The movement of water resources, especially the possibilities of their regulation by interaction between surface and groundwaters are the subject matter of attention particularly during the occurrence of extreme hydrologic situation. This work presents the overview of knowledge and results which were achieved at IH SAS in this question. It...can show the ways how to optimize the adjudicated processes which emerge during the requirement of emergency intervention. The solution of this task was located at the Žitný Ostrov area because this territory with their existence of channel network is suitable for studying the surface and groundwater interaction. The channel network at Žitný Ostrov was built up for drainage and also to safeguard irrigation water. The water level in the whole channel network system has an effect on groundwater level on the Žitný Ostrov and vice versa. It was been necessary to judge the impact of the channel network silting up by bed silts on the interaction between channel network and groundwater on the Žitný Ostrov. The aim was to evaluate the changes of bed silt state of Žitný Ostrov channel network and consecutively their influence on interaction processes between groundwater and surface water along the channels in the period from 1993 to present. The measurements of bed silt thickness in Žitný ostrov channel network had been started from1993, later they continued at selected profiles of three main channels – channel Gabčíkovo-Topoľníky, Chotárny channel and Komárňanský channel (for checking of the silting up variability). From 2008 the detailed field measurements of cross-section profiles aggradations along these selected three channels have been started. The objective of detailed field measurements was the determination of the silt permeability which is expressed by parameter of saturated hydraulic conductivity. This parameter was determined by two ways – as the saturated hydraulic conductivity obtained from disturbed samples of silt Kp and as the saturated hydraulic conductivity obtained from undisturbed samples of silt Kn. In the first case the granularity of silts was determined as a first step and then was computed their Kp from the empirical formulas according Bayer-Schweiger and Spacek. From undisturbed samples of silts which were extracted along the channels from top, middle and bottom layer of silts, were determined the values Kn by the laboratory falling head method. The valid values Kp on channel Gabčíkovo-Topoľníky ranged from
4,33 10-7 to 4,46.10-5 m s-1, on Chotárny channel from 5.98 10-5 to 2.14 10-6 m s-1 and on Komárňanský channel fluctuated from 1.93 10-6 – 6.09 10-5 m s-1. The valid values Kn on on channel Gabčíkovo-Topoľníky ranged from 5.21 10-8 – 4.18 10-3 m s-1 , on Chotárny channel ranged from 8.54 10-8 – 2.70 10-4 m s-1 and on Komárňanský channel fluctuated from 4.72 10-7 – 1.26 10-5 m s-1. The remarkable results were noticed by comparison of values of saturated hydraulic conductivity from disturbed and undisturbed samples Kp and Kn. On Chotárny channel the values of silt saturated hydraulic conductivity from undisturbed samples Kn approximately hundredfold decreased (from 10-6 to 10-8 m s-1). On Komárňanský channel the comparison of values Kp and Kn shown that the values Kn from undisturbed samples approximately tenfold descended against Kp.
Simultaneously, the bed silts‘ impact on the groundwater recharge (saturated hydraulic conductivity of silt) was also examined. Determination of the total recharge amount was done by numerical simulation (model SKOKY) and by the so-called method of interaction formulas. These two approaches were applied at the Žitný Ostrov channel network. There were field measurements performed in monitored three main channels and adjacent to obtain correct input data. These characteristics were used for simulation and computation of total recharge along the channels. The total recharge amount was calculated for four alternatives of the surface water levels in the channel and the surroundings groundwater respectively. We chose four simplified variants with the same geological conditions in surroundings area of channels, only water levels of groundwater and in channels were modified. The results of the simulations seem to show greater impact of the silt in the case of outflow from the channels to the surroundings than the inflow into the channel from the surroundings.
