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  • From Organic to Precision Farming (Contemporary Publication)
    81-86
    Views:
    69

    The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
    Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
    Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity farming
    Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
    Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
    Precision farming
    It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
    The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
    The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.

  • New challenges in soil management
    91-92
    Views:
    200
    Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological activity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
    The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
    − Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
    − Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
    − Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
    − Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
    − Precision farming.
    Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
    1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
    2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
    3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
    4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
    5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
    6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
    7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
    8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
    9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
    10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
  • Correlation analysis of relative chlorophyll content and yield of maize hybrids of different genotypes
    211-214
    Views:
    128

    In 2021, correlation between relative chlorophyll content and yield in three maize hybrids of different genotypes was examined. The data were collected at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen located on the Hajdúság loess ridge in Hungary. The soil of the small plot field strip plot trial, which was set up in 2011, was calcareous chernozem. Apart from the control treatment (without fertilisation), N fertiliser is applied in the form of base and top dressing. The base fertiliser containing 60 and 120 kg ha-1 N of nutrient applied in spring was followed by top dressing containing +30–30 kg ha-1 N in V6 and V12 phenophases. SPAD values measured at different phenological stages of the growing season increased by an average of about 28% up to 10 leaf stage for all three hybrids. In the pre-silking period (Vn), the relative chlorophyll content decreased by 8% on average. After an average increase of 14% in the tasselling and silking period, SPAD decreased by an average of about 29% at full maturity (R6).

    For the different fertiliser treatments, higher N doses resulted in higher yields. In the basal fertiliser treatment, the A 60 N dose resulted in an average 34% increase in yield, and the A 120 N dose resulted in an average 94% increase in yield compared to the control. The 60 kg ha-1 N basal fertiliser (A60) increased in the V6 phenophase with an additional 30 kg ha-1 N resulted in an average yield increase of 26%. When 120 kg ha-1 N of basal fertiliser (A120) was increased by an additional 30 kg ha-1 N in the V6 phenophase, only the Merida hybrid showed a significant yield increase (7%). No further yield increase was observed when V690 and V6150 treatments were increased by an additional 30 kg ha-1 N in the V12 phenophase. The yield of the Armagnac hybrid decreased by almost 20%, the yield of Fornad by 3% and the yield of Merida by 1%.

  • The management and economical aspects of GPS based machine-control and tractor-implement sincronisation
    161-167
    Views:
    196

    Precision farming has an array of technological equipment, elements and complete systems which are in themselves suitable to create conditions for efficient farming, to reduce environmental load and to provide farmers with optimal return on their investment.

    On the leading edge of my research is to introduce the economic benefits of precision logistic optimization with satellite navigation in wheat and maize harvesting. My hypothesis, claiming that a well-organized system can increase the number of working days by 4 days per harvesting season in maize, and 2 days in wheat crop. If the farmer makes contract works for harvesting it means for him 2 or 4 days extra work by using the precision farming technologies with satellite communication system. Overall, as pertains to wheat and maize harvest seasons, yearly revenues can be increased by 7 760 000 HUF. I would like to introduce that the precision technologies increase combine costs by merely 5.4% which can be return in the first year of using.

  • The effect of different sowing depth on the yield and yield-forming elements of maize
    173-176
    Views:
    34

    On a global scale, maize is an important food, feed and industrial crop, with an increasing production area (Nagy, 2007 and 2021). Among the environmental impacts, extreme weathering factors caused by climate change are causing serious problems for crop stability, and maize is no exception.

    Precision farming is today's most innovative agrotechnical approach, which can greatly increase crop safety and reduce costs by exploiting the genetic potential of our soils and the hybrids we use (Torres, 2012).

    Sowing is one of the most important agrotechnical elements, and with good seeding we can ensure that we have all the requirements of a high yielding, high growing crop (Pepó, 2019). In the case of sowing, it is important to place the seed in moist soil to provide the optimum environmental conditions for the crop to ensure uniform emergence (Széles et al., 2020; Shrestha et al., 2018).

