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Identification of cow’s and buffalo’s milk and dairy product using a DNA-based method
Published November 13, 2012
279-282

Aim of our study was the optimization of a DNA method, that is appropriate for reliable, low cost identification of animal species in milk and dairy product (cheese) and to determine the ratio of species. Mitochondrial DNA was used in our work to analyse buffalo/cow milk mixtures contained different ratio of bovine milk such as 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, ...1.5%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% (v/v%). Buffalo cheese were produced using buffalo and cows milk (0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% – v/v% cows milk in buffalo milk). In case of milk mixtures, using species specific primers, the PCR assay showed a 0.5 v/v% detection limit. Cattle, in the buffalo/cows milk 99.9/0.1 v/v% mixture, was not detectable. The identification of buffalo and cows DNA in cheese was successful. The intensity of eletroforetic PCR fragment indicated the increase of cow milk ratio in milk and cheese samples as well.

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Identification of the Slovak traditional cheese “Parenica” microflora
Published September 5, 2018
227-239

Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher accuracy, faster time-to-results and lower costs provided by MALDI Biotyper systems compared to classical methods. In this study, the culturable population of total count of bacteria, enterococci, coliforms bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and microscopic fungi and yeasts from cow’s dairy prod...ucts was identified using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper. Altogether, 50 samples of the Slovak cheese “Parenica” were examined. Total numbers of bacteria were cultured on Plate count agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; enterococci were cultured on Enterococcus selective agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; coliforms bacteria were cultured on Violet Red Bile lactose agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically. The LAB were cultured on MRS (Main Rogosa agar), MSE and APT agar at 30 °C in microaerophilic conditions. The microscopic fungi and yeasts were cultured on Malt extract agar at 25 °C for 5 days, aerobically. Isolated strains (total 669) were subjected to identification by the MALDI-TOF MS. Among total count the identified bacteria mostly were Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus warneri. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant coliform bacteria representatives identified. Coliform bacteria included Citrobacter, Hafnia and Klebsiella. Altogether three genera belonged to the LAB – Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc were identified with Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. fructivorans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were considered as the dominated LAB species in dairy products. Among yeasts, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida zeylanoides and Yarrowia lipolytica were among the most isolated.

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Some Aspects of the Relationship Between the Quality of Sheep Milk and Dairy Products
Published May 11, 2003
12-15

The correlation between the quality of raw milk and the quality of milk products is evident. In spite of this fact we can find only a few references contained exact data related sheep milk. In recent paper we investigated the effect of SCC of sheep milk on the cheese yield (semi hard traditional cheese) and certain texture parameters of yoghurt... from sheep milk. We wanted to know the relevant limit values of these properties for dairy applications.
In our opinion – in the case of the cheese yield – that the strong negative effect can be experienced when SCC is above 700.000-1 million/cm3.
In the case of yoghurt from sheep milk the limit values of SCC can be 1 million/cm3 for Adhesivity and Whey draining and 500.000/cm3 for Hardness. Considering these limit values in the selection of milk become materialise the highest quality of products and the economical production.

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Microbiological status of bulk tank milk and different flavored gomolya cheeses produced by a milk producing and processing plant
Published December 28, 2018
73-78

The microbiological quality of milk is important not only for food safety, but it can also influence the quality of dairy products. In this study, our aim was to assess the microbiological status of the bulk milk of a milk-producing farm, and some natural and flavored (garlic, dill, onion) gomolya cheeses made from pasteurized milk produced by ...their own processing plant. We determined the number of coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and molds of three milk and eight cheese samples. The tests were conducted between July and September, 2017.

