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The changes of the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) herb and radix drug yield under different fertilization conditions
Published May 23, 2019
79-83

In this research, the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirement was examined under different fertilization conditions in a small plot experiment. We measured the medicinal plant’s raw and dry herb and root drug mass and drying loss under different fertilization settings and meteorological factors.

From the dru...g’s raw and dry mass perspective, based on the results, in our opinion, the control setting exceeded all nutrient settings’ results in 2016. In 2017 and 2018, the N75P100K150 nutrient setting has the biggest herb yield. As for the root yield, it was also the N75P100K150 setting which produced the biggest yield.

The Pearson's correlation test was performed to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herbs, the different nutrient settings and meteorological factors.

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Comparative study of special honey products and herbhoneys
Published June 30, 2018
117-120
Honey has a positive effect on human body due to its high content of biologically active substances (e.g. monosaccharides, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, polyphenolic compounds). The properties of honey depend on its botanical origin due to the bioactive plant components, mainly secondary metabolites that are inc...luded in honey made by bees from nectar. Herbally infused honeys are delicious products that combine the therapeutic action of herbs and honey. Additionally, herbs can provide nutrient fortified syrup for honey bees and protect them against diseases and other ecological threats.
The aim of this study was to define the physicochemical properties of multifloral honey, herb enriched natural honey and herbhoney samples. We measured the moisture content, pH value, electrical conductivity and proline content. Although great diversity was observed in the basic properties of the examined products. In our study, we found that the electrical conductivity shows the significant differ between the groups. All the samples, including the herbhoneys passes the quality standards of honeys.
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Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) yield in the case of different production technologies
Published May 16, 2017
71-77

Stevia rebaudiana B. offers a natural alternative of sweetening, potential health promotion plant, and our country shows increased interest about cultivation in Hungary in addition to the neighboring European countries. The agricultural production system installation necessary
understanding of the needs of the plant, as well as exploring the... agronomic potential. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 with the aim to highlight some of the technological production parameters and correlations between them. We have reviewed the most important agronomic factors, the spacing (50×50 cm and 33×33 cm), ground covering (agro-cloth covered and uncovered/ control), their vegetative growth (first-,second-order branch), herb yield and quality in effect.
Based on empirical evidence, that the Hungarian climates also have the opportunity of 3 cuttings during a growing season, besides of early planting, optimal climatic conditions (in October didn’t reduce the daily minimum temperature below 0 °C, after cuttings the maximum interval values remain below 40 °C), and adequate water supply and crop protection facility. The 33×33 cm spacing evaporates more than 50×50 cm spacing, because of the dense population, the continuous canopy less able to breathe, so there are serious chances to the pathogen colonization.
Based on the results of our research to the wider 50×50 cm spacing favorable appreciate the stevia optimal progress in terms of qualitative and quantitative parameters of the yield. The stevia yields produced in the Northern Great Plains field cultivation can produce similar results as stevia crop yields in warmer climates, where the primary crops. Our research experience suggest that there is a viable domestic stevia cultivation, developing the necessary technology is still growing further investigation justifies.

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The marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) drug essential oil agents change under different fertilization settings in small plot trial
Published October 24, 2016
57-60

During our research we investigated the marigold's (Calendula officinalis L.) nutrient requirements with different fertilization setting in small-plot trial. We measured SPME (Solid phase microextraction) and GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer) we examined the effects of the different fertilization settings for the herb's main active in...gredients of essential oil's percentage.

Based on the results, it was concluded, the essential oil agents' percentage breakdowns significantly depending on the cropping technologies. Besides that it is possible, based on Pearson's correlation test the marigold essential oil agents relationship can also be a major factor.

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Microbial assessment of potential functional dairy products with added dried herbs
Published May 20, 2020
59-63

The market of dairy products is a dynamically developing sector of the food industry. Potential, functional dairy products, made by adding herbs or spices, will have antimicrobial and antioxidant effect due to the active biochemical agents of the plant additives. Furthermore, these active components will widen the storage life of food produ...cts and enhance their organoleptic properties too. We worked out a technology for creating fresh cheeses using a gentle pasteurizing method by treating the mixture of raw milk and 1.5% fat contained in commercial milk. As herb additives, we used citronella (Melissa officinalis), and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) harvested by us and dried them via Tyndall-method in convective dryer on 40 °C for 5.5 hours per day. The drying period took three days. We bought dried citronella and mint from the supermarket, which were dried by ionizing radiation, to compare the microbiological pollution with the herbs dried by us.

