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The setting of fenological- stadium of plum (Prunus domestica) varieties in 2012
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We planted experimental trees, namely 6 plum varieties grafted on 6 plum rootstocks in the spring of 2010. Our aim was to observe differences in the fenological-stages of plum rootstock and variety combinations. ‘Cacanska lepotica’, ‘Jojo’,

‘Katinka’, ‘Topfive’, ‘Topper’, ‘Toptaste’ plum varieties were planted on ‘Mirobalan’ (Prunus ceresifera var. ceresifera cv. myrabolan); damson (Prunus institicia) – ‘St Julien A’, ‘St Julien GF655/2’; and ‘Wawit’; ‘Wangwnheim’; ‘Fereley’ rootstocks. We observed the bud burst, the flowering course: at the start of the flowering, during the main flowering, and at the end of flowerings and the ripening of the plum. Finally we observed the difference in leaves falling observed in the case of the different varieties and rootstock combinations.

The bursting of buds started with ‘Cacanska lepotica’, in March 16 and finished with ‘Jojo’ / ‘Mirobalan’ combination, in March 22. The starting of flowering course was in March 29 with ‘Topper’ / ‘St Julien GF655/2’ combinations and the end of flowering course finished with ‘Toptaste’ varieties, in April 3–4. The start of ripening of the plum was with ‘Katinka’ / ‘St Julien A’ combinations, in July 17. and the end of ripening of the plum finished with ‘Topper’ variety. The start of leaves falling began with ‘Cacanska lepotica’, in Sept 5–8 depending on irrigation, and ‘Katinka’, ‘Jojo’ varieties finished, in November 28–29.

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The setting of fenological-stadium of plum (Prunus domestica) rootstock-variety combinations in 2011–2013
Published February 25, 2014

We planted experimental trees, namely 6 plum varieties and 6 plum rootstocks in the spring of 2010, which of aim were the phenological -phases of variety-rootstock combinations analyses.

We observed 18 plum varieties – rootstocks combination in Kecskemét, in Garden of Kecskemét Collage. We set the examination with 2 kind irrigations.... A plum combination appear in the examination in 6 repetition depend on irrigation. The vegetative period started bursting of buds in 2011 March 15–18.; 2012 March 16–19. and 2013 March 12.–April 2. This was followed green buds stadium shorter or longer periods, than appeared white buds stadium and in the following day we could see started of flowering. The main flowering kept 7–10 days, except in 2012, when arriving frozen by April 8. morning stopped the main flowering. Following flowering we observed fruit falling 3 occasion, these weren’t noticed calendar date. These were in order: fruit falling after set, fruit falling in June, fruits falling before harvest. In 2013 these fruit falling there weren’t considerable. The ripening was characteristically varieties. The most of earlier ripening was ‘Katinka’/‘St Julien A‘, from which we didn’t harvest in 2011, but in 2012 July 17, and in 2013 July 9. pick up some plum fruits. The ‘Cacanska lepotica’ ripped in July 21–30, this was followed in ripening time the ‘Topfive’ in July 19.–August 6., The ‘Toptaste’ in August 5–23., The ‘Jojo’ in August 2–26., and the ‘Topper and ‘Katinka’/‘Mirobalan ’ stopped ripening in August 22.–September begin. The colouring leaves and the falling leaves started continue after harvesting, but we experienced the end of the falling leaves in the first bigger frozen time, October 24.–November 26.

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Delay of flowering in orchards
Published May 16, 2012

The goal of my research was to find out how cooling sprays affect the onset of flowering and the microclimate int he fruit orchards.
Frequent spraying (every 20 minutes) can keep the temperature of trees and buds lower.As a result the onset of flowering occured several
days later in the sprayed trees. It was proven that cooling sprays are... suitable for delaying the onset of flowering under the domestic climatic conditions. This procedure can significantly mitigate the risk of frost damage and can improve crop safety.

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Effect of Rootstocks on Blooming Capacity and Productivity of AppleCultivars
Published December 14, 2004

The experiment with three different rootstock cultivars was set up in a commercial apple orchard at Nagykutas, which is situated in the western part of Hungary. The aim of our two-year-study was to determine the effect three different growing rootstock cultivars (M9, MM106 and seedling) on the flowering and productivity of 33 apple cultivars. O...ur observations included the following measurements: the date of the beginning and the end of flowering, flower density, fruit density, fruit numbers per tree and tree productivity. According to our results, it was found that the different growing rootstocks have a great determining effect on the above measurements. Our results showed that the flowering period was similar for all cultivars on the three different rootstocks. However, the flowering and the fruit setting decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. In contrast, the fruit number per tree followed, in decreasing order, MM106, seedling and M9 rootstocks.

