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  • Special landscape values of the settlements in “Érmelléki löszös hát” geographical micro region
    45-50
    Views:
    118

    The objective of this study is to present the concept and significance of special landscape values. The research explains special landscape values within landscape protection using Hungarian scientific literature as well as international and national law. In the last decades the measurement and conservation of non-protected landscapes and landscape elements were emphasised by landscape protection. One of the biggest research of the last years was TÉKA project, done by Corvinus University of Budapest Faculty of Landscape Architecture. The program dealt with surveying Hungarian landscape values. In this paper I am going to analyse the types of special landscape values and their frequencies on a plain region using an open database prepared by TÉKA program. In addition to the definition of special landscape values in the Érmellék loess ridge geographical micro region the study intends to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of using the database.

  • Thoughts about the connection between spatial development and sustainable landscape at the region of the Northern Great Plain
    179-185
    Views:
    79

    This paper tries to find connections between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretation of sustainability from the view point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change, the polarization of landscapes, will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region form two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of landscape. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analysing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation and the tasks of the future within the subject matters.

  • On the connection between spatial development and sustainable landscape in the Northern Great Plain region
    145-148
    Views:
    58

    This paper tries to find connection between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretations of sustainability from the view point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change – the polarization of landscapes – will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region from two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of spatial development. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analyzing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation within the subject matters.

  • Landscape use of protected areas in the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region
    179-193
    Views:
    77

    One of the biggest questions of developing rural areas is that people and organisations living and making their activity there how and in what measure utilize the local or obtainable external
    resources. The concept of the landscape expresses the direct connection of the natural resources with the socio-economic processes. This is a two-way connection, (1) on the one hand the single landscapes provide the unique combination of natural conditions for the socio-economic utilisation which is different from other landscapes, (2) on the other hand as the result of the interaction of natural spheres together with the social and economic spheres the landscapes change in a different manner and in a different measure. The landscape as a territorial unit and as a resource is inseparable from the natural resources, and the nature
    conservation plays an increasingly important role in the use of the landscape and landscape management, which is an essential task not only in protected areas, but everywhere. The natural resources, the landscape, the nature conservation and the landscape use are related tightly, in which the so-called ecological/biological resources and their sustainable use have a
    significant role. 

  • Role of the landscape in spatial and rural development
    37-41
    Views:
    89

    The study is going to reveal the role of landscape potential in spatial and rural development based on the analyses of scientific literature. The target area of the research is three micro regions in Hajdú-Bihar county. In addition to the analyses of scientific literature the study pays attention to the assay of local development concepts and programmes. The conclusion of the study is that the analyses of landscape changes on micro regional level are obstructed by the lack of micro regional spatial development and substantive landscape plans.

  • Landscape tools to support the educational use of school grounds
    63-72
    Views:
    21

    Recent years have seen an increasing emphasis on child-friendly concepts in landscape architecture and urban planning, as well as a growing emphasis on school grounds and environmental education, both in terms of pedagogy and landscape design. School grounds provide places for active engagement with the environment, for experiencing what is taught in class, and, are therefore of particular importance for education and for building children's connection with nature. The aim of this research is to develop a set of landscape architecture tools that can be used to promote child-friendly and education-centered design of school grounds. The research collects and organises the different school ground features, drawing on literature research, and the analysis of the Framework Curriculum. The toolkit presented in this paper lists and evaluates each feature according to its function, its relevance to school subjects and the specific knowledge or skills it can help to acquire, its space requirements and feasibility. To conclude, school grounds offer opportunities for teaching almost any subject and can therefore be linked to educational activities in multiple ways. The results of this research are to be developed into design guidelines in order to be used by designers and teachers alike, to help develop school grounds contributing to the well-being and environmental awareness of new generations.

  • Cultural landscape on the border: érmellék
    197-200
    Views:
    100

    Cultural landscapes are haunting topic of the european spatial development. Cultural landscapes as cultural heritage determine the local and regional identity. The study shows the role and the significance of the cultural landscape by the help of UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Spatial Development Perspective and the European Landscape Convention. The article speaks about how can we maintain and develop cross border landscapes and cultural landscapes and through introducing Érmellék it would like to draw attention to the fact that landscape level planning and development of common landscape politics are one of the main interests of Hungary. That kind of politics play an important role not only in maintaining landscapes but in the regional economic development.