The main target of this research was to create a microbiologically stable, potential functional dairy product. However, because of the bad quality of the raw milk and the gentle heat treatment we used for sterilizing bulk milk, or else, cheeses were not safe for human consumption. As a consequence, we need further studies to modify our technology and get a microbiologically stable product.

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The examination of the marigold’s (Calendula officinalis L.) nutrient requirement in small-plot trial
Published February 18, 2016
61-66

During our research we investigated the marigold's (Calendula officinalis L.) nutrient requirements with different fertilization treatments in small-plot trial. We measured the harvested marigold's drug's raw and dry weight on a weekly basis from July 6th until August 17th. We were using SPME (Solid phase microextraction) ...and GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer) to examined the effects of the different fertilization settings for the herb's main active ingredients of essential oil's percentage.

It was concluded, based on the results, the N30P40K60 fertilization setting is ideal in terms of the quantity of the marigold drug. Both the raw and the dry weights' measurements of the case, this fertilization setting have the most important effect on the herb's yield. The analysis of variance didn't show significant differences between the plots with different fertilization settings. We discovered relationship between the drying loss and the increasing quantities of nutrients. We think it may be possible the Alpha-thujon's and Alpha-cadinol's production and the drying loss's data are connected, which appear to confirm the N15P20K30 treatment's data.

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Alternative Income Sources in the Agriculture of Settlements Along the Hortobágy
Published May 11, 2003
234-239

Agriculture has played a dominant role among the income sources of population living along the Hortobágy just like in any other rural areas. I represent the situations of settlements along the Hortobágy by studying four of them, such as Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek. Big companies having worked in the examined settlements ...had significance in ensuring local working facilities, and restraining people from leaving. Acts dating back to the beginning of the 1990’ies, privatisation, transformation of the state farm and co-operatives have decreased the rate of employment in agriculture. Alternative income sources relating to agriculture, such as bio-farming by alternative plants, herb production and rural tourism will determine the future of agriculture in this area due to the closeness of the Hortobágy National Park, the unique but unfavourable natural conditions for agricultural production, financial aids by the National Agricultural Environmental Programme and the imminent EU-membership. In this way supporting these activities may ensure the livelihood of ex-agricultural workers and alternative income for those working in agriculture.
I am going to deal with two issues in this article:
• with the change of the role of agriculture in the examined settlements,
• with economic analyses of alternative income sources by a model of a family farm.

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Connections of the Economic, Ecological-Environmental and Social Functions of Rural Development in Communities Bordering the Hortobágy
Published May 4, 2004
203-211

investigated the economic, ecological-environmental and social functions of rural development in communities bordering the Hortobágy National Park, such as in Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek. My purposes focused on four issues: (1) to work out a method on the basis of the examined and cited literatures, which defines the deve...lopment of communities from economic, ecological and social aspects of rural development; (2) to reflect the changes in the role of agriculture; (3) to analyse the effects, advantages and disadvantages of Hortobágy National Park in relation to the economic, ecological and social lives of the examined communities; and (4) to make an economic analysis on the alternative income sources of Hortobágy, such as rural tourism, herb production and bio-farming in a family farm structure. When measuring the development of the communities I concluded that complex indexes hide the real consideration of the three functions of rural development and the possibility for comparing them on a community level. Furthermore, these 19 indicators are not enough to evaluate the situation, thus I raised the number of indicators and handled them on the basis of the three functions of rural areas. I classified the economic, ecological and social indicators into indicator groups within each functions, which make the determination of causes for underdevelopment possible. While only Tiszacsege and Egyek were considered to be backward on the basis of the complex index of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, my investigations showed that even Balmazújváros and Hortobágy proved to be lagged behind from both economic and social aspects. The methodical development justified the hypothesis that few indicators are not enough to establish decisions objectively. New developmental orders emerged. Measuring development of communities may be all-rounded and more established by using this new method, which may result in objective preparation of decisions in rural development and more rational spreading of subsidies.

