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  • Correlation between cultivation methods and quality in some vegetable species
    313-317
    Views:
    111

    Quality parameters of 5 table root varieties were tested on 3 sowing dates with different cultivation methods: open field on 15 April and 9 July 2010 and under plastic tents on 19 August. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was measured in the varieties Akela and Mona Lisa (~ 80 mg 100 g-1) of the second (July) crop. This crop is in general use in Hungary. In comparison, in the late sown varieties (August, under plastics) a further pigment increase (10–20 mg 100 g-1) was observed in the same varieties as related to the earlier sowing dates. Yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) showed similar trends. Roots of the late sowing date (with harvest in December) contained the highest vulgaxanthin values (103.3–124.18 mg kg-1).
    Varieties reacted differently to temperature changes during the production period and thus to sugar accumulation. In the second crop (July) higher water soluble solids content was measured on the average of varieties (10.12%) in comparison to the April sowing (7.76%). Beetroots of the spring sowing are recommended for fresh market while the second (July) crop with autumn harvest can satisfy industry requirements. Late sowing under unheated plastic tents supply us with fresh beetroot in late autumn and early winter and prolong the usability of plastic tents. 
    Six lettuce species/subspecies were tested in the open field and under plastic tents in 3 repetitions for nitrate nitrogen, vitamin-C, polyphenol (gallus acid equivalent – mg GAE 100 g-1) and mineral element (Ca, K, Mg, Na) contents. Our measurements showed lower nitrate nitrogen values under plastic than in the open field (89.10± 8.13 and 127.06±14.29 mg kg-1) on the average of genotypes. Lettuce grown in the field had higher vitamin-C content (1.4 mg%) which is nearly 50% more than in plants under plastic. The highest polyphenol content was found in samples from the field with a conspicuous value of 804.17±56.47 mg GAE 100 g-1 in Piros cikória. Samples grown under plastic were richer in mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) which can be explained by the higher nutrient content of the soil. In this environment superior Mg content was observed in Edivia (4616.33±
    311.21 mg kg-1). 

    Besides the well- known headed lettuce, Piros cikória (Red chicory),the red leaved Lollo Rossa and Tölgylevel (Oak leaf lettuce) should be
    mentioned which well deserve further testing in order to supply us with nourishing, healthy food. 

  • Examination of resistance to Sclerotinia stalk and head rot in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids
    34-37
    Views:
    135

    Nowadays, phytopathogenic fungi cause the most serious yield loss in open field cultures, and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is no exception to this phenomenon. Sclerotinia stalk and head rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) is present in the whole area of Hungary, and can cause serious financial loss. In our experiment, sunflower hybrids were tested for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection. 16 sunflower hybrids were examined at the Experimental Breeding Site in Jászboldogháza. Pesticide treatment and also nutrient replacement were applied on the sunflower fields.

  • Open Method of Coordination in the European research policy
    182-187
    Views:
    69

    Research, development and innovation (R+D) are of great importance nowadays as regards the competetiveness and economic growth of any given country. In the European Union the Lisbon Strategy considers R+D as a crutial means to enhance european competetiveness. The EU is substansially lagging behind its main competitors (USA, Japan) in this domain, furthermore developing countries (China, India) have recently been making
    great progress, thus posing additional challanges to our continent.  The EU needs to assess the present situation as soon as possible and meet the latest challenges in the most efficient way. In order to achieve this objective, the concept of the European Research Area (ERA) has been elaborated with the aim of reorganising, regrouping and integrating existing structures. The open method of coordination (OMC) is playing an important role in the implementation of this common area. It constitutes an alternative policy-making merthod to pure „intergovernmentalism” and the
    „community method”. The OMC in the field of research policy is coordinated by the Scientific and Research Committe (CREST), which provides a forum for member states to share their experience and reach their common goals.

  • Energy production systems of phototroph microorganisms (classification of photobioreactors)
    35-39
    Views:
    57

    In the field of alternative energy sources there is an argue in the comparison of its effects on the benefits and disadvantages to the economics and the environment. New studies are born which are in contradiction with each other. The demand for bioenergy feedstock is growing rapidly however there are the environmental problems caused by the extending energy crop plantations. There is such a significant need for land to grow traditional energy crops on (rape, soy, palm-oil, sugarcane, etc.) that the food purpose agricultural capacity could be in danger. Probably the extensively
    growing energy crops play a role in the very high prices of food. In some countries like China for example laws prohibit the use of food based crops such as corn for energie production. In the case of corn based ethanol production the cost only for the feedstock itself is over 60% of the whole preparation costs which significantly effects the entire economy of the energy productions process.
    The microalgaes however have a huge biotechnological potential and their production is notably cheaper then the traditionaly grown food crops growing expenses. They play a significant role as feedstocks in todays industrial production in such fields as comestible production, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and biotechnology especially in biofule production. In the field of economy the major aspects here are also the technological designs
    and the construction. For the future industrial production the closed type systems seem to have more advantages compared to the open, pond-type systems. For high value material production the more innovative and more easily developed closed photobioreactors are the profitable regardless the vast techological designs used in the construction. 