  • Marginalisation and Multifunctional Land Use in Hungary
    50-61
    Views:
    71

    Our study prepared as a brief version of National Report in the frame of EUROLAN Programme. We deal with the interpretation of some definitions (marginalisation of land use, multifunctionality of land use, marginalisation of agriculture, multifunctionality of agriculture), with sorting and reviewing indicators of marginalisation and finally with the analysis of functions of land use. We suggested a dynamic and a static approach of marginalisation. We can explore the dynamic process by time series and the static (regional) one by cross-section analyses.
    It is very hard to explain the perspective of the future of marginalisation of land and of agriculture in Hungary. The process of marginalisation seems faster in the agriculture in the coming years, but it depends on the utilisation of new possibilities given by the EU financial resources and by the Common Market. At this moment agriculture seems one of the big losers of the accession.
    In the long term we should face considerable challenges in the land use. It is necessary to take into account that there is a supply market of foods and traditional fibre production world-wide. There are limited possibilities to produce and to market for example biodiesel (fuel), bioethanol, or maybe biogas. Thus the environment and landscape preservation becomes more and more real land use alternatives.
    The environmental interpretation of the multifunctionality of land use: activities (functions) of environmental preservation and nature conservation in a certain area, which aim to preserve natural resources by the existing socio-economic conditions.
    Preservation of rural landscapes is the task mainly for land-users, who can be commanded by legal means and can be encouraged by economic measures to carry out the above activity. In the recent past measures of „command and control” type regulation were predominant, however nowadays, especially in the developed countries, the role of economic incentives increases.
    As a conclusion of our analysis we can state that as long as the main land-dependent activities (agriculture, forestry, housing, tourism, local mining) cease to be viable under an existing socio-economic structure, then it is hardly possible to sustain the rural landscape on an appropriate level by non-commodity products (such as environment preservation, cultural heritage, nature conservation, employment etc.).
    1 The study was prepared in the frame of EUROLAN (EU-5 Framework Project), QLK5-CT-2002-02346, as a compiled version of the Hungarian National Report, The national project co-ordinator: Prof. Dr. Gabor Szabo.
    A part of places with high ecological values coincides with the areas with unfavourable agricultural endowments and underdeveloped micro-regions. We think so that the marginalisation preserves the non-environmental-sound activities and hinders the development of multifunctional agriculture and this process can change only by joint utilisation of endogenous and exogenous resources and methods. Thus the successful programmes for agri-environmental protection and multifunctional land use can serve the moderation of negative effects of marginalisation or maybe the marginalisation process itself.

  • Preliminary data on the effect of semi-synthetic baits for Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) on the non-target Lepidoptera species
    71-80
    Views:
    189

    Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds was evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.

  • Application of mycorrhizae and rhizobacteria inoculations in the cultivation of processing tomato under water shortage
    111-118
    Views:
    43

    The effect of mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on some physiological properties, yield and soluble solid content (Brix) of ‘Uno Rosso’ F1 processing tomato was studied under water scarcity. Inoculation was performed with mycorrhizal fungi (M) and rhizobacteria preparation (PH) at sowing (M1, PH1) and sowing + planting (M2, PH2). The treated and untreated plants were grown with regular irrigation (RI = ET100%), with deficit irrigation (DI = ET50%) and without irrigation (I0). In drought, the canopy temperature of plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (M1, M2) decreased significantly, however, the decrease was small in those treated with the bacterium (PH1, PH2), while the SPAD value of the leaves of plants treated only with Phylazonit increased significantly. On two occasions, inoculations (M2, PH2) significantly increased the total yield and marketable yield, however, under water deficiency, a higher rate of green yield was detected than untreated plants. In dry year using deficit irrigation, the one-time inoculation (M1, PH1) provided a more favorable Brix value, while the double treatments reduced the Brix. In moderate water scarcity, the use of mycorrhizal inoculation (M2) is preferable, while under weak water stress, the use of rhizobacteria inoculation (PH2) is more favorable.