    Precision planting is the market leading technology in precision planters in the United States, and when cooperating with them we looked for methods to optimise the depth of sowing and to monitor the effect on yield by studying the initial development of the plants. The seeder was equipped with the company's SmartFirmer soil scanner integrated into the seed drill. Automatic seed depth adjustment based on soil moisture is an exceptional solution for uniform emergence and drought protection.

  • Study of drought stress correlation on yield and yield components of maize cultivars (Zea mays L.)
    67-73
    Views:
    188

    This article was investigated to study the correlation and analysis of drought stress regression on maize cultivars' yield and components. The variance analysis results showed a significant difference between drought stress levels in terms of plant height, total dry weight and number of seeds per row, the total weight of cob, grain yield, harvest index, stem diameter, and cob weight with protective leave. Also, there was a significant difference in ear weight without protective leaves, ear diameter, ear length, plant weight, 100-seed weight, and seed per ear on hybrid treatments. There were statistically significant differences between cultivars in plant height, leaf area, ear diameter, ear length, number of seeds per row, number of seeds per ear, the total weight of cob wood, 100-seed weight, harvest index, plant dry weight. The results of the correlation of traits for the mean levels of drought stress showed a positive and significant correlation between plant yield and plant height, seed per row, ear length and weight of 5 pieces of wood and also with a total weight of cob wood, ear weight with bark showed the highest correlation. There is a significant correlation between leaf area and stem diameter, plant weight, total dry weight at the probability level of 0.05. Correlation coefficients between traits in non-stress conditions showed a positive and significant correlation between grain yield and height, ear length and grain in the row, which was a significant increase compared to stress conditions. The correlation of traits under full stress conditions also showed that the correlation coefficient between cob length trait and positive height was positive and significant. From the study of correlation coefficients between maize traits in non-stress conditions, it can be concluded that the most important components of grain yield are cob length and grain per row. While the correlation coefficients under moisture stress conditions show that the grain trait in the row has a positive and significant correlation with yield, under stress conditions in the cob stage did not show any traits with correlation yield.

  • Economic questions of precision maize production on chernozem soil
    293-296
    Views:
    127

    It is one of the main topical objective to establish the conditions of sustainable farming. The sustainable development in crop production also calls for the harmony of satisfying human needs and providing the protection of environmental and natural resources; therefore, the maximum consideratio of production site endowments, the common implementation of production needs and environmental protection aims, the minimum load on the environment and economicalness. Precision farmin encompasses the farming method which is adjusted to the given production site, the changing  technology in a given plot, the integrated crop protection, cutting edge technologies, remote sensing, GIS, geostatistics, the change
    of the mechanisation of crop production, and the application of information technology novelties in crop production. Modern technology increases efficiency and reduces costs. The efficiency of crop production increases by reducing losses and the farmer has access to a better decision support information technology system. In addition, we consider it necessary to examine the two currently most important economic issues: “is it worth it?” and “how much does it cost?”. During the analysis of agricultural technologies, we used the precision crop production experiment database of KITE Zrt. and the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen.
    During our analytical work, we examined three technological alternatives on two soil types (chernozem and meadow). The first technology is the currently used autumn ploughing cultivation. We extended our analyses to the economic evaluation of satellite navigationassisted ploughing and strip till systems which prefer moisture saving. On chernozem soil, of the satellite-based technological alternatives, the autumn ploughing cultivation provided higher income than strip till. In years with average precipitation supply, we recommend the precision autumn ploughing technological alternative on chernozem soils in the future. On meadow soil, the strip till cultivation technology has more favourable economical results than the autumn ploughing. On soils with high plasticity – considering the high time and energy demand of cultivation and the short amoung of time available for cultivation – we recommend to use strip till technologies. 

