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Special Investment Support Under the Agricultural Reorganisation Programme 1995-2000
Published September 5, 2002
64-73

Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportun...ities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).
The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.

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Hungarian total foreign trade after the change of regime
Published July 28, 2008
145-154

Hungary’s total foreign trade has changed a lot since the change of regime. Several factors played a role in this process. The collapse of COMECOM, set of the world economy, WTOagreement, Agreement of Accession and CEFTA-agreement and accession to the EU affected this situation. After the change of regime Hungary had to react rapidly to these... new events: one of the most goals was to find new markets. Hungary’s total foreign trade balance is negative but this deficit has declined after EUaccession. The foreign trade in agriculture has realised positive balance for a long time. This balance is declining after 2004, in spite of that the agricultural export grows, but the import grows more dynamically.
Share of the Visegrad countries – join at the same time to the European Union as Hungary – from Hungarian agriculture exports gets higher, especially in the case of Poland.
Hungary’s trading partners of exports and imports are stabile and they come from old Member States. One hand is positive, but the other hand is not acceptable. It is important to get markets, because we strongly depend on Europe.
The situation of Hungary’s external trade is determined by the future of CAP and WTO Doha Round (reducing of agricultural customs, ceasing of export subvention system and etc.).
Hungary can keep in competition, if it extends its competitiveness, diminishes of costs, and improves of quality, logistic and marketing.

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Investigation of harvest index influencing agrotechnical and botanical factors in hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.)
Published June 1, 2021
123-128

The biggest problem of Hungarian crop farming is mass production and the simple crop rotation based on cereals. There was a decrease in sowing area of protein crops which raises crucial issues in crop rotation and land use. Therefore, growing papilionaceous plants, which are now considered to be alternative plants, should be taken under clo...se examination. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) belongs to the family of papilionaceous plants and it can be grown in light weak soils.

In Hungary, hairy vetch was used as green forage at first, but it later became a green manure plant.  Nowadays, it is used as a cover crop and its sowing seed has a good export market. In low fertile soils it is able to produce a big amount of green yield (25–40 t ha-1) even in spring while its seed yield could be 0.4–0.5 t ha-1 at farm level. In addition to its morphological characteristics hairy vetch is grown mainly with a supporting plant, i.e. triticale in many cases.

Our purpose was to test the harvest index and its agrotechnical and botanical factors of hairy vetch in different cropping systems.

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62
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Trends in Dry Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Production
Published May 12, 2002
53-58

Dry pea is an important, cool-season grain legume, which is grown worldwide on over 6 million hectares. The major producing countries outside Europe are China and Canada, followed by India, Australia, and the United States. France, Canada and Australia produce over 2 million hectares and are major exporters of peas. During the 1980’s, in deve...loped countries of the European Union, pea production rose yearly by 6-10%, which represents a significant increase in both area and yield. Europe accounts for 50-75% of world pea production. In the 1990’s, the European Union produced 4-5 million tonnes of dry pea, of which 3-4 million tonnes were used for feed and 1 million tonnes for export. At the end of the 20th century, the growth in production was low, mainly because of the absence of support measures, and the better returns offered by other crops. In the countries of the former Soviet Union, dry pea was primarily used as feed and pea production dropped, due to a trend in livestock raising.
Food consumption of dry pea is concentrated in developing countries, where grain legumes represent a useful complement to cereal-based diets as a relatively inexpensive source of high quality protein. As a result, human consumption of grain legumes fell from 2,2 kg/capita in 1961 to 0,5 kg/capita in 1999. The importance of grain legumes in food protein supply decreased, while that of cereal products increased. Shortage of grain legumes has adverse effects on the nutritional standard of poor people in developing countries.
World dry pea production reached 16,7 million tonnes in 1990, with 3,7 million tonnes used as food, 11,4 million tonnes used as feed, and 1,0 million tonnes used as seed. Dry pea production was 10,9 million tonnes in 1999, and 3,5, 5,8 and 0,8 million tonnes was used as food, feed and seed, respectively. In the coming decades, world grain legume production and utilization as feed are expected to expand at a slower rate than in the 1980’s. Most of the increase is expected to occur in Eastern European countries, Canada and Australia, where production is anticipated to grow at 2% annually. The projection for the new millennium was derived from adjusted trends in area and yield over the period 1961-2000, based on FAO statistical data.

