Field experiments were conducted to study affects of pH and hardness of spray water on efficacy of a herbicide combination (terbuthylazine + mesotrione) influenced by several pH adjusters and adjuvants in Debrecen, Hungary in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Favourable or unfavourable effects of pH and hardness of spray water could be observed under field...conditions. Evaluation of weed control efficacy is suitable for examination of affects of spray water pH and hardness on herbicides. The terbuthylazine and mesotrione herbicide combination is suitable to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed species, however, significant effects of hardness and pH of spray carrier was observed only in control of monocotyledonous weeds. Certain pH adjusters (e.g. ammonium nitrate) can lessen harmful affects of water hardness effectively. Significant loss of efficacy of sensitive herbicide was found in hard water (by about 50-60%), and surfactants was not able to eliminate that harmful affect. However, biological activity was the same as in soft water with ammonium nitrate which can overcome the antagonism of salts. That pH adjuster had a more significant affect on the efficacy of the herbicide than the surfactant had in that experiment.
We were monitoring the quality changes of 2 triticale cultivars from Szeged (GK Rege and GK Szemes) in Fülöpszállás, Hungary, in a longterm fertilizer trial in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The following fertilizer combinations were used: untreated control, single applied N and single applied PK, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 N or PK, and N and PK together...in 30:30, 60:60 ha-1 ratio. We measured the following quality parameters: kernel hardness, crude protein content and farinograph quality number for wholemeal flour.
Based on the results, the N fertilization treatment was beneficial to the tested triticale culticars in terms of kernel hardness and protein content as both indicators increased. The efficiency of the treatment was proportional to the N dose rate. On the other hand, the applied PK treatment decreased the kernel hardness and crude protein values. On these two parameters, the PK free, and high N dosage treatment (N60P0K0) had the most positive effect. However, the single applied N dose had no significant effect on farinograph quality numbers of the wholemeal flours, but PK dose had significantly positive impact on the tested cultivars. The N30P30K30 treatment resulted in the highest farinograph quality number, thus the low PK and low N combination was the most efficient treatment. The correlation analysis of the tested quality parameters showed positive correlation (0.9965***) between kernel hardness values and crude protein contents. Nevertheless, we found strong negative correlation between kernel hardness values and the farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9720***), as well as in the case of crude protein contents and farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9796***).
Literature experience was utilised to develop a method for the extensograph analog testing of paste with a QTS25 Texture Analyser. 54 wheat flour samples from the same variety from variety-preservation experiments at the Szeged were tested with this method. A study was made to establish whether the method is suitable for the estimation of resul...ts derived by traditional classification (trial baking, farinograph and gluten tests).
A close and significant correlation was found between the hardness and area data measured with a QTS25 micro-extensograph, the farinograph values and the gluten spreading data, and also between the stretching index (BC/AC) and the water uptake capacity. These correlations correspond well with the findings from a previous experimental series on industrial flour samples. A close and significant correlation was likewise observed between the grain hardness established by the MININFRA method and all the QTS25 micro-extensograph data. In contrast with earlier QTS25 data, however a close correlation was not found between the QTS25 data and the loaf characteristics.
With the use of micro-extensograph data, the estimation of the baking industry value has been improved through stepwise variable selection, with the inclusion of several variables. The estimation of loaf volume could also be solved by means of stepwise variable selection with the inclusion of QTS25 and MININFRA data.
Species and individual animals with hard leg-horn have higher resistance against foot diseases. The reason for this is the fact, that bacteria can penetrate the hard leg-horn with more difficulty than the soft leg-horn, and in this way it is also more difficult for them to cause an illness. From among the mechanical parameters of the leg-horn t...he P = 0.1% negative linear correlation between the hardness and the water contents of the horn is significant. There is a positive linear correlation between the shock resistance and the water contents of the leg-horn. In the case of air-dry horn (with less than 8% water contents) there is a positive linear correlation between the Ca- and Zn contents as well as the Ca:P ratio and the hardness of the horn. The results suggest that the wider the Ca:P ratio of the horn, the harder the horn is, while the water content is the same. The leg-horn of the Hungarian Merino ewes have larger Ca contents and wider Ca:P ratio than juvenile animals have. This is why the juvenile animals with a softer leg-horn can be more susceptive to foot diseases than the older animals.
The lyophilization is the joint application of freezing and drying. It is an up-to-date conserving procedure, the point of which is that the humidity existing in the frozen humid material is transferred from the solid state directly into the gaseous state at a temperature below 0 oC under vacuum. Out of the procedures applied nowadays, this is...the most tolerant drying process.
With regard to the high investment and operational costs, freeze drying is applied only for valuable, heat-sensitive materials when the technological aim is to preserve such properties as aroma, taste and colour as well as such components as proteins and vitamins. This procedure is suitable for drying and conserving certain foodstuffs, stimulants, organic chemicals, medicines and similar sensitive and valuable materials.
In our institute, we have been conducting freeze drying experiments with regional fruits and vegetables since the year 2005. During the first phase, we examined the heat- and material transfer as well as the abstraction of humidity, while during the second phase we analysed the rehydration ability and nutrient content of the freeze-dried materials as compared to those dried with the method of convection. Moreover we have conducted penetration measurements with a portable hardness tester.