  • Impact of precision irrigation on the unit income of maize production
    157-162
    Views:
    39

    The study of the economic/economic impact of precision farming should be a priority area in digital agriculture, as the results, profitability, and efficiency indicators can have a significant decision-support effect on the development of both the agronomic and the technical regions of individual farms both in the longer and shorter term. Individual firms, companies, farmers, and family farms quantify the effectiveness of their farming processes. The modern age offers the possibility of digitally recording all the elements of farming technology, making it possible to analyse the cost-effectiveness of a farm more effectively and, in some cases, to carry out more detailed analyses. Nevertheless, the number of farms demonstrating their profitability with such precise economic calculations is still minimal.

    Our analyses were conducted on a 56,02 ha field of Balogh Farm-Tépe Ltd. The agricultural operations carried out were fully documented so that the inputs (seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, crop enhancers) were recorded in coordinates and kind, as well as the specific yields, grain moisture data, irrigation norms, and irrigation rotations. At the same time, the company's owner provided the data's monetary value. The main econometric indicators (yield, production value, cost of production, income, cost price) related to the evaluation of the enterprise management were evaluated along with the spatial data in the irrigated and non-irrigated tables. Our calculations show that a given year's climatic and market characteristics fundamentally determine the cost and income relations of a plot of land (and thus of an entire farm). In addition to additional inputs, introducing some elements of precision farming and intensification and increasing yields improves yield security and allows for excellent yield stability.

  • The precision livestock farming
    201-202
    Views:
    150

    The application of information technology is the response of the livestock farming to the demand of customer, legal and economical expectations. This technology is the socalled precision livestock farming (PLF). The elements of the PLF are: continuous monitoring of inputs, animal behaviour by sensors, an algorithm which converts these signals into a figure, this figure is compared to an optimum then adjustment of the input is followed, if it is necesary.

  • Analysis of the plant physiological effects of late, artificial corn smut infestation using remote sensing methods
    31-35
    Views:
    138

    In Hungary, corn is also infected by several important pathogens. In this experiment, we analysed the plant physiological effects of artificial late cron smut infestation using remote sensing methods under field conditions We examined the experimental area from which the data comes from with a DJI Phantom 4 Multispectral Drone NDVI and NDRE indices were calculated and analyzed in GIS programs. Individuals treated with a higher dose remained much greener than the untreated control. They also showed significant differences within the indices used.

  • Application of GIS, precision agriculture and unplugging cultivation in plant breeding of Karcag
    49-56
    Views:
    166

    In the last two decades, the prevailing ecological conditions and climate change have caused negative effects. Therefore, a paradigm shift is needed in the field growing of plants. The latest inventions, digital technologies, precision cultivation are not enough, the mentality of the farmers is more important. For this reason, not only big financial sacrifices, but adequate receptivity are needed on behalf of farmers. Adequate skills and continuous self-education are necessary. The yield of plant growing farms is determined by ecological conditions to a 40% extent, genetic background of the seed has a 30% share and the applied agricultural technology has a proportion of 30%. In different agroecological conditions, bred varieties of plants have bigger tolerance to unfavorable factors of the regions and significant yield stability. Farmers, who buy and sow seeds, can only contribute to the genetic potential of the seeds with cultivation technology. Plant breeding provides stable genetic background and good quality seeds. Breeding activity – choosing variety proposants, breeding them, selection work, classical breeding process for 8-10 years – must create new landraces, which can produce balance, high yield and have good quality parameters in extreme ecological conditions, yearly excursion and have higher tolerance to unfavorable factors of the region giving significant production stability for farmers. In Karcag GIS technology, precision cultivation elements and soil-friendly agrotechnical methods have been introduced which largely support the aims of breeding and can also provide optimal cultivation conditions in extreme years. Because of the specificity of breeding the main aim is not only to increase yield but to provide harmonic growing for bred materials, to decrease the number and the cost of cultivation and to be punctual. In this study, applied new methods and technologies are introduced.

