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Accuracy of Location Identification by GPS and Possibilities for its Application in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
157-160

A description of the design and operating principle of the GPS system and the explanation of key terms of telemetric and chronometric measurements is followed by several examples characteristic of the results of factors which may influence accuracy of the identification of geographic location by satellites. In addition, results of accuracy test...ing of absolute GPS measurements and improvements of accuracy experienced and attributable to the alteration of the periods used for establishing average values are highlighted. Furthermore, we examined certain practical possibilities for the use of GPS systems in agriculture, emphasizing the advantages hidden in the use of GIS-GPS integration, crop mapping, soil maps and gross produce maps, in the application of the VRT (Variable Rate Technology) and in combinations of the same.

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Biomass production estimation of processing tomato using AquaCrop under different irrigation treatments
Published December 15, 2019
131-136

The wiser usage of irrigation water is inevitable in the future. Irrigation has very high input cost; therefore, farmers must carry out irrigation with care. Also, the effect of irrigation on crops has a big role in decision making. Modeling provides a possibility to evaluate this effect. AquaCrop, as a crop production simulation model has grea...t potential in this field. The accuracy of tomato biomass yield prediction of the model was tested in this research. For collecting the necessary data, a field experiment was conducted at Szarvas on processing tomato with different water supplies, such as 100% (I100), 75% (I75), 50% (I50) of potential evapotranspiration and a control with basic water supply (C). The relation of the simulation and actual biomass yields was evaluated during the season. Very good correlation was found between the modelled and the actually harvested data. The data for the control and I100 treatments showed higher correlation than the I75 and I50. The relationship for all of the data was moderately strong. Miscalculations occur mostly when the dry biomass yield reaches
7 t ha-1. The accuracy of the model was evaluated with the use of mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) values. The least error was found in the C treatment, which means 0.34 MAE and 0.45 t ha-1 RMSE. The simulation resulted in higher errors in the I75 and I50 treatments.

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Opportunities of delineating inland waters and soil moisture with remote sensed data
Published May 16, 2012
95-98

The methodology for delineating water bodies on multispectral remote sensing imagery was examined and evaluated. A supervised approach is tested with the aim to accurately detect inland water, moisturised soil surface and swampy patches on the Landsat TM 7 scene. The goal of this research is to investigate whether the application of remote sens...ing image interpretation could further refine the possibilities of future soil conductivity measurement research. The methodologies used were the application of supervised classification algorithms based on the training data collected in the area. The achieved overall classification accuracy value of 83.0795% suggests that the methodology could be used as a successful strategy to incorporate remote sensing data interpretation into soil conductivity measurement planning and application. The main conclusion that can be drawn is that processing of multispectral data with further refinement of the presented methodologies can led to very useful outcomes for environmental measurements.

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Applicability of hyperspectral technology for in situ phytoremediation
Published October 10, 2008
71-78

The characterization of heavy metal polluted abandoned mining sites is a complicated assignment due to the variable spatial distribution of the pollutants, therefore complex integrated method is required in order to assess precisely the amount and the distribution of the contaminants. The examined area is flotation sludge reservoir of abandoned... Pb-Zn mining site with serious heavy metal contamination. located in Gyöngyösoroszi, Northern Hungary.
The hyperspectral image of the flotation sludge is obtained by using a Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer DAIS 7915, in the frame of DLR HySens first Hungarian hyperspectral flight campaign (21/08/2002). Parallel to the flight campaign heavy metal content of soil samples were examined from the area of the flotation sludge. The analysis of hyperspectral data was verified by the examination of mine tailing samples by FPXRF (Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry) (NITON XL-703).
Determinations of heavy metal containing minerals are based on the spectral profiles of the pixels of the area with using USGIS standard spectral profiles of the examined materials (galena, pyrite, sphalerite, goethite and jarosit).

Applying the Spectral Angle Mapper with BandMax classification the distribution of minerals (galena, pyrite, sphalerite, goethite, jarosit) in the area was defined. The mineral formation occurs especially at the levees and the barren places of the Szárazvölgyi flotation sludge reservoir. Based on the statistic results of the samples, principal component analysis and correlation coefficient between the different metal content of the samples were calculated. The highest correlations were found between Pb-Zn, Fe-Zn and between Fe-Pb. This prove the results of the principal component analysis, where usually Pb, Zn, Fe introduce the main component.