To sum up the results gained so far, we can state that the quality of the lyophilized materials is better than those dried in the traditional way. It originates partly in the fact that the temperature and pressure applied for the freeze drying are smaller and the drying period is far longer than for the convection drying.
In contrast to convection-dried materials, freeze dried materials set in close to their original water-content, keep their original shape and size after being rehydrated. The reason of it the porous, spongy structure (flexible cell wall) of the lyophilized products which is able to take up moisture quickly. In addition, the lyophilized products can be rehydrated faster than those dried in the traditional way.
Regarding the results of the chemical analyses, the following conclusion can be drawn: the vacuum freeze drying results a small decrease of nutrient content and nutritive value for the lyophilized products.
The results of the hardness tests support the statement that the majority of agricultural materials cannot be considered as an ideal flexible body, because during the experiment the flexibility coefficient changed when going from the surface of the material inwards. In addition, the penetration tests also confirm that the surface of the convection-dried vegetables is at least 1.5-3 times harder than that of the freeze-dried products. The reason of it that it takes place during the drying denaturation processes.
The article summarizes the results of our research work listed above, in accordance with our experiments conducted by using the characteristic fruits (apple, plum) of the Nyírség Region.
The correlation between the quality of raw milk and the quality of milk products is evident. In spite of this fact we can find only a few references contained exact data related sheep milk. In recent paper we investigated the effect of SCC of sheep milk on the cheese yield (semi hard traditional cheese) and certain texture parameters of yoghurt... from sheep milk. We wanted to know the relevant limit values of these properties for dairy applications.
In our opinion – in the case of the cheese yield – that the strong negative effect can be experienced when SCC is above 700.000-1 million/cm3.
In the case of yoghurt from sheep milk the limit values of SCC can be 1 million/cm3 for Adhesivity and Whey draining and 500.000/cm3 for Hardness. Considering these limit values in the selection of milk become materialise the highest quality of products and the economical production.
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of basic agrotechnical factors on the yield and quality of winter wheat. Two experiments were set in 2017/2018 growing season, where we studied the influence of different forecrops, fertilizing treatments and cultivars. 204 samples were measured with Single Kernel Characterization Syst...em and NIR grain analyser to determine protein (NIR-P), wet gluten (NIR-WG), Hardness Index (HI), kernel weight (KW) and kernel diameter (KD). Fertilizing had a significant effect on yield, KW, HI, NIR-P and NIR-WG, except KD. N90PK dosage was enough to realize yield potential for 6 out of 9 cultivars, but considering protein content N150PK dosage was needed. The forecrop had no significant influence on yield, KW, KD or HI, however sweet corn as previous crop had significant improving effect on NIR-P and NIR-WG compared to sunflower as forecrop. According to our data of correlation analysis, no negative relationship was found between yield and NIR-P, however HI was in medium positive correlation with NIR-P. The variety Vyckor had the highest yield, but in quality aspect, the highest NIR-P and NIR-WG values belonged to KG Kunhalom variety.
Of the different physical features of fruits, one important quality feature is flesh hardness. This is an important parameter to be considered when selling fresh apples, for the manufacturing industry and when entering into storage. In our research, we examined 7 apple varieties, in 2016 and 2017, from the establishment of KITE Zrt. in Derecske... and the Horticultural Experimentation Site of Pallag (Pallagi Kertészeti Kísérleti Telep). The plantations took place in accordance with intensive apple production. In both years, samples were collected at the time ripening of the given apple variety. Of the examined apple varieties, 5 of them are resistant to scab (Gaia, Isaaq, Modí, Smeralda, Fujion), 1 is not resistant (Golden Reinders) and 1 (Pinova) is moderately susceptible to scab. The scab resistant apple varieties were correlated to the non-resistant Golden Reinders. Flesh firmness was measured with a fruit penetrometer in each of the seven apple varieties. In the first year a two-month storage experiment was carried out, where the flash firmness after harvest, and after one-month and two-month storage was measured. The results were assessed with the help of the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 program. The goal is to compare the apple varieties based on their flesh firmness, in particular with regard to the resistant varieties.
The Isaaq 8.81–8.82 N/cm2 , the Modí 9.18–9.59 N/cm2 and the Fujion 8.66–9.13 N/cm2 , all of which are scab resistant apple varieties, showed a significant initial flesh firmness. During storage, the Pinova apple variety flesh firmness changed the most favourably.
In the mill industry, the purpose of the grinding technology is to separate wheat endospermium and shell and to recover grists. The most important and the highest energy requirement operation is shredding. Flour quantity and quality produced from wheat depends on the variety of wheat that will be shredded, the type of grinding equipment and the... condition used before the grinding. For this reason, during my experiments, I ground two grain structured varieties of wheat in laboratory conditions using a disk grinder, stone grinder and roll grinder in air-dry and conditioned states. We measured the equipment’s performance and the produced grist’s particle size distribution, followed by the calculation of the energy requirements of the grinders. In the grinding experiments we compared the ash contents of the different particle sized grist’s fractions to map the wheat’s particular properties.