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N-Phenyl-Phthalamic Acid and Fertilization Effects on Flowering, Fruit Set and Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published October 11, 2006

On seven apple cultivars (Gala Must, Gloster, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonagold, Jonathan Csány 1, Mutsu), the authors studied the influence of N-phenyl-phthalamic (PPA) acid and fertilization on flowering, fruit set and fruit quality in the years 2003-2004. The research results showed that PPA application extended the flowering time of the most ...cultivars. Fruit set of apple cultivars increased in many cases when regulator was applied. The additional nutrient supply could increase the fruit set too. The increase of fruit set increased the number of fruit per tree. Quality parameters determined by fertilization and fruit number per tree. For example, when N-phenyl-phthalamic acid was applied without fertilization the fruit number per tree increased considerably however, it caused a considerable frittering away. The reason for this is that fruit set was high and fruit received not enough nutrition for growing up. The skin colour of fruits was decreased in several cases by the treatments. In one respect the enlarged fruit number was shaded the others and the fertilization increased the vegetative shading leaf area.

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Impact of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the growth and micronutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published September 5, 2018

Micronutrients are as important as macronutrients for crops. Each micronutrient has its own function in plant growth. Zinc is important for membrane integrity and phytochrome activities. Copper is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of wheat. Manganese is required for enzyme activation, in electron transport, and in disease resis...tance. The pot experiment was set up in greenhouse on calcareous chernozem soil Debrecen-Látókép with a spring wheat. In certain development stages (according to BBCH growth scale of wheat), at the beginning of stem elongation (29–30), at the heading (51–59), at the flowering (61–69) stage three average plants were removed from all pots for analysis. Fresh and dry weight of the plant samples were measured. Plant leaves after drying were digested by HNO3-H2O2 methods and manganese, zinc and copper contents of plant were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At the flowering stage, when the nutrient uptake of plants is the most intensive, the weight of wheat ranged between 0.94–1.57 g plant-1. In this development stage, the NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of wheat, and compared to this the NS3 treatment decreased that value already. The results show unfavourable effect of NS3 treatment. On the basis of microelement content of wheat and the weight of a plant, nutrient uptake by plant were calculated. At the beginning of growth the starter treatment had positive effect on Cu-uptake compared to the NS1 treatment, where the same dose of fertilizer was stirred into the soil. Wheat is very sensitive to copper deficiency, so copper dissolved by starter treatment could be favourable to the early development of wheat. At flowering stage the Zn-uptake of wheat became the highest and it was between 133.7–234.6 mg plant-1. The Mn-uptake of wheat plant was higher than the Cu- and Zn-uptake of wheat.

This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the untreated soil had higher Mn-content, than Cu- and Zn-content. To summarize the results, it can be stated, that the copper uptake of wheat was more affected by the different treatments in the stage of stem elongation, while Mn- and Zn-uptake of wheat were influenced primarily in the stage of heading and flowering.

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Comparative research of the Wild Sage (Salvia nemorosa L.) population and selected clones flowering biology
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The collected and evaluated of morphological Salvia variants widespread application provides for a new type of hungaricum series create. The excellent drought and frost tolerant Salvia nemorosa L. is climate change-tolerant perennials include. At the right time carried out with the new propagation cutting method can be shortened the seedling time, because in 1 year from broke cuttings develops flowering population. The flowering period of Salvia during one vegetation period may extended with right fertilization and phytotechnical, so it becomes suitable for planting in public spaces.

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Examination of the population density and sowing date of different maize genotypes in the Hajdúság region
Published July 31, 2012

The experiment was carried out 6 km from Debrecen, next to the main road 47 on a homogeneous field on brown forest soil. Five corn hybrids were tested in the trial (DKC 4795, DKC 4995, KWS Kornelius, NK Cobalt, PR37 N01) at three different sowing times (early – 5th April, average – 21st April, late – 10th ...May). At each sowing time, three different plant densities were applied (modest – 58 500 plants ha-1, average –70 200 plants ha-1, high – 82 300 plants ha-1). The agrotechnics applied
in the experiment satisfied the requirements of modern corn cultivation.