  • Effect of harvesting time on the vitamin C content and yield of chili pepper
    101-104
    Views:
    92

    For thousands of years, chili pepper has been used in cooking intensifying the aroma, colouring, and even flavouring with its pungency. Today ,it is also of interest for the various food and pharmaceutical industries due to its intrinsic characteristics. These characteristics of pepper and its yield can be affected by both the variety and the temperature fluctuation throughout the harvest period. The current work's objective was to investigate the effect of harvest time on vitamin C of different varieties of chili pepper C. frutescens and C. annuum cultivated in Hungary, as well as the yield of pepper in different harvesting periods. Vitamin C was determined by HPLC protocols. The differences between harvest times and varieties were analysed using Tukey post hoc test at 5%. All varieties showed fluctuation of vitamin C level, depending on the given harvest date. At the last harvest, all varieties had higher vitamin C content. All varieties had the same yield trend throughout the year but with different yields between each. Variety Hetényi Parázs had the highest vitamin C content and yield: 3720.53 µg g-1 vitamin C and 18.63 t ha-1 average yield, respectively.

  • Stability and development of Transdanubian agricultural enterprises
    77-82
    Views:
    104

    Personal fulfilment, financial security, flexibility, relationships, information, rules - these are all hallmarks of entrepreneurship. Furthermore, one more important factor should be added to the list, which enables satisfaction resulting from reliable income and self-fulfillment: this is openness. An open mind to changes, to novelties, and to the workforce is necessary. The central question of the present research is how to effectively develop Hungarian small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, especially in the Transdanubian region, by utilizing these factors. In addition to production, institutional and price risks, agricultural enterprises, like other sectors, are also affected by massive labour shortages and resource-intensive development objectives. In the research, primary agricultural producers, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises were surveyed through questionnaire in the second and third quarters of 2019. Using the snowball method, both the development opportunities and the risks were mapped in this sector, mostly among growers. The research results show that there is a correlation between satisfaction and development and favorable workplace relationships. These correlations were presented by demonstrating the relationship between technological development, income satisfaction, stable job creation, and the need to try new developments. However, there seems to be an invisible boundary to development in the examined field, which may stem from uncertainty, and yet, it is important to maintain development and learning activity so that the right knowledge and know-how is available to the business when needed. Since the results show that there is a lack of openness to new technologies among the farmers in the studied region, and this may pose a problem in the future in terms of meeting the expectations of precision farming, it is recommended to focus on innovation in the agricultural sector in Hungary.

  • Micropropagation of Rudbeckia hirta L. from seedling explants
    53-59
    Views:
    81

    We conducted experiments for developing an in vitro micropropagation protocol starting from meristems of Rudbeckia hirta L seedlings. We pre-soaked the seeds in sterile ion-exchanged water for 17 hours, and then achieved surface disinfection in two separate steps. First, we used concentrated household sodium-hypochloride solution for 20 minutes and, also for 20 minutes, we applied hydrogen peroxide of 10%, which was followed by washing with sterile ion-exchanged water three times. For the propagation of seedling meristems, the combination of half-strength solid Murashige and Skoog (1962) culture medium containing 10 mg/l of kinetin and 2 mg/l of kinetin + 0.1 mg/l of 2iP proved to be the most suitable. The average number of shoot-buds developed from the seedling axillary meristem in the best culture media varied between 5 and 17. Without separating them, we inoculated the shoot-bud clusters on MS culture medium containing 2 mg/l of IAA. After four weeks of incubation, we obtained elongated shoots, which we separated and inoculated into a new culture medium and from which we obtained elongated roots. The rooted plants were gradually acclimatised in the cultivation room, potted and carried to a greenhouse, and then planted in open field for subsequent observation. By adopting this method, our laboratory started the micropropagation of the superior and/or elite genotypes of the Rudbeckia hirta L. being of special value in respectt to breeding.

  • The impact of cultivar and irrigation on yield, leaf surface temperature and SPAD readings of chili pepper
    103-108
    Views:
    182

    Paprika is an extremely popular and widespread plant species in Hungary. Chili peppers belongs to paprika and it can be consumed fresh or processed. The production of peppers began with the cultivation and control of some parameters for good results of paprika production. The aim of this article is to compare the water supply of four chili pepper hybrids ("Habanero", "Hetényi Parázs", "Unikal" and "Unijol") by means of investigation on open field and to examine how different temperatures and water stress factors influence the yield of chili peppers. The experiment area consisted of four different hybrids in three different irrigation treatments (control, deficit- and regular irrigation). The chlorophyll content was estimated with SPAD and the leaf surface temperature with Raytek MX4 TD. Our research concluded that deficit irrigation produced the highest yields for all cultivars and the lowest yields for the highest water supply.