  • Seed treatment with Bacillus bacteria improves maize production: a narrative review
    105-111
    Views:
    129

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important crop in relation to its production and consumption. Production of maize is constrained by soil infertility and poor quality seed. Microbial technologies like seed treatment with Bacillus bacteria improves the productivity of maize on infertile soil. However, due to variations in maize growth environments and Bacillus species, this review was conducted to identify the common species of Bacillus species used for seed treatment, and provide an overview of the effect of seed treatment with Bacillus on maize growth and yield. Results show that Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were the dominant species used for seed treatment. Bacillus was used as both a biofertiliser and biopesticide. The conspicuous positive effects of Bacillus were in plant height, shoot and root length, and shoot dry matter depending on the species. In terms of grain yield, Bacillus subtilis (8502 kg ha-1), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (6822 kg ha-1) and Bacillus safensis (5562 kg ha-1) were the bacterial species that had an overall pronounced effect. The highest increase in grain yield was in the interactive effect of Bacillus megaterium + Bacillus licheniformis (18.1%) and sole Bacillus subtilis (15.6%), while Bacillus pumilus reduced grain yield by 4.8%. This shows that the improvement of maize productivity using Bacillus bacteria requires careful selection of the species for seed treatment.

  • Phytopathological aspects of precision agriculture
    135-139
    Views:
    92

    This paper illustrates the efforts based on the results obtained in the funding of precision agriculture, during more than two decades of cooperation between University of Debrecen and University of Oradea, within the framework of joint, EU co-financed projects, and put into practice on both sides of the border. Common plant-health databases, interactive Web pages, consultation activities, professional publications, professional training activities, laboratory infrastructure improvements, common research themes proves the progress made to date and create conditions for further development of joint research activities.

  • Combined traffic control of irrigation on heterogeneous field
    187-190
    Views:
    192

    In arid areas, such as Hungary, most climate models forecast a rise in water scarcity. Irrigated land accounts for 2% of agricultural land in Hungary, with most irrigation technology being relatively outdated. The aim of this research was to lay the foundation for a combined traffic management system for a water-saving precision irrigation system on an 85-ha field in the Tisza River basin's reference region. High-precision soil maps were created to support the water-efficient variable-rate irrigation system by selecting and selecting areas for different agrotechnical implementations and precision farming zones.

  • Challenges and limtations of site specific crop production applications of wheat and maize
    101-104
    Views:
    129

    The development and implementation of precision agriculture or site-specific farming has been made possible by combining the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Site specific agronomic applications are of high importance concerning the efficiency of management in crop production as well as the protection and maintenance of environment and nature. Precision crop production management techniques were applied at four locations to evaluate their impact on small plot units sown by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in a Hungarian national case study. The results obtained suggest the applicability of the site specific management techniques, however the crops studied responded in a different way concerning the impact of applications. Maize had a stronger response regarding grain yield and weed canopy. Wheat was responding better than maize concerning plant density and protein content performance.

  • A growth model to predict body weight and body composition of broilers
    17-24
    Views:
    339

    Models predicting the nutrient partitioning and animal performance have been developed for decades. Nowadays, growth models are used in practical animal nutrition, and they have particular importance in precision livestock farming. The aim of the present study was to introduce a broiler model and to provide examples on model application. The model predicts protein and fat deposition as well as the body weight of an individual broiler chicken from digestible nutrient intake over time. Feed intake (FI) and the digestible nutrient content of the feed are inputs as well as some animal factors like: initial BW, feed intake at 1 and 2 kg of BW, precocity and mean protein deposition. The protein and energy metabolism is represented as in the classical nutrient partitioning models. The protein deposition (PD) is driven by digestible amino acid supply and is under “genetic control”, the so-called potential PD limits the actual PD if protein is oversupplied.