In the study, the best yield result was achieved with the early sowing time out of the three examined sowing times (11 315 kg ha-1), which was significantly different (LSD5%=495 kg) from that of the average sowing time (10 690 kg ha-1), however, there was no statistically justifiable difference between the yield results of the early and the late sowing times. There was a significant difference also between the average and late sowing time. Our results indicate that the different sowing times resulted in a different flowering times. Consequently, the stands of early and late sowing time reached this critical stadium of growth under proper climatic circumstances (precipitation: 39 mm and 136 mm, average temperature at flowering: 18.1 oC and 20.3 oC), while flowering in the case of the average sowing time of 21st April was in the first half of July and the average temperature at flowering was warmer (23.2 oC) with only 10 mm precipitation.
In the experiment, the plant density response was also examined. According to the measured data, four of the five hybrids responded badly to the increasing plant density. We found that the plant density of 58 500 plant ha-1 gave the largest yield results (DKC 4995 11 794 kg ha-1 – NK Cobalt 10 998 kg ha-1, average of five hybrids: 11 430 kg ha-1), while the lowest yields were obtained at the plant density of 82 300 plant ha-1 (KWS Kornelius 11 037 kg ha-1 – NK Cobalt 10 019 kg ha-1, average of five hybrids 10 720 kg ha-1). The difference between the two plant densities was significant (LSD5%=494 kg), however, the 70 200 plant ha-1 plant density did not show any statistical difference from neither the 58 500 ha-1 nor from the 82 300 plant ha-1 stands. When examining the data of the hybrids separately, we found that there was a significant difference between the average yield of the lowest and highest plant densities only in the case of three (DKC 4795, DKC 4995, NK
Cobalt) out of the five hybrids (DKC 4795: 11 757 kg ha-1 – 10 857 ha-1 where LSD5% =816 kg; DKC 4995: 11 794 kg ha-1 – 10 738 kg ha-1 where LSD5%=853kg; NK Cobalt: 10 998 kg ha-1 – 10 019 kg ha-1 where LSD5%=630 kg ha-1), while a  significant difference between the second and third plant densities was observed only in one case (DKC 4995: 11 726 kg ha-1 – 10 738 ha-1 where LSD5%=853 kg). In all other cases, there was no statistical difference between the different
plant densities.

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Timing it right: The Measurement and Prediction of Flowering
Published September 5, 2002

Although the model described here was developed from research in controlled environments, there is now considerable evidence that in can be applied to a very wide range of natural environments in several species. Multi-locational trials augmented by successional sowing and, if considered necessary, supplementary illumination in the field to inc...rease daylength, can be used to estimate the values of the model coefficients: (1) to characterize germplasm collections and so predict flowering behaviour elsewhere; (2) for interpreting and understanding crop adaptation; and (3) for genetic analysis of photoperiod sensitivity. We do not yet know whether the model has any contribution to make to the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of photoperiod and temperature responses, but at the very least, it should provide the basis for indicating the most appropriate environmental conditions, genotypes and physiological stage of the plants most suitable for such investigations.

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Effect of the plant density on different maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids yields and leaf area index (LAI) values
Published March 5, 2015

We have investigated the plant number reactions of three maize hybrids of various genotypes in a small-plot field experiment. The plant numbers were 50, 70 and 90 thousand ha-1, while the row distances were 45 and 76 cm. The experiment was set on the Látókép Experimental Farm of Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University o...f Debrecen in four replications on calcareous chernozem soil.

The assimilation area and the leaf area index have important role in development of the crop yield. The studied three different genotype maize hybrids reached its maximum leaf area index at flowering. The maximum leaf area index increased linearly with increasing plant density. The season-hybrids reached less yield and leaf area index. According to our experimental results, we have concluded that with the decrease of the row spacing, the yield increased in the average of the hybrids. The studied hybrids reached the maximum yield at 70 and 90 plants ha-1 plant density. We determined the optimal plant number that is the most favourable for the certain hybrid under the given conditions.The higher plant density was favourable at 45 cm row spacing than 76 cm. The hybrids reached the maximum grain yield at 45 cm row spacing between 76 712–84 938 plants ha-1, while the optimum plant density at 76 cm row spacing changed between 61 875–65 876 plants ha-1.

The leaf area index values between the applied plant density for the flowering period (July 1, 24), we defined a significant differences. In the archived yields were significant differences at the 45 cm row spacing between 50 and 70, 90 thousand ha-1 plant density, while the number for the 76 cm row spacing used did not cause a significant differences in the yield. There were significant differences between the examined hybrids of yields.