  • Examination of drought stress of two genotype maize hybrids with different fertilization
    53-57
    Views:
    110

    In the growing season of 2019, we analysed stress resulting from climatic factors on maize hybrids of different genotypes, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the physiological responses of each hybrid, which might support the elaboration of a cost-effective irrigation plan.

    Our experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil in a small-plot long-term field trial with strip plot design. In the scope of the experiment, N-fertilizer doses were applied as basic fertilizer and top-dressing in addition to the non-fertilized (control) treatment. The 60 and 120 kg N/ha doses applied as basic fertilizers in the spring were followed by top-dressing in the V6 phenophase with a +30 kg N/ha dose. Measurements were carried out with the involvement of the Renfor early (FAO 320) and Fornad (FAO 420) late maturity hybrids-

    The stomata of the plants became more and more closed with the progression of the phenological phases; their stomatal conductance decreased. However, the hybrids responded differently to environmental stress. In the case of the Renfor hybrid, the highest conductance (669 mmol/m2-s) was recorded in the V12 phenophase with the 150 kg N/ha treatment. The stomata were more open due to the high turgor pressure, allowing plants to evaporate properly. The plant was in its worst physiological condition on 2nd July, at the time of the appearance of the last leaf in the case of the 120 kg N dose (224 mmol/m2-s). The value measured in the V12 phenophase has already shown that the stomata were closing due to the self-regulating system of the plant. It would have been necessary to dispense irrigation water following the measurement. This confirms the finding that water stress can be prevented by measuring stomatal conductance.

    In the case of the Fornad hybrid, stomatal conductance was the highest on 12th June (630 mmol/m2-s) in the 90 kg N/ha treatment and it was the lowest (183 mmol/m2-s) in VT (emergence of the last leaf) phenophase in the 60 kg N/ha treatment. In this case, the appropriate time for applying irrigation water would have been early July, when the conditions for the plants were still adequate. Subsequently, the stomata began to close due to a reduction of the water resources available to them.

    There was a significant correlation between soil moisture and stomatal conductance, as well as between temperature and stomatal conductance.

  • Management of phytopathogens by application of green nanobiotechnology: Emerging trends and challenges
    15-22
    Views:
    250

    Nanotechnology is highly interdisciplinary and important research area in modern science. The use of nanomaterials offer major advantages due to their unique size, shape and significantly improved physical, chemical, biological and antimicrobial properties. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of metal nanoparticles have received much attention of researchers. There are different methods i.e. chemical, physical and biological for synthesis of nanoparticles. Chemical and physical methods have some limitations, and therefore, biological methods are needed to develop environment-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles. Moreover, biological method for the production of nanoparticles is simpler than chemical method as biological agents secrete large amount of enzymes, which reduce metals and can be responsible for the synthesis and capping on nanoparticles.

    Biological systems for nanoparticle synthesis include plants, fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and actinomycetes. Many plant species including Opuntia ficus-indica, Azardirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis, Triticum aestivum, Hydrilla verticillata, Citrus medica, Catharanthus roseus, Avena sativa, etc., bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Lactobacillus sp., Klebsiella aerogenes, Torulopsis sp., and fungi, like Fusarium spp. Aspergillus spp., Verticillium spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae MKY3, Phoma spp. etc. have been exploited for the synthesis of different nanoparticles. Among all biological systems, fungi have been found to be more efficient system for synthesis of metal nanoparticles as they are easy to grow, produce more biomass and secret many enzymes. We proposed the term myconanotechnology (myco = fungi, nanotechnology = the creation and exploitation of materials in the size range of 1–100 nm). Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology, and is an exciting new applied interdisciplinary science that may have considerable potential, partly due to the wide range and diversity of fungi.

    Nanotechnology is the promising tool to improve agricultural productivity though delivery of genes and drug molecules to target sites at cellular levels, genetic improvement, and nano-array based gene-technologies for gene expressions in plants and also use of nanoparticles-based gene transfer for breeding of varieties resistant to different pathogens and pests. The nanoparticles like copper (Cu), silver (Ag), titanium (Ti) and chitosan have shown their potential as novel antimicrobials for the management of pathogenic microorganisms affecting agricultural crops. Different experiments confirmed that fungal hyphae and conidial germination of pathogenic fungi are significantly inhibited by copper nanoparticles. The nanotechnologies can be used for the disease detection and also for its management. The progress in development of nano-herbicides, nano-fungicides and nano-pesticides will open up new avenues in the field of management of plant pathogens. The use of different nanoparticles in agriculture will increase productivity of crop. It is the necessity of time to use nanotechnology in agriculture with extensive experimental trials. However, there are challenges particularly the toxicity, which is not a big issue as compared to fungicides and pesticides.