In bulk milk, the mean coliform count was 3.83±0.17 log10 CFU/ml; the mean E. coli count was 1.38±0.14 log10 CFU/ml; the mean mold count was 3.74±1.30 log10 CFU/ml; and the S. aureus count was <1.00 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. The mean coliform count in gomolya cheeses was 3.69±1.00 log10 CFU/g; the mean E. coli count was 2.63±0.58 log10 CFU/g; the mean S. aureus count was 3.69±1.35 log10 CFU/g and the mean mold count was 1.74±0.37 log10 CFU/g. The amount of coliforms detected in different flavored gomolya cheeses were significantly different (P<0.05). More than 10 CFU/g of E. coli was found only in the dill flavored cheeses, and S. aureus was found only in dill (3.66±1.86 log10 CFU/g) and onion (3.71±0.52 log10 CFU/g) flavored gomolya cheeses. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the amount of coliform bacteria and E. coli in bulk milk exceeded the limit set in regulation of the Hungarian Ministry of Health (MoH) 4/1998 (XI. 11.) and the amount of S. aureus was below the limit. For gomolya cheeses, the S. aureus count exceeded the limit. The amount of coliform bacteria remained above the limit in cheeses, except for the garlic flavored gomolya cheese. In cheeses, a larger E. coli count was detected than in the bulk milk, but there is no specific limit for cheeses in the regulation. The mold count exceeded the limit specified in the regulation in cheeses, but a lower value was detected relative to milk.

The results show that, in the case of bulk milk and gomolya cheeses, certain detected quantities exceeded the limit values set forth in regulation of MoH 4/1998 (XI. 11.). The results indicate an inadequate microbiological state of the raw material and the finished products. The reasons for these are due to reduced technological hygiene or the inappropriate handling of raw material and finished products. In this study, we have summarized the results of our preliminary studies, which can provide a basis for further hygiene studies.

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The possibilities of the development of functional dairy products
Published December 1, 2010
33-36

Because of our new aged world’s emerging stress, over exhausting and move less lifestyle the pollution, the not appropriate food consuming and the low calories in the consumed food there are more and more the called „civilian” disorders.
Many people have diabetes and osteoporosis others fight with lung, cardiovascular system, problems ...and find cancers of many kinds without age exemptions. 
There could be a solution in changing lifestyle. In the developed side of the world there are presence of food lines with higher content in nutritious and/or vitamins and fibers such as: kalium, calcium, selen, magnesium, plus it contains less saturated fat. Because of that there is a new word in dietetics as functional foods.
Food having more inner content and/or biological values, so healthier, are called functional foods. Those foods components picked carefully for healthiness by modern knowledge of dietetics.
One of the best raw materials for functional food is the milk. It is already healthy by itself. The Körös-Maros Biofarm Ltd. has a goal of developing and marketing, health protecting organic functional foods in hungaricum products from cured milk. The Jedlik Ányos project helps the Ltd. to achieve this goal. We just finished an antioxidant test and we check if the antioxidant in present in the milk than we check the final product of the presence of the original antioxidant and the form and amount of it.
It had been feeding, for two weeks for three herd of cows selected for age, milk output and consanguinity. All of the three herd had been feeding with basic forage. One of the herds had been getting vitamin-E in the amount of 250 mg/bwkg the other group got licopin in the amount of 200 mg/bwkg once a day each by each orally, the third herd was the control group. 
After two weeks we toke a sample of every herd were processed the samples into yogurt and cheese. Than we checked the raw milk, the cheese and the yogurt for antioxidant content with HPLC method. The test ended with good results by finding a great amount of antioxidant, in not only the raw milk but also in the final product. 

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Analysis of vitamin E content in pilot dairy products
Published December 16, 2012
31-34

Within the framework of Ányos Jedlik program we started an experiment on feeding anti-oxidants with dairy cows at Körös-Maros Biofarm Kft. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether vitamin E and selenium fed as feed-supplement have an effect on the composition of milk produced. Furthermore we examined the cheese and yoghurt made out ...of the milk to explore how much vitamin E and selenium is retained in the products after processing. Our goal is to develop such functional dairy product which can be part of the daily diet helping us to remain healthy.
After analyzing the data we found out that the anti-oxidant fed to the cows resulted in elevated vitamin E and selenium levels in the milk and that these were retained in the cheese and yoghurt in relatively large amount.

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Analysis of vitamin E content in pilot dairy products
Published March 24, 2015
49-52

Within the framework of Ányos Jedlik program we started an experiment on feeding anti-oxidants with dairy cows at Körös-Maros Biofarm Kft. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether vitamin E and selenium fed as feed-supplement have an effect on the composition of milk produced. Furthermore we examined the cheese and yoghurt made out ...of the milk to explore how much vitamin E and selenium is retained in the products after processing. Our goal is to develop such functional dairy product which can be part of the daily diet helping us to remain healthy.