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Effect of weather conditions on the protein content and baking value of winter wheat flour
Published May 23, 2006

We searched for connections between weather conditions (with its sub-parameters as precipitation and average temperature) and the yearly formation of two quality parameters (protein content and baking value) on three levels of mineral fertilization, based on the results of a variety comparison experiment on chernozem soil, to select those parameters and critical periods which have significant effects on the quality of winter wheat flour.
We established that the protein content of winter wheat flour can be increased with increasing levels of mineral fertilizers. Protein content is lower and has higher deviation during non-fertilized conditions in different cropping years than on higher fertilization levels. Thus, it seems proved again that quality (as protein content) is mainly formed by the crop year, but can be improved with adequate agricultural engineering (with mineral fertilization in the present case). The higher sum of precipitation in May, and the lower average temperature after flowering, have the highest increasing effect on the protein content of flour of the examined parameters. Based on the results of the examined period, the rainier and warmer term than average before flowering and lower – average amount of precipitation and colder circumstances are favourable for higher baking values. The analysis with data of decades, proves the importance of the first half of May and the middle of June as especially important periods for quality formation. An increasing nutrient supply has different effects on the varieties; mineral fertilization increased the baking value of GK Öthalom winter wheat variety in almost every case, but the second level of fertilization decreased it in half of the examined years. Additionally, mineral fertilization played a role in the stabilization of the quality of highlighted varieties.

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The significance of biological bases in maize production
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The comparative trial has been set up in the Demonstration Garden of the Institute of Crop Sciences of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Studies, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management in 2012, with 24 hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing periods. The soil of the trial is lime-coated chernozem, with a humus layer of 50–70 cm.

The weather of the trial year was quite droughty; the monthly average temperature was 3–4 oC higher than the average of 30 years. High temperature, together with lack of precipitation occurred during the most sensitive phenophases of maize (flowering; fecundation, grain saturation).

The following characteristics have been observed: starting vigour, date of male and female flowering, plant and cob height, dry-down dynamics during maturation and the change of yield composing elements has also been quantified. The yield was recalculated to 14% moisture content grain yield after harvesting.

The beginning of the growing period was advantageous, therefore the analysed hybrids could grow a high (above 300 cm) and strong stem. The yield of the hybrids changed between 10.33 and 11.87 t ha-1, but as a result of the unfavourable climatic extremes, their genetic yield potential prevailed only at a rate of 30–40%. However, moisture content by the time of harvesting was good despite its early date (12th September); it remained under below 14% in most cases. Dry-down was measured on a weekly basis between 14th August and 5th September.

The analysis of the qualitative parameters of the maize hybrids (protein %, oil % and starch %) resulted in significant differences. The most significant difference has been observed in the case of protein content (LSD5%=2.01). Oil content was the most advantageous in the case of hybrids belonging to the mid-late growing group (FAO 400). The X9N655 and 36V74 hybrids had the highest oil content (around 4%), while hybrids P9915 and 37F73 had significantly lower oil content. Starch content was above 70% in the case of every hybrid.

Hybrid selection is highly important in terms of yield and yield security of maize, as well as the application of modern biological fundamentals and hybrid specific technology for the improvement of the level of cultivation technology.

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Investigation of the Effect of P-Supply on Maize (Zea mays L.) Development
Published September 8, 2020

Quantification of plant development is important in areas where the actual dates of certain phonological stages should be identified. The influences of different ecological factors are put into algorithms by crop modellers. In this process the effect of plant nutrients are not yet well quantified. This paper gives data on the effect of on maize development prior to flowering stage. The main conclusions are as follows: 1. In lack of phosphorus more degree days are needed for flowering then in case of well P-supply. 2. The effect of P is seen not on leaf initialisation (i.e. final eaf number is the same) but rather on the phyllochron interval. 3. P effect on phyllochron interval can be observed at the younger stage (prior to leaf number 10) but not later.