  • Terrain Analysis and Stochastic modelling for Archaeological site prediction and landscape reconstruction in the Lake Manyara area, Northern Tanzania
    47-53
    Views:
    166

    In this study we focus on paleontological sites in the area of Lake Manyara and the Makuyuni River Basin, Northern Tanzania. This region is known for Middle Pleistocene fossil finds and artefacts. To analyze the spatial distribution of potential paleontological find locations we applied two different methodologies based on statistical mechanics and on boosted regression trees. The first one is able to handle presence-only datasets such as the locations proper. The second approach was used to study the variable importance and to derive information on the related geo-processes for classified paleontological sites. The locations and their spatial distribution were retrieved from literature and collected by own field work over the last years. For the modeling we utilized environmental information such as spatially continuous layers of topography (30 m SRTM DEM), derivatives of topography, vegetation information as well as ASTER multispectral data as predictor variables. The results reveal
    potential areas where further fossil sites may be located. Moreover, we assessed the processes that are related to sites with specific archaeological evidences. Therefore, the sites were grouped in three categories: i) artefacts sites, ii) fossil sites and iii) mixed sites. We applied boosted regression trees to analyse the processes related to the classified sites. The methodology considers not only site specific characteristics but implicitly also the related pedogenetic and morphogenetic processes. We were able to differentiate between artefact and fossil sites.  Moreover, our analyses indicate an influence of transportation processes on the artefacts, whereas deposition of fossils does not seem to involve large scale transportation. Finally, we show that also the landscape can be reconstructed such as the former lake margin.

  • Data on the Orthoptera fauna of characteristic agricultural landscape in the Carpathian Lowland
    25-34
    Views:
    145

    Orthoptera fauna and assemblages of natural and semi-natural grasslands of the Hungarian Lowland are well-known, however, little is known about assemblages living in agricultural and anthropogenic habitats such as arable lands, roadsides, hedges, and riverbanks. Due to climate change, intensification of agriculture, and change of habitat use, these habitat types become increasingly important.

    To collect data on these mainly unknown habitat types, a three-year study was carried out on the Orthoptera fauna and assemblages of the firth region of the Tisza and Sajó rivers. This area was mainly unknown, and our research contributes to increasing knowledge and provides a base for further investigations.

    In the 40 sampling sites of the studied region, an occurrence of 30 Orthoptera species was recorded based on 2241 sampled individuals. In this study, we provide 540 new distribution data records of orthopterans that means an almost eightfold increase of the known data. Orthoptera assemblages of different agricultural habitat types showed significant differences considering both species richness and composition. Data suggested that non-cultivated habitat patches of dirt-roads, roadsides and stubble fields and even extensively used pastures, hayfields and alfalfa, red clover, and even wheat fields can preserve relatively species-rich Orthoptera assemblages. Contrary weedy sites of these cultivars and intensively used arable lands (maize, sunflower and rape fields) showed extremely low species diversity.

  • Spent mushroom compost (SMC) – retrieved added value product closing loop in agricultural production
    185-202
    Views:
    910

    Worldwide edible mushroom production on agro-industrial residues comprises of more than 11 million tons of fresh mushrooms per year. For 1 kg of mushrooms there is 5 kg of spent mushroom compost (SMC). This enormous amount of waste results in disposal problems. However, SMC is a waste product of the mushroom industry, which contains mycelium and high levels of remnant nutrients such as organic substances (N, P, K). The spent mushroom compost is usually intended for utilization, but there are increasing numbers of experiments focusing on its reuse in agricultural and horticultural production. Recently, the increase of the global environmental consciousness and stringent legislation have focused research towards the application of sustainable and circular processes. Innovative and environmentally friendly systems of utilisation of waste streams have increased interest of the scientific community. Circular economy implies that agricultural waste will be the source for retrieving high value-added compounds. The goal of the present work was to carry out a bibliographic review of the different scenarios, regarding the exploitation of this low cost feedstock with huge potential for valorisation.

  • Data on the bumblebee assemblages (Apidae: Bombus spp.) lives in lands under agri-environment commitment
    31-35
    Views:
    197

    The goal of agri-environmental schemes (AES) and greening programs are protecting and increasing biodiversity in agricultural lands. The evaluation of effectiveness of AES needs further investigations. For the purpose of investigations, species and species groups should be selected which can indicate the effects of changes in landscape use on biodiversity. Bumblebees are good indicators for this purpose.

    The role of bumblebees in pollination is well studied but in the case of different crops, much less detailed data are available. In 2018, bumblebee assemblages of 44 sites belonged to 8 different agricultural and semi-natural habitat types were studied in the surroundings of Sajószöged, Tiszaújváros and Derecske.

    This study provides new distribution data of 8 bumblebee species in three 10×10 km UTM cells covering the sampling area. According to our results, the alfalfa and red clover fields and semi-natural grasslands has more species rich and abundant bumblebee assemblages than different crop fields (sunflower, oilseed radish and vegetable morrow) and can help protect bumblebee assemblages of agricultural lands. Based on the collected distribution and abundance data, the role of the bumblebees in pollination of the studied crops should be re-evaluated.