This paper is concerned with the role of network administrative organizations (NAOs) in the development of social capital in interorganizational
networks aiming at supporting their members to innovate in the food sector through interacting with one another. A multi-case study approach is used whereby three Belgian interorganizational network
Our study shows that there are many options available to NAOs to build social capital within the networks they are responsible for. We propose to categorize these options in three main distinct groups. First, NAOs may nurture the development of social capital within the network through creating ‘space’ boundary objects which appear, in our study, to be an absolute precondition for the development of interactions and hence creation of ties between network members. Second, NAOs may impact the development of social capital by favoring certain members – or set of members – over others due to their characteristics such as good reputation, possession of common past experiences, multidisciplinary experiences, non-conflicting goals, similarity in terms of sector of activity and/or experience level and common mindset towards information exchange. Third and finally, NAOs may foster social capital development by enhancing effective communication between members on the one hand, and between members and the NAOs’ coordination and decision bodies on the other hand, via a clear mandate, network decision making
bodies composed of members, the use of ex-post evaluations and formal governance mechanisms (e.g. legal contracts), and the selection of staff endowed with a proactive and perspective taking behavior and able to show neutrality when conflict arise.
The Bihar plain situated in the Great Hungarian Plain has altitudinal values between 87 and 108 meters above Baltic level and these low average values decreases from East to West. We can find on this place a surface water network with a high density; the most of them was created for diversion of inland water.
The GIS is the best practice for
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The most important instrument of social advancement and economic development is the education system. The educational qualification of the population of Hajdú-Bihar county is continuously improving, however the census data of the year 2001 show that the educational qualification of the population of the county did not reach the national average. The educational qualification of the county’s population is higher at the county seat and in other cities and lower in small municipalities. The county’s ratio is strongly influenced by the data of the county seat Debrecen and that of Hajdúszoboszló sub region.
The timely and effective establishment of Natura 2000 network is one of the greatest environmental challenges for the new Member States of the European Union. Slovak Republic is facing this challenge now. By the June 2005, the Government in our country must prepare a list of sites to be included in the Natura network, according to the criteria...set up in the Habitat Directive. Natura 2000 sites, according to the specificEUDirectivesconsistofSpecialAreasofConservation(SACs),andSpecialProtectionAreas(SPAs).TheSPAsandtheSACs, the latter selected as Sites of Community Importance (SCIs), will be incorporated into the Natura 2000 network. The problems of proclaiming the system of protected areas of European importance for the Natura 2000 have been one of the major topics of the ichthyological activities in our country in recent years.
For 3 lampreys and 20 fishspeciestheterritoryofpotentialsiteofcommunityinterest(pSCI)hasbeenlimitedandproposed.Theselection of localities and examinations of population state in individual species of fishespresentedintheAnnex(II.,IVandV.)totheCouncilDirective No. 92/43/EEC were carried out in 2003/2004. In total 179 pSCI localities for fishandlampreysinthealpinebiogeographicregion (83) and in the pannonian biogeographic region (96) pSCI in the Slovak republic were selected and limited. The number of pSCI localities selected for individual species is different regards to their distribution within the river net of Slovakia. For example, for species of general distribution, 30 localities pSCI (Misgurnus fossilis, Rhodeus sericeus, Gobio albipinnatus, Barbus barbus) or 35 localities pSCI (Cobitis elongatoides, Barbus peloponnesius), have been proposed, on the contrary, in several species of exclusive distribution as Lampetra planeri - 8, Gobio uranoscopus - 9 and Zingel zingel -12 localities.
The pSCI territory for individual species of the ichthyofauna presented here represents the firststageintheprocessofcreatingtheprotected territory system of European interest Natura 2000 in the territory of the Slovakia for this group of aquatic vertebrates. The list of proposal sites will have to be submitted to the European Commission by the date of Accession.
After World War I., but especially from the second half of the 20th century the public policy development is determinative in urban development. The urban and the country planning appears under the auspices of the regional development policy between the world wars. After 1945 the primary goal in economic and development policy was the socialist... industrialization, with a priority on cities. In this period the driving force in urban development primarily were the industrial installations. As a result, economic and social structure was transformed. It is a fact, that planned economy gave a huge impulse to city network, which determine the trend of cities up to this day. After the regime change, as an effect of escalation of regional differences and as a result of economic processes the urban development took new directions. The state intervention changed, and the principles of decentralization prevailed in resource allocation. The private and non-profit sector appears in urban development, the governments gain more important roles. These three sectors became the movers of local development. To recognize the main trends of urban development in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, the local area development funds were examined in a special way in a given period. This study will show, the main tendencies of the consumption of decentralized regional development funds between 1996–2008, in the cities of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. This study also gives an answer for which factors convert the renewal of city network of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County after the regime change.