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Relationships between nutrientsupply, genotype and some physiological properties of winter wheat
Published July 31, 2012

The chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) of three winter wheat varieties have been investigated on a chernozem soil. Three winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Pannonikus and Genius) in three different nutrient-supply levels have been involved in our experiment in the crop-year of 2010/2011. The investi...gated physiological properties have been set against to the yield results. Upon the results of this comparison it has been stated that there is a close relationship between the investigated physiological properties and yield averages. The SPAD-values showed a growing tendency parallel to the growth of the nutrient-supply levels. The varieties have the highest SPAD-values at the nutri ent-level of N120+PK. Compared to the yield averages we have stated that varieties that have higher SPAD-values have realized higher yields as well. Higher nutrient dosages have increased in the leaf area. In case of all the three varieties the highest LAI-values were measured at the flowering stage (23. 05.) in the treatment whit N120+PK. Varieties with higher leaf area have produced higher yields as well. Parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels the value of leaf area duration increased as well. We measured the highest LAD-values in the treatment of N120+PK nutrient-level. By the LAD-values it can be stated that more durable and larger leaf area has been produced in the flowering and ripening phenophases, due to the higher nutrient-dosages. Analysing the relationships between the results it can be stated that there is a strong positive relationship between fertilizer treatments and SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values. The genotype showed a strong positive correlation to SPAD-values. Yield averages showed strong positive correlation to SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values as well.

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Evaluating changes in nitrogen and sulphur content in a soil-plant system in a long-term fertilization experiment
Published December 1, 2020

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of long term NPK fertilization (considering that S containing superphosphate was supplied for 26 years of experiment, but since 9 years S has not used any longer) on sulphur- and nitrogen content and N/S ratio of winter wheat. The second objective of this work was to determine the of the amount of the different nitrogen and sulphur fraction in chernozem soil in a long term fertilization experiment. The third aim of the work was to determine if a relationship could be established between the studied parameters. Based on our results, it can be stated that the sulphur containing superphosphate supplied in the period of 1984-2010 has no longer significant effect on total sulphur content of plant in 2018. The NPK fertilization treatments had positive effect on total nitrogen content of winter wheat. In general, increasing NPK doses resulted in significantly higher nitrogen. The effect of irrigation applied in previous years has no statistically significant effect on the sulphur and nitrogen content of wheat. The wheat grain produced in our experiment, especially in fertilized treatments showed S deficiency. Analysing the changes of CaCl2 soluble nitrate-N and total N of the soil, it can be stated that the effect of increasing fertilizer doses clearly appears in these parameters, because the treatment with increasing fertilizer doses resulted higher CaCl2 soluble N forms compared to the control treatment in soil. These values increased until flowering stage of wheat and after that a slightly decrease was observed as a result of higher N uptake of plant. In overall, it can be stated, that the effect of superphosphate on measured sulphur fraction is prevailed. With increasing fertilizer doses higher sulphate content was detected in soil, but the sulphate content measured in different soil extractant is not enough for the wheat in this experiment area. Studying the correlation between the measured parameters of plant and soil, it can be concluded, that the relationships between nitrogen in the plant and in the soil is stable, and did not change during the growing season. The correlation between plant S and soil S varied in the measured periods and the r value was low in most cases. At the stage of flowering the highest r value was found between KCl-SO4 and plant S. In the stage of ripening the strongest correlation was detected between KH2PO4-SO4 and grain S content.

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Examination of French bean on organic and conventional farming of Research Centre of Nyíregyháza
Published September 2, 2009

This study presents the yield results of some French bean varieties in organic and conventional farming. This study presents the advantage of organic farming in environmental point of view and in nutrition. Sale of organic products is insured, there is solvent demand rather in abroad than in Hungary.
In Research Centre of Nyíregyháza had m...ade organic farming since 1994, at present on 74 hectares.
In the first trial, variety comparison with 9 yellow podded French beans in organic and conventional farming was conducted. Varieties: Carson, Cherokee, Debreceni sárga, Goldmine, Héliosz, Minidor, Sonesta, Sundance és Unidor. The following parameters were observed: the time of emergence and flowering, number of plants per plot, plant height and flowing green harvest. We weighed yield of the standardized, un-standardized and diseased pod fractions. The results were evaluated statistically with SPSS and Excell softwares.
Emergence had all at once, but the plants of organic farming were 5 days earlier at flowering and maturity, than conventional farming.
The plants in organic place were more developed than in conventional ones. Emergence was more uniform, the growth and the number of plant were square. Significant difference was not detected in plant height between two places. Most of the varieties examined had better total yield in organic place, than in conventional ones. Deviation depended on variety. ‘Sonesta’ and ‘Debreceni sárga’ had the best yield in both places. In
conventional farming choice can be expanded with ‘Unidor’ and ‘Sundance’. In organic farming choice can be expanded with ‘Minidor’ and ‘Carson’.
In both places the Sonesta, Debreceni sárga and Unidor varieties had the most standardized yield per hectare. In organic place Carson variety had good pod yield because it was infected less by diseases.
In the another trial we studied inside content values of some varieties on organic and conventional places. The parameters were observed: dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, crude protein content and amino acid content.
The rates of asparagin or glutamine acid were the highest, which was followed by serin or histidine. In asparagin content was the most deviation between conventional and organic farming.
Significant differences were between varieties in dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, and crude protein content both on organic and conventional places. Each variety had significant differences between organic and conventional farming.
Starch had strong and negative correlation with dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content.
Budai piaci and Minidor varieties and BU-16 variety candidate had higher starch content and lower dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content on organic place. Sonesta variety had almost equal dry matter content on both places, but crude protein content was higher with 10% and starch content was lower with 6% on organic place, than on conventional place. Paridor variety had almost equal starch content, but it had higher dry matter and crude protein content on organic place. 

