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Comparative analysis of Carpathian Braunvieh’s morphological traits
Published February 10, 2013
15-19

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The Carpathian Braunvieh cattle established by the cross-breeding of the Schweizer Braunvieh and the local breeds of the Carpathian basin approximately 150 years ago. The evolved three usage breed was durable and resistant, however in comparison with the high-productivity breeds was less competitive. The dramatic lay-off, and the endangered status of the breed requires a conservation programme. University of Debrecen took the investigation of the Hungarian population and it’s detailed genetic studies. Within this research project among others we carry out body measurements and rates of the body traits. Depending on these results, we may decide on the subsequent gene-reserving objects. Based on body measurements and live weight we established that the breed at Mikóháza favours to the one lived in Hungary in the 1960’s, and to another, named Ukrainian Carpathian Brown. Compared to the earlier data (Horváth, 1966) smaller body traits can be seen. Our livestock is proportionately smaller than the other breeds in height at withers, as well as in live weight. Based on the comparative analysis, we established, that – thanks to the aware sorting – the imported individuals represent the ancient, primitive Carpathian variant.

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Genetic analysis of selected body measurements of Hungarian Sport Horse mares
Published July 16, 2007
40-43

The authors made their analysis based on the body measurements of 3080 Hungarian Sport Horse mares listed in the Hungarian Sport Horse Studbook. Height at withers by stick, height at withers by tape, heart girth and cannon-bone circumference were measured in Hungarian Sport Horse mare performance tests.
Phenotypic correlations among height a...t the withers and heart girth and cannon-bone circumference varied within a range of 0.45-0.55. There was close genetic correlation (r=0.63-0.82) between the body measurement traits. Heritability values were moderate for height at withers by stick, height at withers by tape and heart girth (h2=0.31-0.49). There were high heritability values (h2=0.51) for cannon-bone circumference.
There were low phenotypic correlations between frame (as conformational trait) and height at the withers (measured by tape and stick) and heart girth.

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Changes of Longissimus Muscle Area and Rump Fat Thickness in Hungarian Simmental Fattening Bulls Measured Using Real-Time Ultrasound Equipment
Published March 4, 2005
11-15

The aim of the authors was to evaluate changes in the longissimus muscle area (LMA) and rump fat thickness (P8) based on real-time ultrasound scanning in the Hungarian Simmental cattle breed. Ultrasonic measurements were carried out on the same 11 Hungarian Simmental fattening bulls by Falco 100 (Pie Medical) equipment (I.: age: 357±23.47 days..., live weight: 475.55±51.40 kg; II.: age: 418±23.47 days, live weight: 555.10±54.11 kg) on two occasions. Animals were kept in small groups, on deep litter, and fed on silage and concentrate. LMA and P8 were measured on the scans, between the 12th and 13th ribs by manual outlining. Results for the investigated traits during the examinations were as follows: P8: I.: 0.373±0.154 cm, II.: 0.624±0.161 cm; LMA: I.: 65.72±5.89 cm2, II.: 71.74±8.94 cm2. During the fattening period, P8 increased significantly (I-II.: t=3.73, P<0.001). A significant positive correlation was calculated between results of measurements I. and II. in the case of LMA (r=0.71, P<0.05). Results imply the possibility of selling bulls with smaller LMA earlier, at lower body weight. Application of ultrasonic measurements in fattening technology could generate a more quality-related pricing system.

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Inner pelvic measurements in dairy breeds
Published November 20, 2011
31-35

Dystocia causes great financial losses: due to dystocia milk production is decreased and the probability of calf loss is increased. There are many factors that may cause dystocia. One of the factors –often investigated in beef cattle- is pelvic measurements. There have not been inner pelvic measurement comparisons done on dairy breeds in Hung...ary.
After comparing the imported, primiparous cows, Jerseys turned out to have the smallest absolute inner pelvic measures. According to their age and weight, Brown Swiss cows had the largest pelvic dimensions. Ayrshire, Norwegian and Swedish Red, the three dairy breeds which share similar genetic background did not differ in most measures. Holsteins were closest to the apparent ideal 1:1 horizontal and vertical diameter ratio; however, this breed suffers the most from dystocia. Jerseys, despite having the smallest pelvic area are famous of their calving ease, perhaps not by coincidence. Although this dairy breed is the lightest, when the pelvic area was compared in ratio of body weight Jerseys were not smaller than the 130 and 114 kg heavier Norwegian and Swedish Red cows.