Nowadays more and more pronounced demand for tertiary education appears as an output of the labor market and the real labor market needs coordination of intention. A necessary condition for the long-term sector strategies, conscious coordination. In Hungary – the sector management level – headed tertiary education training structure and the... transformation of the institutional network. There is a close relationship between training supply and research and development potential, as an institution typically the same disciplinary education and research base continues. Based on this, we assume that the structure of the training may influence the development of the restructuring of the research and development potential as well. The institutional network reorganization (merger, liquidation, establishment of new institutions) is expected to result in a former spatial structure of tertiary education in the modification, which in itself is a training and research supply spatial rearrangement may apply. Against this background, questions have been raised as to how the objectives in the current tertiary education strategy for economic operators serving the needs of each territorial unit, how the institution fits into network transformation of economic structure and labor market needs of the regions.
In order for the Hungarian tertiary education can meet the requirement for industry standards, an essential part of the structure of industries, and the changes occurring in the economic structure, trends and industry relations in the investigation. On the other hand, we do not ignore those factors are not, which have a determining influence on the tertiary education institutions in training and R&D supply. As part of this study in tertiary education institutions will be examined possible factors influencing education, research and development demand and supply, which gets a prominent role in the economic structure of relations between the territorial dimension in the evolution of discount factors and the nature of particular sectors.
This work aims to develop a hydrological modelling tool to help managers make the right decisions for Debrecen, in the face of water scarcity and the increase in agricultural and domestic needs over time. The methodology was based on the creation of a climatic database, at monthly time steps, from 2016 to 2019, and cartographic (land use, d...igital elevation model, and hydrological network). As a next step, the watershed was delimitated into sub-basins to determine the shape and the physiographic characteristics of sub-watersheds. Finally, a hydrological study was prepared by calculating the time of concentration to build a database of water resources in the study area. This water resource will be used as an input parameter for urban farming.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county shares its borders with three countries: Romania, Ukraine and Slovakia. The county is part of the North Great Plain Region, it is the third largest county of Hungary in terms of its population. The peripheric geographical location of the county gained importance by the EU accession, as the county represents a significant part of the eastern border of the EU.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Brown hare (Lepus europaeus) is one of the most wide spread mammal in Europe. Its genetic structure is affected not only by last glacial, even by human activities (hunting, agricultural activities), isolation of such areas or competing for food resources. According to literature datas brown hare populations has different genetic variants in Europe, however its evolution, phylogenetics has not studied well.
With this study, the author intends to draw up the main characteristics of the institutional background of the Farm Accountancy Data Network, operated by the European Union. Among the factors that contribute to the formation of the institutional background of the FADN database, special emphasis is laid on the Commission and member state level l...egal framework, in order to provide potential Hungarian users of the database with authentic and substantial information. Also, much attention is paid to definitional misunderstandings which cause, or might cause the farm business management type utilization of the database to be imperfect. As for this goal, some of the elements of the FADN information structure are investigated in a conventional Hungarian cost structure. In order to facilitate an easier understanding of the database, the different relations of economic size classes are also reviewed in this study. The author of this study is – in the first place – trying to analyze the meaning of Standard Gross Margin, the index used in the FADN structure to categorize farms, by localizing the position of the different cost constituents of SGM in a conventional Hungarian cost matrix. Last, but not least, the author is trying to draw all researcher’s attention on the possibilities, hidden in the FADN database by introducing some analyses from his own field of interest based on FADN information.
The main aim of this study is to explore the connections between the unique settlement structure circumstances of Hajdúböszörmény and the social problams related to the gypsy minority. After the change of regime, the gypsy population increased especially quickly in some parts of the city, which is in connection with the settlement network p...osition and the internal division of the settlement. The significant segregation of the gypsy
minority appeared as a new phenomenon in the city, whose reason was the increasing migration of gypsies from Northeastern Hungary and the relatively low price of the abandoned real estates located in the outskirts and external settlement parts of the city. Even the gypsy population living in the city for a long time separates itself from the immigrant groups that live in run down houses and practicle have no connection with the job market of the city. It is the typical rural segregation process known only in small village regions (e.g. Southern Baranya, Cserehát) that now goes
on in the outskirts of Hajdúböszörmény.