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Analysis of different fertilization settings’ effect in the case of the summer savory’s (Satureja hortensis L.) yield and active agents
Published June 30, 2018
101-105
During our research we investigated the Mediterranean summer savory’s (Satureja hortensis L.) nutrient requirement with different fertilization settings in a small plot trial. We measured the medicinal plant’s raw and dry drug mass, and the presence of the main essential oil active agents under the different f...ertilization settings using SPME (Solid phase microextraction) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatograph mass spectrometer).
From the drug’s raw and dry mass perspective, based on the obtained results, in our opinion, the N30P40K60 nutrient requirements were ideal in 2015, while the N60P80K120 nutrient requirement showed the best values in 2016. A significant relationship is assumed between the different fertilization settings and the essential oil active agents’ distribution. During the analysis of data, we compared three of the savory’s essential oil active agents’ percentage of presence in the nutrient requirement samples.
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Effect of fish feed containing two Chinese herbal extracts (Ganodema Iucidum and Lonicera japonica) on the non-specific immune system of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (preliminary results)
Published July 16, 2007
9-14

The effect of two Chinese herbs (Ganoderma lucidum and Lonicera japonica) on non-specific immune response of tilapia was examined. In addition to the control (no herbs), three diet variations were used. These contained 1.0% of Lonicera, 1.0% of Ganoderma and a mixture of Ganoderma (0.5%) and Lonicera (0.5%). The respiratory burst and phagocytic... activity of blood leukocytes were monitored. Three weeks after feeding, the fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results of this study showed that feeding tilapia with Ganoderma and Lonicera alone or in combination enhanced the phagocytosis of blood leukocytes, but not the respiratory burst activity. Both herbs, when used alone or in combination, reduced mortality after challenge with A. hydrophila. The highest mortality was observed in the control fish – 56.66%, and fish fed with Lonicera extract – 43.33% while 30% of fish died in the group fed with Ganoderma and the lowest mortality (20%) was observed when the fish were fed with a combination of the two herbs. It can be concluded that the herb extracts added to this diet act as immuno-stimulants and appear to improve the immune response and disease resistance of tilapia.

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The purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirements investigation in a small plot trial
Published June 30, 2018
95-99
During our research, we investigated the purple coneflower's (Echinacea purpurea L.) drug yield and drying loss change with different fertilization settings in a small-plot trial. We measured the raw and dry drug yield, which we harvested in 2016 and in 2017, as well as the drying loss of these yields. Harvest and... all other works were performed manually. We dried the harvested herba under prenumbra for three weeks. Based on the obtained data, every fertilization settings’ yield was less than that of the control plots in 2016. We measured the highest drying loss in relation to the N60P80K120 supply in this year. In 2017, we measured the highest yield data in the N75P100K150 fertilization setting.
We made single-factor variance analysis to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herba, the drying loss and the different nutrient settings
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HPLC-MS analysis of the active ingredients of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) bee feeding syrup
Published December 28, 2018
61-65

Apiarists let prepare by bee honey products containing medicinal drugs. Our aim was to prove that the active ingredients originated from the herbs are also present in the bee products. This publication focuses only to the chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) containing feeding syrup and the difference between the various syrup phases. To fulfil th...is task, we developed a method analysing the non-volatile components of the syrup using the flowers of chamomile. The method involves a filtration followed by HPLC-MS analysis. The analyses and the data evaluations proved that the non-volatile components of the herb were transferred to syrup. As the characteristic components of certain herbs could be identified also in the syrup, it is obvious that the components responsible for the medicinal effects are also transferred.

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Seed biology and possibility of improvement of seed germination capacity on Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby)
Published February 25, 2014
71-76

Sida hermephrodita or Virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favourable features like fast growing a...nd resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in the beginning phase of domestication therefore it has a serious disadvantage: the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seeds/acre instead of 10–20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a available, basically wild Sida population. In the first stage of our experiments we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenous or endogenous infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65 oC, 80 oC, 90 oC), from 29,3% to 46% germinated from those samples which were collected from the population of Sida hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5–10% without treatment and rinsed using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46%) after the hot water operation in spite of the previous studies. We discovered that apparently there are close relationship between the seed fresh weight or water uptake capability and the percentage of infection. Following these recognition we modified our technique,in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight/or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we filtered the floating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sunk seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination).

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The toxic effects of aflatoxin microorganisms in plants used as spices
Published October 5, 2010
59-62

As an extension of the analysis of black, white and capsicum peppers for aflatoxins , we have examined an additional 11 types of spices and
4 herbs for these mycotoxins. The investigations consisted of assessment of the applicability of available methods of analysis and modifications of
these, where necessary together, with a limited surv...ey of each spice and herb for aflatoxins. The analysis of 13 types of ground spices reported
the presence of low concentrations of aflatoxins in some samples of black pepper, celery seed, and nutmeg. We decided to include in our study 5
of the spices examined by these workers (cinnamon, celery seed, coriander, nutmeg, and turmeric) for a comparison purpose. In addition we
examined ginger, mace, cumin seed, dill seed, garlic powder, onion powder, and the herbs marjoram, rosemary, thyme, and sage.

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