After analyzing the data we found out that the anti-oxidant fed to the cows resulted in elevated vitamin E and selenium levels in the milk and that these were retained in the cheese and yoghurt in relatively large amount.

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Essential oil extraction from herbs and their use in the food industry
Published September 5, 2018
59-74

Essential oil extraction of wild caraway and thyme was performed using a classical (HD) and microwave hydro-distillation (MWHD) and a laboratory supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with a carbon dioxide as solvent. Our experiments demonstrated that the extraction yield of the essential oil performed in same conditions was influenced by the loc...ation of growth area; the maximum extraction yield of 10 ml 100 g-1 caraway was obtained from dried seeds collected from Csíkmadaras. This quantity far exceeded the yield of the Újtusnád samples. In the case of wild caraway (Carum carvi L.), the extraction method influenced thecomposition of the essential oil (carvone/limonene ratio), the highest limonene content being achieved by classical hydro-distillation. In the case of thyme, this effect was not detected, the thymol/carvacrol ratio was independent from the given extraction method. The obtained thyme essential oil possesses high antimicrobial activity demonstrated by agar diffusion test. The thyme extract provides a good protection against microorganisms collected on the surface of fresh vegetables following bacterial stains: Citrobacter portucalensis, Pseudomonas hunanensis, Pseudomonas baetica, Pseudomonas parafulva, Bacillus mojavensis and Enterobacter cloacae. Protective effect was also detected on the vegetable surface of by chitosan-based edible film coating during a 6-day-long storage period at a temperature of 4 °C. The caraway essential oil used as soft cheese seasoning with a direct, dilution-free method, proved to be unsuitable because the uneven distribution and confer a strong, unpleasant taste to the product in comparison with the ground wild caraway seed-dressed cheese.

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Investigation of the milk composition of three Tsigai sheep varieties, and the detection of cazein fractions of sheep milk by Reversed-Phase HPLC
Published November 24, 2008
13-22

The measurements started in 2005, the author used the milk of 3 types of Tsigai Sheep that are suitable for milking, they examined the milk composition, the possible differences between the milk types, the coagulation characteristics, cheese processing, yielding characteristics and the transfer of solid content into cheese. From the large numbe...r of measurements, the results of milk composition examinations are described.
During the research the author examined the milk coagulation property of three types of Tsigai Sheep QTS 25 is a substance investigating instrument, and its primary mission is the analysis of the substance profile. The advantage of this instrument is the representation of the survey graphs from which the part of the substance characteristics could be directly read off. By the help of the applied mathematical and statistical operations we tried to establish connection between the congealment-hardness and the specialty of the different types of Tsigai Sheep.
In 2006 the author began the identification and qualification of the major sheep milk proteins by RP- HPLC method. She used a scientific article written by Bordin et al. The method is able to separate and quantify the seven major proteins. However Bordin’s procedure was developed using bovine milk, the author adapted it to sheep milk.

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Microbial assessment of potential functional dairy products with added dried herbs
Published May 20, 2020
59-63

The market of dairy products is a dynamically developing sector of the food industry. Potential, functional dairy products, made by adding herbs or spices, will have antimicrobial and antioxidant effect due to the active biochemical agents of the plant additives. Furthermore, these active components will widen the storage life of food produ...cts and enhance their organoleptic properties too. We worked out a technology for creating fresh cheeses using a gentle pasteurizing method by treating the mixture of raw milk and 1.5% fat contained in commercial milk. As herb additives, we used citronella (Melissa officinalis), and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) harvested by us and dried them via Tyndall-method in convective dryer on 40 °C for 5.5 hours per day. The drying period took three days. We bought dried citronella and mint from the supermarket, which were dried by ionizing radiation, to compare the microbiological pollution with the herbs dried by us.

The main target of this research was to create a microbiologically stable, potential functional dairy product. However, because of the bad quality of the raw milk and the gentle heat treatment we used for sterilizing bulk milk, or else, cheeses were not safe for human consumption. As a consequence, we need further studies to modify our technology and get a microbiologically stable product.

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Special Investment Support Under the Agricultural Reorganisation Programme 1995-2000
Published September 5, 2002
64-73

Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportun...ities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).
The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.

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