We made a botanical survey of a seminatural meadow situated in the vicinity of Hajdúnánás-Tedej in Hungary, using traditional phytocenological methods. The habitat, based on its soil-, and botanical characteristics, can be classified into the category of saline meadows. One of the landscape ecological values of this area is its mosaic-like s...tructure and, as a consequence, this habitat can be divided into six characteristic associations with blurry borderlines and characteristic overlaps. Because of its rare plant species and species richness this area can be considered to be a valuable „seed bank” and a „stepping stone” in the ecological network among the larger, intensively cultivated fields. The area can be evaluated as moderately recovered, the natural species are dominant, but there are few disturbance tolerant species. Except for the two saline associations, the high grass associations, which make up about two-thirds of the habitat, are cut once a year; therefore, the agricultural utilisation of the area and its prevention against weediness are being assured at the same time.
Farming methods supporting the ecological function of agriculture will play an even more dominant role in the near future than they do now, as much in Hungary as in the rest of the EU.
Several farming techniques supporting sustainable development have already evolved, and in this essay, I deal with integrated production i.e. integrated fruit
It is obvious that in the orchards of Europe, integrated production is gaining ground. We can expect the increased spread of this western trend to Hungary, too, because one of the conditions for remaining on the market will be a product from integrated production. However, we cannot expect any rapid increase in the future. In my opinion, there are three ways to propagate integrated production:
− changes in the approach of farmers;
− vocational training of farmers because of the greater „knowledge-demand”; improving the consultant network;
− strict monitoring of the production process.
There was a heavy change in the characteristics of the agriculture in the last 20 years. It become a multifunctional, sustainable, organic system, which needs strategic approach. On the problem map of the hungarian agriculture the most importatnt questions are the following: dual charachter of the land structure, to occidentalize the farm struc...ture. To develop the rural areas we need to real markets needs adapted, competitive, local agricultural production. From the ’90s into Europe’s economic development policies integrated the clusters, this research tries to certify, that this system is viable in classic agriculture and able to dissolve the defecinces, to support the aims of rural development.
Under the aegis of the Lisbon Strategy, special attention is paid to education and areas left untouched by the European integration process. Human capital and research inputs were identified as major driving forces for long-term development. The European Union is keen on meeting its target of boosting research spending to 3% of GDP by 2010. In...order to contribute towards his goal, the European Commission has set aside an amount
which is double the budget of the 7th Framework Programme. Accordingly, preferences were given to research and development projects encouraging competitiveness in the food industry and other initiatives, such as the European Technology Platforms. Major obstacles to innovation in Hungary are: lack of funds, weakness of research network, poor structural relations. Better utilization of our comparative advantages should be targeted in order to have the Hungarian food industry become a driving force sector. This is to be promoted by the newly transformed food
engineer training (as a result of the Bologna Declaration) which can adapt better to the changing requirements of the labour market. Food science and related research could become determining factors for the food economy by setting up accredited training systems and enhancing food safety education and training in Hungary.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">It is a widely accepted practice in the European Union to break down countries into regions according to their stage of development, their cultural and economic characteristics. The basis of this methodology is the EU-conform MOTS system, which distinguishes territorial units on five levels. Besides the MOTS system, Hungary uses another system, too, which is the basis of our public administration, and whose roots go back to the times of King Saint Stephen: the county system. In Hungary, developmental decisions are taken by a county’s general assembly; at the same time, from an economic point of view the characteristics and competitive advantages of a county can be defined more precisely than those of a region.
The DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL orders the measurement of the state of natural and artifical waters. We therefore applied environmental qualification methods, which allow inductions of the searched area in environmental management, conservation and water quality protection points of view. These methods are... accepted in interdisciplinary sciences, and are in use in Hungarian and international practice. We applied the range data measured along the Berettyó River, and ratified by the remote sensing, to count hydrological-hydraulical attributes of the stream, by the framework of the Hec-Ras programme. We processed the physical, chemical and biochemical water qualifications, determined the MMCP-index (the point-system of the Hungarian macrozoobenthos taxons), and estimated the Spencer index-numbers, which were based on complex environmental qualification and bioindication. Appointed, that the different results of researches are not inconsistent. This results together the spatial analysis reveal the natural and anthroponetic specialities of the river and the landscape, which determine the environmental flavours and biodiversity. The bioindicators represent better environmental status, than the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters. The natural conservationist importance of drainage canal network of Bihari-Plain is appreciated by these facts.