     

  • Examination of soil parameters based on the evaluation of the spectroradiometric reflectance characteristics of the topsoil
    75-80
    Views:
    132

    In this article we are presenting the methodology applied to analyse and interpret the topsoil surface reflectance parameters of multiple samples collected in the Mugello valley area in northern Italy in October 2012. The main aim of the whole project was to discover geomorphological behaviour and situation of the area ino order to improve potential for correct dating of certain archaeological artefacts found in the nearby areas. One of the crucial problem researchers are facing in the area is the lack of understanding of the underlying geological and geomorphological processes that were describing and characterizing the area and that played important role not only in the current geography and landscape formation but also in the transportation of various sediments and artefacts. In this particular research the main aim is to examine the possibility of developing a quick way to assess low level properties of the soil using hand held spectrometer and rapid analysis of cross-section using in situ measurement techniques. In this work we collected over 2000 individual samples of topsoil surface reflectance properties that we organized into a spectral library. This library is then to be used to describe physical and chemical processes in the soil. To support the analysis results were compared to analysis results from different kind of assessments in the same area. Our results show a great potential of application of hand held imaging spectrometer in soil property analysis based on the top soil surface reflectance parameters.

  • Influence of Hydrological Parameters on the Biodiversity of the BerettyóRiver I.
    215-229
    Views:
    96

    The DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL orders the measurement of the state of natural and artifical waters. We therefore applied environmental qualification methods, which allow inductions of the searched area in environmental management, conservation and water quality protection points of view. These methods are accepted in interdisciplinary sciences, and are in use in Hungarian and international practice. We applied the range data measured along the Berettyó River, and ratified by the remote sensing, to count hydrological-hydraulical attributes of the stream, by the framework of the Hec-Ras programme. We processed the physical, chemical and biochemical water qualifications, determined the MMCP-index (the point-system of the Hungarian macrozoobenthos taxons), and estimated the Spencer index-numbers, which were based on complex environmental qualification and bioindication. Appointed, that the different results of researches are not inconsistent. This results together the spatial analysis reveal the natural and anthroponetic specialities of the river and the landscape, which determine the environmental flavours and biodiversity. The bioindicators represent better environmental status, than the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters. The natural conservationist importance of drainage canal network of Bihari-Plain is appreciated by these facts.

  • Rippl-Rónai’s color in the native parks: production and using of new, synthetic Wild sage color-mixture
    59-64
    Views:
    151

    The climate changes is becoming more damaging to ornamental plants. Besides ornamental species and varieties of plants on public spaces. It will be necessary to use domestic, well adaptable climate-tolerant plant species.

    One field of our growing ornamental plants researches from 2001 in the Centre of Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen, is studying drought patient, mainly Hungarian improved annual varieties, which are able to get acclimatized with the landscape. Moreover, we have in view to work out new, economical seedling production technologies. In the program, the excellent drought- and frost tolerant annuals and perennials belongs to the climate change tolerant plants. From the evaluated of species we want to create and spread the application. of the new types of ornamental horticulture culture.

  • Different soil fertility conditions depending on different land use methods
    169-172
    Views:
    82

    In precision nutrient management the most important aspect is adaptation but we should consider the possibility of the long-term improvement of soil fertility within the less fertile landscape zones.  This possibility can be evaluated principally by long-term field experiments, which are running on similar soil types. The results of these field experiments can indicate that which soil fertility status should be attained. Some more important soil fertility data, (such as pH, P-, K- and soil organic matter (SOM) content) of a long-term field  experiment with increasing farmyard manure(FYM) doses or equivalent NPK fertilizers, set up on an Eutric cambisol, are presented. The yieldincreasing capacity of FYM doses was only 82%, as compared to the equivalent amount of mineral NPK, but long-term FYM treatments resulted in 10% higher SOM content than that of equivalent NPK
    fertilizer doses. The studies indicate that SOM content is a function of local climate and clay content of the soil, and neither long-term high FYM doses can increase SOM content steadily above a supposed steady-state value. However we have to make efforts to keep the optimum level. The lowest soil reactions developed both with the highest NPK doses and without any fertilization. AL-P2O5 content of soil was increased more by mineral fertilization than by FYM treatments, but in case of AL-K2O content there was no difference between the fertilization variants. However the highest doses of both fertilization  variants increased soil nutrient content to an excessive degree. Wecould get very valuable data from the unfertilized control plots as well, where long-term yield data suppose 48 kg ha-1 year-1 air-borne N-input.