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Crop Load, Fruit Thinning and their Effects on Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published October 11, 2006

Crop load, a quantitative parameter used by industry, is generally defined as the number of fruit per tree. It is often expressed in terms of number of fruit per trunk cross-sectional area (fruit/TCSA). Crop load is the most important of all factors that influence fruit size, and the removing of a part of the crop is the most effective way to i...mprove fruit size.
The potential size of a given pome fruit is determined early in the season and growth proceeds at a relatively uniform rate thereafter. This uniform growth rate permits the accurate prediction of the harvest size of the fruit as early as mid-summer. The growth rate, once established, is not easily altered, and fruit numbers, therefore, can affect fruit size only within definite limits and maximum effectiveness requires adjustment in fruit numbers relatively early in the season. It was established, that „thinning does not change a potentially small fruit into a large fruit, but rather insures that a potentially large fruit will size properly.” Emphasis should be on estimating fruit numbers rather than fruit size.
Fruit thinning can quickly reach the point of diminishing returns. Rather than a high percentage of large fruits, the objectives of thinning should be the elimination of the smallest fruits, improved fruit quality and annual production. Fruit thinning is accomplished by hand or chemical thinning. Chemical thinners are separated into categories as bloom thinners and post-bloom thinners. Early removal of potential fruit (blossom thinning) is currently used in many apple producing areas to enhance flower initiation for next year’s crop and thus, return bloom. It also results in reduced competition for photosynthates. Blossom thinners usually have a caustic effect on floral parts.
The amount of fruit left on a tree should be determined by the vigor and general condition of the tree. Leaf area per fruit affects the number of spurs flowering the following season. It can be difficult to separate timing and fruit number effects in crop loading studies, as abscission rates after hand thinning of retained flowers/fruitlets tend to very with the time of hand thinning.

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Testing disease resistance in autumn wheat genotypes by means of field experiments
Published September 7, 2001

According to our scientific results we can state that we have to use integrated pesticides management in crop protection against the diseases of winter wheat. One of the most important elements of IPM is to select a genotype characterised by good resistance to diseases (and by high yield ability and excellent baking quality). It is especially i...mportant that the wheat variety have tolerance against not only to one or two leaf and spike (grain) diseases, but „complex” tolerance. It is not necessary to give up the growing of a variety which has susceptibility to different diseases because we can protect it using appropriate chemical management. In the intensive growing stage of wheat (BBCH 32-37) we can use a noncompulsary fungicide-treatment (depending on e. g. the infection, ecological conditions) and, at the beginning of the flowering stage
(BBCH 59-65), we have to use a compulsary fungicide-treatment (in spite of e. g. special weather conditions, resistance genotype)to ensure high yield and good quality.

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Occurrence and damage of the alfalfa root longhorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis Pallas, 1773) in old alfalfa stands in Hungary
Published November 10, 2010

The alfalfa root longhorn beetle is a pest of small importance in old alfalfa stands. It is rarely cited in the international, national literature, or even mentioned in specialized manuels. Plagionotus floralis is common in Hungary but its population density is low. It is a polyphagous species but it has importance - regarding the references ... only in alfalfa. This paper analyses data gained in old alfalfa fields at two different regions of the country (Máriabesnyő, Debrecen). Damage of P. floralis was 56% in the roots of an 8-year-old stand in Máriabesnyő. Lenghts of tunnels were between 3 and 22 cm. In spite of the tunnels the alfalfa plants were viable. There was no root longhorn beetle in the 15-year-old Debrecen stand, however it has been found former in the region. The reason for the important density of P. floralis in Máriabesnyő could be the considerable diversity and covering of flowering weeds around the field. Adults of P. floralis feed on flower pollen and nectar. As to the Debrecen area,weeds were cut regularly, so the edge vegetation was poor. Present conditions (no pest control on alfalfa fields, overuse of old and failing alfalfa stands, many untrained growers) favour the reproduction and possible damage of alfalfa root longhorn beetle. 