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Reduction of ragweed pollution in industrial utilization system
Published October 20, 2009
69-72

In Hungary 6.2 billion hectares are used for agricultural and from this area 5.0 billion are polluted by ragweed. In addition, the export of agricultural products will be threatened because of their pollution. Ragweed results also problems in human medicine because of its pollen allergy. More than 30% of the habitants are affected directly or i...ndirect by allergyc diseases. On an annual basis nearly 60 billion HUF is spent on defense against ragweed. From this budget 30 billion HUF comes from the damage of the agriculture and other 30 billion for the cost of the therapy and health insurance. To solve the problems caused by ragweed needs new ideas. The proposals are the gathering and comprehensive utilization. A leap forward, from the ragweed new, market–orientated product should be developed.

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Complex problem analysis of the Hungarian milk product chain
Published November 20, 2011
43-47

Hungarian dairy sector went through significant changes in past two decades. The most significant changes were caused by our accession to the European Union. In Hungary milk production remarkably declined after EU accession. The size of our dairy herd has been practically reducing since the political transformation, but increasing yields per co...w could compensate it in some way and for some time. However, in recent years, increasing yield per cow came to a stop and in parallel, the number of cows declined further and faster. Low prices, high production costs and tightening quality requirements ousted several producers from the market in past years. Feeding cost represents the highest rate in cost structure of production, but animal health expenditures and various losses are also significant. There are undeniably competitive disadvantages in the level of organisation and labour productivity; however competitiveness already depends on cost effectiveness in the medium run. In Hungary concentration of the dairies is relatively strong in spite of the relative high number of corporations. The dairies compete with each other and with the export market for the raw material and the better exploitation of their capacities. Applied technology of the Hungarian dairies lags behind the Western-European competitors’; in addition they have handicaps in efficiency and product innovation. Presence of chain of stores being dominant in sale of milk products does also not favour in all respects to the position of the dairies. The aforementioned retail chains are namely consumer-centric, engage in price follower conduct and weaken the position of the dairies with their private label products. As a result of increasing import of milk and milk products Hungary became a net importer in recent years. Today, disposable income still essentially determines the consumption habits of price-sensitive consumers. Loyalty for Hungarian products is not typical, consumers are open for import products being preferred by retail chains. In addition Hungarian milk and milk product consumption is about half of the Union average and it is far behind the level being necessary for healthy eating. In Hungary lack of competitiveness and vertical integration relationships and backwardness are revealing among the dairy farmers and the dairies, while chain of stores are in unprecedented “monopolistic situation”; the whole sector can be characterised by defencelessness. 

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Morpometric study of Hungarian honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies
Published February 10, 2013
59-63

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The honey bees are essential for the pollination of agricultural plants. The Pannonian honey bee, Apis mellifera pannonica, is native to Hungary, only these subspecies are being bread in our country. The parameters have been separated the pannon and italian honey bee subspecies, the colour of tergit, the cubital index and proboscis length. The morphometric analisys is of special importance because this, on the one hand, shows correlation with honey bee production and on the other hand, the pure morphometric charactersitics is the basis of any potential honey bee export. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites are the common methods to define genetic diversity and the separation of subspecies.

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Economic issues of crop based ethanol production for energetic uses
Published September 7, 2001
90-94

The United States Congress passed the “Clean Air Act” in 1990, which targeted the creation and use of so-called “green fuel”. This Act came into full force on January 7, 1995. Its essence is that an oxygen rich component is added to fuel by which it burns more cleanly and harmful emissions of vehicles are reduced by 25%. This oxygen ric...h component is basically ethanol and its ether ETBE, made of domestically produced grains.
America’s traditional grain exporter status could be converted into a stabile income resource during production, many more valuable by-products – should this program succeed – are also produced, giving the opportunity for further utilisation either in the foods or form feeds industries, or as export products.
Ethanol or ETBE production is also important to replace fuel imports from any specific country, the additive which is necessary for producing the fuel is the imported product MTBE.
This programme therefore simultaneously assisted in environmental protection, agricultural and foreign trading issues as well as some market regulation issues. At the same time, based on grain production, it has an effect on the social strata by creating new jobs, especially in those areas which can be considered in recession due to the lack of any large-scale industrial cities.
In the future, the European Union should carry out this project and it will affect Hungary, as well.

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