  • Impact possibility of hedgerows on plant protection and on the yield of winter wheat
    95-101
    Views:
    139

    Agricultural hedgerows have various impacts on the surrounding cultivated area and on the landscape. They serve as a windbreak, help manage humidity and precipitation, and are also sources of plant species richness which can contribute to the animal biodiversity. One of their beneficial effects is the yield improvement of agricultural crops. Our investigation tries to prove this hypothesis in Hungarian circumstances in the case of several winter wheat fields near Debrecen. Regarding the results, it seems that the majority of data supports the relevant, mainly German and Austrian information, but in some cases, the correlation has not been significant.

  • Botanical Survey of a Seminatural Saline Meadow
    38-44
    Views:
    71

    We made a botanical survey of a seminatural meadow situated in the vicinity of Hajdúnánás-Tedej in Hungary, using traditional phytocenological methods. The habitat, based on its soil-, and botanical characteristics, can be classified into the category of saline meadows. One of the landscape ecological values of this area is its mosaic-like structure and, as a consequence, this habitat can be divided into six characteristic associations with blurry borderlines and characteristic overlaps. Because of its rare plant species and species richness this area can be considered to be a valuable „seed bank” and a „stepping stone” in the ecological network among the larger, intensively cultivated fields. The area can be evaluated as moderately recovered, the natural species are dominant, but there are few disturbance tolerant species. Except for the two saline associations, the high grass associations, which make up about two-thirds of the habitat, are cut once a year; therefore, the agricultural utilisation of the area and its prevention against weediness are being assured at the same time.

  • Pest species of Macrolepidoptera in the Game Reserve of Velyka Dobron’ (Transcarpathia, Ukraine)
    58-64
    Views:
    212

    The Game Reserve of Nagydobrony extends on a marginal area of a former peatland and is covered with extended hardwood gallery forests and oak-hornbeam forests and is surrounded by a mosaic-like agricultural landscape. Due to its richness of nature-like and semi-natural habitats it supports a diverse insect assemblage. By light and bait trapping 383 species of macro-moths were recorded from which larvae of 85 species are feeding either on forest trees and scrubs or on cultivated plants thus these can be considered as potential pest species. Thirteen species (mostly Geometridae and Erebidae: Lymantriinae) have a special significance for forestry due to defoliating activity in gradation periods. Considering the habitat connections, the composition of moth assemblage is dominated by generalist species with broad spectrum of ecological tolerance but the species connected with humid forested habitats are also richly represented. The bulk of species consists of widely distributed Euro-Siberian species, but also some Holo-Mediterranean species with more southern character and Mediterranean-Subtropical migrant species were registered. The bait trapping provided significant results on the phenology of the dominant species. The faunistically significant and/or protected species were observed in a low number of individuals only, thus the applied trapping methods did not damage the faunal composition.

  • Land use changes in suburban areas – case study of Lublin
    43-46
    Views:
    94

    The main reason to analyzing the space structure in the Lublin area is to determine the direction and pace of suburbanization in municipalities adjacent to Lublin, distinction factors and motives of population movements to the suburbs, complain rural-urban interaction and multifunctionality of land use. Housing development over the years was accompanied by confusion in planning documents and the law. Changes in regulations on land use in 1994 and 2003 in Poland additionally deepened the negative situation. Local authorities failed to control the spontaneous process of suburbanization, which adversely affected not only the spatial structure of municipalities, but also on local relationship, landscape, land use and the former urban systems. The result are long-term problems associated with incompatibility rural areas to support a growing number of residents, such as failure of the social and technical infrastructure.

  • Chestnut tree: an appropriate choich for rural developement in Europe (review)
    55-59
    Views:
    121

    In chestnut plantations or in associations many pathogens and pests can be found. They are causing more than a hundred year problem in chestnut protection, for example the blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Lot of breeders hybridized the Castanea sativa and Castanea dentata with the tolerant asian species. Nowadays the presence of Dryocosmus kuriphilus seems to be the main risk. However, there are more and more chestnut plantations in Europe because of the extensive growth of needs. The food industry produces many products from chestnut, but the wood industry also use it more and more. In most of European countries the chestnut stands represent landscape aesthetics and touristic value, but probably the number of farmers inquiring the plantation will be increase in Hungary.