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Growth and clorophyll content dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in different cropyear
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment in the season of 2011 and 2012 in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at three fertilisation levels (control, N50+P35K40, N150+P105K120). Two different cropyears were compared (2011 and 2012).

The research focused on the effects of forecrop and fertilisation on the Leaf Area Index, SPAD values and the amount of yield in two different cropyears. We wanted to find out how the examined parameters were affected by the cropyear and what the relationship was between these two parameters and the changes of the amount of yield.

Examining the effects of growing doses of fertilizers applied, results showed that yields increased significantly in both rotations until the N150+PK level in 2011 and 2012. By comparing the two years, results show that in 2011 there was a greater difference in yields between the rotations (7742 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the biculture and 9830 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the triculture). Though wheat yields following peas were greater in 2012, results equalized later on at N150+PK levels (8109–8203 kg ha-1).

Due to the favorable agrotechnical factors, the leaf and the effects of the treatments grown to a great extent in 2011, while in 2012 the differences between treatments were moderate. Until the N150+PK level, nitrogen fertilisation had a notable effect on the maximum amount of SPAD values (59.1 in the case of the biculture and 54.0 in the triculture). The highest SPAD values were measured at the end of May (during the time of flowering and grain filling) in the biculture. In the triculture, showed high SPAD values from the beginning. The same tendency could be observed in the 2012 cropyear, although increasing doses of fertilizers resulted in higher SPAD values until N150+PK level only from the second measurement. Maximum SPAD values were reached at the end of May in both crop rotation system

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Correlation between sowing time of maize hybrids, yield and seed moisture content at harvest on chernozem soil
Published May 27, 2001

In this paper, we analysed the results of maize sowing time experiments conducted by the Department of Crop Sciences and Applied Ecology of the University of Debrecen Agricultural Sciences Centre, during the period from 1997-1999. We made the experiments at the experimental garden of DE ATC, on a chernozem soil with lime deposits.
In 1997, w...e examined five hybrids, in 1998 six hybrids, and in 1999 three hybrids, with three sowing times. Sowing times were early (10. Apr. and 08. Apr.), optimal (25. Apr. and 28. Apr.) and late (15. May and 17. May). 
We examined the following standards: yield, seed moisture content at harvest, thousand kernel mass, duration of flowering, emergence time and profitability.
In 1977, the emergence times, in order of sowing, were: 24, 12 and 9 days. Yields of the sowing times were the following, in mean, for the five hybrids: in the early sowing time (10. Apr.) 11,81 t/ha, in the optimal sowing time (25. Apr.) 11,67 t/ha, and in the late sowing time (15. May) 12,9 t/ha. The seed moisture content of the five hybrids at harvest was 8% less in early sowing time, than in the late sowing time. The thousand kernel mass was the biggest in late sowing time, but we could not prove any significant connection attributable to the effect of sowing time. We examined
profitability, too. Of the five hybrids, four attained the greatest profit with the early sowing time in 1997.
In 1998, the emergence times, in the order of sowing, were: 21, 10 and 11 days. Yields of the sowing times were the following, in mean, for the six hybrids: 08. Apr. 10,34 t/ha, 25. Apr. 11,02 t/ha, 15. May 11,52 t/ha. There were no significant differences between yields in 1998. The seed moisture content of the six hybrids at harvest was 7% less for the early sowing time, than for the late sowing time. In 1998, the profits were greatest for the
early and traditional sowing times.
In 1999, the numbers of days from sowing to emergence were 18, 9 and 9 days, in the order of sowing times. Yields of the sowing times were the following, in mean, for the three hybrids: 13,25  t/ha, 12,51 t/ha and 12,34 t/ha, in the order of sowing times. The seed moisture content of maizes at harvest was 6% less with an early sowing time in the mean of all hybrids. In 1999, hybrid maizes gave big profits with early sowing times.
Summing up the results of the three years, we can conclude that we get a significant yield increase and reduced seed moisture content at harvest if we apply the early sowing time, which can considerably increase the efficiency of maize cultivation. 