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Inner pelvic measurements in dairy breeds
Published December 16, 2012
51-56

Dystocia causes great financial losses: due to dystocia milk production is decreased and the probability of calf loss is increased. There are many factors that may cause dystocia. One of the factors –often investigated in beef cattle- is pelvic measurements. There have not been inner pelvic measurement comparisons in dairy breeds in Hungary.&...nbsp;
After comparing the imported, primiparous cows, Jersey turned out to have the smallest absolute inner pelvic measures. According to their age and weight, Brown Swiss cows had the largest pelvic dimensions. Ayrshires, Norwegian and Swedish Red, the three dairy breeds which share similar genetic background did not differ in most measures. Holsteins were closest to the seemingly ideal 1:1 horizontal and vertical diameter ratio; however this breed suffers the most from dystocia. Jerseys, despite having the smallest pelvic area are famous of their calving ease, perhaps not by coincidence. Though this dairy breed is the lightest, when pelvic area was compared in ratio of body weight Jerseys were not smaller than the 130 and 114 kg heavier Norwegian and Swedish Red cows.

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Monitoring the oxygen level in the Szarvas-Kákafok Deadarm
Published October 5, 2010
170-173

The water quality of the Szarvas-Békésszentandrás Dead Körös is generally meso-eutrophic, and meso-saprobic. However, particularly
under higher temperature conditions, the water body may change toward the eutrophic state, even algal blooms could be observed
previously.
The present measurements were conducted during a two week peri...od, twice a day. Three water samples were taken horizontally, from
the surface, bottom and the middle of the water body. The samples were examined in situ. The oxygen content, the temperature, the pH and
the conductivity were measured by potentiometric methods.
Increasing pH was detected in correlation to the temperature, which indicated a rising photosynthetic activity. Also, the O2
concentration showed high variations, especially, when the fresh water supply from the river was stopped, due to a small flood in the river
Körös.
These results indicate the increasing eutrophication processes in the deadarm, and the high load and instability of the ecosystem.

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Experiment of quality properties of dehydrated fruits
Published October 10, 2008
7-15

The lyophilization is the joint application of freezing and drying. It is an up-to-date conserving procedure, the point of which is that the humidity existing in the frozen humid material is transferred from the solid state directly into the gaseous state at a temperature below 0 oC under vacuum. Out of the procedures applied nowadays, this is ...the most tolerant drying process.
With regard to the high investment and operational costs, freeze drying is applied only for valuable, heat-sensitive materials when the technological aim is to preserve such properties as aroma, taste and colour as well as such components as proteins and vitamins. This procedure is suitable for drying and conserving certain foodstuffs, stimulants, organic chemicals, medicines and similar sensitive and valuable materials.
In our institute, we have been conducting freeze drying experiments with regional fruits and vegetables since the year 2005. During the first phase, we examined the heat- and material transfer as well as the abstraction of humidity, while during the second phase we analysed the rehydration ability and nutrient content of the freeze-dried materials as compared to those dried with the method of convection. Moreover we have conducted penetration measurements with a portable hardness tester.
To sum up the results gained so far, we can state that the quality of the lyophilized materials is better than those dried in the traditional way. It originates partly in the fact that the temperature and pressure applied for the freeze drying are smaller and the drying period is far longer than for the convection drying.
In contrast to convection-dried materials, freeze dried materials set in close to their original water-content, keep their original shape and size after being rehydrated. The reason of it the porous, spongy structure (flexible cell wall) of the lyophilized products which is able to take up moisture quickly. In addition, the lyophilized products can be rehydrated faster than those dried in the traditional way.
Regarding the results of the chemical analyses, the following conclusion can be drawn: the vacuum freeze drying results a small decrease of nutrient content and nutritive value for the lyophilized products.
The results of the hardness tests support the statement that the majority of agricultural materials cannot be considered as an ideal flexible body, because during the experiment the flexibility coefficient changed when going from the surface of the material inwards. In addition, the penetration tests also confirm that the surface of the convection-dried vegetables is at least 1.5-3 times harder than that of the freeze-dried products. The reason of it that it takes place during the drying denaturation processes.
The article summarizes the results of our research work listed above, in accordance with our experiments conducted by using the characteristic fruits (apple, plum) of the Nyírség Region.

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Comparative Study on Different Water Bodies and their Sediments
Published December 22, 2010
17-21

Hungary is rich in natural water resources, therefore investigation of these biotopes is an important task. The Szarvas- Kákafok deadarm is the largest horse-shoe lake of the Tiszántúl, its lenght is 28 km. It has an important role in recreation and agricultural utilization. The quality of the deadarm is influenced by the river Körös, but ...also by communal and agricultural pollution. Our goals were to estimate the intensity of the
sedimentation processes, and the water- and the sediment quality as well. Also, we examined an artificial wetland system, constructed by the Fish Culture and Irrigation Research Institute, Szarvas.
The calculated sedimentation was 0.4-0.5 cm year-1, which indicated an intensive eutrophication process. The constructed wetland system was able to decrease the organic load of the intensive fish culture company. On the basis of our TOC measurements, the organic matter content of the effluent water remained whitin the water quality limits.
The changes of the material cycling could be more intense in the water body, then in the sediment. The oxido-reduction potential of the sediment could indicate the ecological state of the shallow lakes, therefore it could be an easily measurable indicator in the water classification.

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