    The authors discuss how the model can be used to simulate the animal response upon different scenarios. Examples are given to show that the diet might be limiting if some animal trait is changed. Applicability of the model has shown through running the model by using different feed strategies (three- vs five-phase-feeding) and variations with animal factors. In conclusion, growth models are useful tools to support decision making for defining the most suitable feeds used in a broiler farm. The model presented in this paper shows a high sensibility and flexibility to test different scenarios. By challenging the model with different inputs, the animal response in terms of changes in body weight and feed conversion can be understood more by studying the shift in deposition of chemical constituents. The examples provided in the present paper shows the benefit of using mathematical models and their applicability in precision nutrition. It can be concluded that the growth model helps to apply “from desired feed to desired food” concept.

  • Changes in the relationship between Hungarian Grey cows (Bos primigenius taurus hungaricus) and their calves in the period from calving to four months of age
    85-90
    Views:
    146

    The ability of cows to care for their offsprings is a very important trait concerning beef cattle. Maternal instincts are highly influenced by breed, specific cow, and social and rearing environment. In 2020, at the Szamárháti farm of the Tiszatáj Public Foundation, we selected 15 dam-calf pairs and studied them for four months from the birth of the calves. We grouped calf-rearing behaviors according to strength and analyzed the related changes during the program. At the beginning of the relationship, "standing close to each other" (53%) and "suckling" (24%) characterized the pairs. After the first month, "standing or lying separated" grew by 69%, and "vocalization" by both animals fell by 66%. Even though the daily frequency of suckling decreased by 34% as the calves grew older, it remained a typical element of the relationship. Over time, the bond between the animals gradually weakened. This natural process of separation takes a month to complete.

  • Stability and development of Transdanubian agricultural enterprises
    77-82
    Views:
    115

    Personal fulfilment, financial security, flexibility, relationships, information, rules - these are all hallmarks of entrepreneurship. Furthermore, one more important factor should be added to the list, which enables satisfaction resulting from reliable income and self-fulfillment: this is openness. An open mind to changes, to novelties, and to the workforce is necessary. The central question of the present research is how to effectively develop Hungarian small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, especially in the Transdanubian region, by utilizing these factors. In addition to production, institutional and price risks, agricultural enterprises, like other sectors, are also affected by massive labour shortages and resource-intensive development objectives. In the research, primary agricultural producers, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises were surveyed through questionnaire in the second and third quarters of 2019. Using the snowball method, both the development opportunities and the risks were mapped in this sector, mostly among growers. The research results show that there is a correlation between satisfaction and development and favorable workplace relationships. These correlations were presented by demonstrating the relationship between technological development, income satisfaction, stable job creation, and the need to try new developments. However, there seems to be an invisible boundary to development in the examined field, which may stem from uncertainty, and yet, it is important to maintain development and learning activity so that the right knowledge and know-how is available to the business when needed. Since the results show that there is a lack of openness to new technologies among the farmers in the studied region, and this may pose a problem in the future in terms of meeting the expectations of precision farming, it is recommended to focus on innovation in the agricultural sector in Hungary.

  • Mobile Internet Usage Possibilities and Requirement in Agriculture
    394-402
    Views:
    69

    In this paper, I looked at the mobile Internet from technological, economical and sociological aspects and then pointed to several agricultural possibilities for theri usage. Examining the effects and driving forces of mobile communication, I can say that it is a very complex system. The social connections of mobile communication and the arising problems show that it affects several areas of everyday life. By looking at the business processes, all costs, advantages and disadvantages can be seen clearly. Overview the mobile Internet from the technological aspect and I discuss related technology and applicable utilities, as well as two possibilities for using wireless Internet: 3G and WiFi. Among the possible usages, I gave several examples to give an impression of all the diverse possibilities this technology offers. There are some really useful applications in customer service, precision farming, transport, agriculture and food industry. Finally, I talked about the mobile Internet in Hungary and in the other EU countries.