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Testing a biological active plant extract’s antifungal effect against soil fungi
Published December 16, 2012

In Hungary today is about 5 million hectares of agricultural land contaminated with ragweed. The ragweed problem a year is about 60 billion HUF to be paid, of which 30 billion are used to reduce the agricultural damage. Experiments with ragweed pollen has mainly been carried out in connection with terms of allergy. The other biochemical experim...ents and studies with this plant, have so far been the scientific horizons of public life, boosted the edge. We wanted to demonstrate that the ragweed, which is a weed, containsbiological active (for example: antifungal) compounds. For our experiments in the previous cycle of flowering, plants were collected manually, with its roots and with each plant part. The extraction of the substance from dry plant – meal was carried out using appropriate solvents. The biological activity of ragweed-extracts were tested against fungi isolated from soils and meadow with different mode of cultivation. Our results suggest that ragweed contains biologically active substances, which inhibit the growth of fungi, depending on the concentration of active ingredients of the plant.

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The effect of NPK fertilization and the number of plants on the yield of maize hybrids with different genetic base in half-industrial experiment
Published March 23, 2016

In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.

The experiment ...took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2, this it was a halfindustrial experiment. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. Yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare at a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants/ha.

In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2015 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 340.3 mm, which was less than the average of 30 years by 105.5 mm. This year was not only draughty but it was also extremely hot, as the average temperature was higher by 1.7 °C than the average of 30 years. In the critical months of the growing season the distribution of precipitation was unfavourable for maize: in June the amount of rainfall was less by 31mm and in July by 42 mm than the average of many years.

Unfavourable effects of the weather of year 2015 were reflected also by our experimental data. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 5.28–7.13 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.

It can be associated also with the unfavourable crop year that the yield of the six tested hybrids is 6.33 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 7.14 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is only 0.81 t ha-1, but it is significant. Due to the especially draughty weather the yield increasing effect of fertilizers was moderate. In the average of the hybrids and the number of plants, increasing the N80+PK treatment to N160+PK, the yield did not increase but decreased, which is explicable by the water scarcity in the period of flowering, fertilization and grain filling.

The agroecological optimum of fertilization was N 80, P2O5 60 and K2O 70 kg ha-1. Due to the intense water scarcity, increased fertilization caused decrease in the yield. As for the number of plants, 70 000 plants ha-1 proved to be the optimum, and the further increase of the number of plants caused decrease in the yield.

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Evaluation of the yield and baking quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in different cropyears
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We have investigated the effect of the cropyear, the genotype, the nutrient supply and their interactions on the yield and the quality parameters of three different winter wheat genotypes in three different cropyears. The most disadvantageous influence on the yield averages was caused by the moist weather of 2010, when yield results fell behind the mean of the two other examined years and the nutrient optimum was around low doses. The optimal cropyear turned out to be the ordinary 2011, the best yield results were experienced during this cropyear. Although the drier periods in 2012 decreased the yield values, the varieties could realize high yield maximum values. Considering the yield results, Genius turned out to be the best variety. In respect of the quality traits, 2010 turned out to be the best cropyear in case of all the three varieties. Despite the dry weather of the spring of 2012, the precipitation fell during flowering and ripening phases had positive impact on the grain-filling processes and contributed to the development of better quality. As a consequence of the significantly lower amount of precipitation during the generative phenological phases, the worst quality parameters were realized by the varieties in 2011.


In respect of crop year effect, 2010 was unfavourable for the amount of yield, but the most beneficial for the quality. 2011 was the most advantageous for the yield amounts but disadvantageous for the quality parameters. Although in 2012 extreme crop year effects were experienced after each other (dry and warm spring, moist and warm summer), the yield average and quality trait values were close to the yield averages of 2011 and quality parameters of 2010. Analyzing our results we can state that the average crop year was favourable rather for the yield. The appropriate amount of precipitation during the whole 2010 and that during the generative phenophases in 2012 favoured the development of good quality.

Consequently, the appropriate amount of precipitation is essential for the development of good quality during the grain-filling period. The negative crop year effects were only compensated but not eliminated by the good nutrient supply. Genius achieved excellent yield averages but performed worse quality parameters than Mv Toldi, whose quality parameters were outstanding but the yield averages fell slightly behind those of Genius. Considering the yield results, the variety Genius turned out to be the best, while Mv Toldi was the best in quality.

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Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment
Published July 31, 2012

The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The whea...t variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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