Agroforestry systems are part of the history of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase of size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century, thereby it has radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. However, this cause conflicts between interest of agricu...ltural and forestry sectors. The agroforestry land uses could be a solution of this conflict management. One real – ecological – problem with the remnant forests and new forest plantation is the partly missing of network function without connecting ecological green corridors, the other problem is verifiability for the agroforestry payment system, monitoring the arable lands and plantations.
Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise European Union payments. Nowadays, next to use satellite imagery the airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technologies are becoming more widespread use for nature, environmental, forest, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring and it is an effective tool for monitoring biomass production.
In this Hungarian case study we made a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to create agroforestry site selection model. The aim of model building was to ensure the continuity of ecological green corridors, maintain the appropriate land use of regional endowments. The investigation tool was the more widely used hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR remote sensing technologies which can provide appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build a decision support system.
The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.
ZigBee technology aims to completely satisfy the requirements set by precision agriculture, since this system makes it possible to collect data in an accurate and regular way. The cost of one module is rather favourable; therefore, damaged parts can be replaced quickly. Due to the modular structure, the system can be further developed easily. N...ew units can be quickly incorporated into the network without any difficulty.
The greatest part of the incomes (nearly fifty percent) of the European Union is spend on the agriculture and the agricultural policy is the most complex field among the common policies. In Hungary the payments from Guarantee Section of EAGGF are carried out by one Paying Agency (Agricultural and Rural Development Agency), the post audit of pay...ments are carried out by Investigation Network of Hungarian Customs and Finance Guard on the base of Council Regulation No. 4045/89. A full co-operation of the business operators is expected during the audit, which means the presentation of the complete accounting file related to subsidies. To avoid declarations on irregularities during the audit and the following order on repayment of the subsidy, all requirements of gaining subsidies have to be kept. The state authorities, in present case the customs authority should pay special attention to the risk analysis activity, and its harmonising with the proposals and guidelines of the Commission. Getting acquainted and using in practice the actual requirements and proposals of the Commission’s guidelines is expected at all levels of the control service of the HCFG, but primarily the Special Service has to continue its present practice in this field. The measures mentioned above, respectively the effective period taken under analysis teens from the date of accession until June 2005.
Knowledge-intensive businesses sectoral nature of the operation and the specific attributes of the innovation life cycle processes, different needs and different needs induce. These features can also differentiate time that their activities when and what type of resources they require. The availability of capacity in terms of a network co-benef...its for those businesses that are creating the possibility that such resources are available to ensure the realization of goals that are not individually owned. These factors and the availability of local availability is also motivated by the small and medium enterprises willingness to cooperate.
Regional supply of resources necessary for the operation of the business of insurance, universities play a key role. The functions of universities in innovation as a business service can be understood as an activity that mediate high added value to other organizations and companies. Questions arise as to the innovative nature of the business industry and sector weights would differentiate whether the R&D&Iintensive areas of expertise.
Agricultural hedgerows have various impacts on the surrounding cultivated area and on the landscape. They serve as a windbreak, help manage humidity and precipitation, and are also sources of plant species richness which can contribute to the animal biodiversity. One of their beneficial effects is the yield improvement of agricultural crops. Ou...r investigation tries to prove this hypothesis in Hungarian circumstances in the case of several winter wheat fields near Debrecen. Regarding the results, it seems that the majority of data supports the relevant, mainly German and Austrian information, but in some cases, the correlation has not been significant.
One of the biggest questions of developing rural areas is that people and organisations living and making their activity there how and in what measure utilize the local or obtainable external
resources. The concept of the landscape expresses the direct connection of the natural resources with the socio-economic processes. This is a two-way c
conservation plays an increasingly important role in the use of the landscape and landscape management, which is an essential task not only in protected areas, but everywhere. The natural resources, the landscape, the nature conservation and the landscape use are related tightly, in which the so-called ecological/biological resources and their sustainable use have a