourably low, 12–18% depending on the treatment and the growing season.
The N fertilization significantly increased the protein content of the kernel, but the starch content of the kernel decreased (significantly in several cases) with increasing fertilizer doses and yields as compared with the control.
The highest protein content was measured in hybrids GK Boglár and Szegedi 386. The oil content was above 4% for GK Boglár, but the two hybrids were not among the best yielding hybrids in spite of their good inner content. The starch content was around 75 % without fertilization, it decreased with fertilization.
For the tested hybrids, the fertilizer dose N 120 kg ha-1, P2O5 75 kg ha-1, K2O 90 kg ha-1 can be recommended with respect to efficacy and environmental considerations.
The rape is definitely a sulphur-demanding crop, which yield and the quality of its oil is threaten by the emerging shortage of sulphur nowadays. We made sulphur fertilising trials on two places in the northeastern rape growing area (in Felsőzsolca and Mezőkövesd), in the season 2001/2002. We compared the result the 5 five treating set in 2 repeats on brown forest soil with the results of the control plots. We used FitoHorm 32 S sulphur solution as sulphur fertiliser, with the dose of 3, 6 and 10 litres per hectare, as well as the joint effects of sulphur and boron; and the effect of boron alone. On the assessment of our results we looked for relation between the sulphur fertilising, the seed production, the oil content and the protein content.
Soybean is a very important legume; it has the highest protein content, and it is a very important source of vegetable oil. Soybean is droughtsusceptible, and drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that has been increasing over the past decades as a result of the global climatic changes. To evaluate the influence of drought stress, three soybean genotypes were grown under rainfed conditions, and compared to irrigated controls. The obtained results showed that the chlorophyll content, leaf area index and plant height decreased under drought stress conditions, which led to noticeable and sometimes significant yield reduction. Our results suggest more specific studies on the physiological changes of the local soybean genotypes under drought stress to better select the adopted ones.
The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.
The sulphur fertilizing experiment was introduced in the cropping year of 2001/2002, with winter rapeseed. The experiment was performed on a farm in Magyarhomorog, Hajdú-Bihar County. By selecting the location for the experiment, we had to consider the effect of the hard winter that was very unfavourable for rapeseed production, as there was serious frost damage on the sown area previously used for the experiment. In the arable land experiment, results of three different doses of treatment were compared in two replicates, on meadow soil. FitoHorm 32 S solution was used as a sulphur fertilizer, in doses of 3, 6 and 10 l/ha. Evaluating the results, we tried to find a correlation between the amount of fertilizer and the amount of seed-crop or the oil content of the seed. The nitrogen and sulphur contents of the samples were determined using classical methods and an Elementar VarioMax analyser. By this way, it was possible to examine not only the role of Sulphur in rapeseed production, but also to compare and evaluate results obtained by Kjeldahl and the modern, environmentally-friendly combustion method.
The nutrient supply of plants is becoming more important in plant protection since the appropriate condition of plants can be ensured by optimal and satisfactory nutrient supply to avoid nutritional deficiency diseases. Due to the extreme weather conditions, plants are forced to face several stress factors, which leads to deterioration of the plant health. The increasing occurrence of droughts poses threat to nutrient uptake through the roots since all the nutrients can be accessible to the plants only if they are in dissolved form in the soil – which is not possible in the absence of water. Therefore, the importance of foliar fertilizer is becoming a more and more significant part of the nutrient supply, because with the help of this technology the development of any nutrient deficiency can be prevented.
In this experiment, we focused on the efficiency of two different foliar fertilizers on maize. Foliar fertilizers were applied two times, once in the stage with 8 leaves and tasseling phenophase of the maize. To verify the efficiency of the foliar fertilizers, the chlorophyll content of untreated and treated plant’s leaves was measured after each application. Moreover, the length and diameter of maize cobs, thousand kernel weight, protein, oil and starch content were also measured, and the results were compared to the untreated (control) ones. According to the results, in all aspects significant differences were observed and due to the laboratory analysis of leaves, in the case of magnesium and zinc supply the foliar fertilizers were able to prevent the development of nutrient deficiency.
Production year 2012 has been characterised by climatic extremities. The weather of this year can be considered very contradictory in terms of maize production. The droughty conditions of the winter and spring months had a negative effect on both germination and starting vigour. The favourable weather of May-July created ideal conditions for intensive growth and generative processes; however the lack of precipitation in August and September had a damaging effect on the development of yield composing elements and grain saturation processes as well. Under such circumstances, the sowing date models caused significant differences in the yield and quality of the hybrids belonging to different growth periods. The growing period of the maize hybrids has been shortened as a result of the unfavourable climatic conditions.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) are the fifth and sixth most important cereal crops in the world. Gluten-free grains, therefore persons with coeliac disease could consume them also. In addition, they have a lot of positive effects due to their phenolic compounds (phenol acid, flavonoid, tannin). The total phenol content of sorghum is high, but Panicum miliaceum and Eleusine coracana have higher antioxidant activity. Fiber and mineral contents are also high, the protein contents are also higher than in standard cereals. Sorghum use is similar to corn: starch, glucose, syrup, and oil can be produced. Moreover, it can be used in preparing whole grain products, bread, pancake, dumpling, mush, cake, pasta and beer from sorghum. Broom and forage are also can be prepeared from them. Millet used such as mush, steamed food, cake, bread, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.