Canopy analysis was also carried out with the hyperspectal image in order to classify the differences between vegetation types at the Szárazvölgy flotation sludge reservoir and analyse the applicability of it. Supervised classification methods were used to distinguish 8 vegetation types based on the spectral properties of the area. The results of the classifications were compared to a ground truth image, based on ortophoto, topographic map, and GPS based field data collection. According to results of the comparison, the paralellpiped classification method is proved to be appropriate method based on the overall accuracy of canopy classification, which was 54% due to heterogeneity of the vegetation. 

The results of hyperspectral data and FPXRF analysis suggest that Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals have similar spatial distribution in the examined and barren area.

Based on this study hyperspectral remote sensing is likely to be an effective tool for the characterization and modeling the distribution of Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals at the examined heavy metal polluted sites. Further more, based on the vegetation analysis plant species for phytoremediation can be defined.

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Sensitivity of methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration
Published September 18, 2014
51-56

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The knowledge of the evapotranspiration of natural ecosystems and plant populations is of fundamental importance in several branches of science, research topics and practical uses. Nevertheless, the harmonization of the large number of methods and the changing user needs often causes problems. Sensitivity analysis of 10 ET0 estimation models and model variants was performed. Magnitude of the obtained outputs and the changes triggered by each atmospheric parameter were evaluated. The objective of the analyses was to get to know the sensitivity of the different models and to select the most accurate and the most suitable ones for adaptation to local circumstances. Therefore, it becomes possible to achieve as high accuracy as possible in applications which need ET0 estimation.

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Opportunities of utilization of real-time ultrasound technique in beef cattle breeding
Published December 21, 2009
45-52

The goal of the authors was to evaluate the repeatability and  accuracy of real-time ultrasound technique under Hungarian conditions. Ribeye area was measured at first time on live animals, before the day of slaughtering with Falco 100 ultrasound equipment in Charolais fattening bulls. Ultrasound pictures were traced at two times by the sa...me operator. After slaughtering, ribeye area (REA) was measured on the carcass by planimeter at the same anatomical point like ultrasound measurements. Statistical analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between carcass and ultrasound REA. After it, repeatabilty was established by comparing the ultrasound pictures twice.

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Measuring projectmanagement efficiency by Data Envelopment Analysis
Published February 17, 2015
121-124

I suppose that there is a relation between the success of EU-funded projects and the effectiveness of project management teams which implement them. To examine the accuracy of the assumption and the nature of the relationship I needed a measurement method that was suitable for measuring the effectiveness of project management teams implementing... EU funded projects in a given construction. Since Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has already been used to measure the efficiency of decision making units in other areas, it seems suitable for measuring project management effectiveness and indirectly measuring project efficiency.

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Remembrance to László Huzián (1923-1996)
Published November 10, 2010
5-11

László Huzián was a determining personality of the higher education of Hungarian crop protection more precisely that of the agricultural entomology. Training of the scientific and extension specialists of Hungarian agricultural entomology from 1960 till 1983 would have been unimaginable without him. He was the builder of the agricultural ent...omology school established by Gusztáv Adolf Manninger, the developer of the training’s essential and organisational standard, who sacrificed his life’s work for developing the crop protection. He found, characterized many pests (E.g. Scrobipalpa ocellatella, Lixus scabricollis, Tanymecus palliatus, Mesagroicus obscurus) new for the Hungarian fauna and worked out a control technology against them. It is important to mention his activity in creating the forecasting of the big field crop animal pests mainly that of the sugar beet pests. One top of his educational work was the wonderful manual „Agricultural Entomology” written with Sándor Bognár in 1979. László Szalay-Marzsó said of this book that it was impossible to write a better one. He has been right. The magnificent crop protection library and the unique richness and accuracy of the animal demonstration material (slides, pictures, preparates, showcases, etc.) established at the Gödöllő University of Agriculture can be thanked to his extraordinary systematizing mentality and tireless efforts.

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Upgrading breeding value estimation in beef cattle
Published September 5, 2018
451-458

This paper gives a summary of the possibility for applying genomic information for breeding value estimation in beef cattle breeding. This process is called genomic prediction and is now widely used in dairy cattle globally as well as in some beef and sheep populations. The advantage of genomic prediction is a more accurate estimate of the gene...tic merit of an individual at a young age thereby facilitating greater annual genetic gain, predominantly through shorter generation intervals. Genomic predictions are more advantageous for sex-linked (e.g., milk yield), low heritability (e.g., fertility) and difficult-to-measure (e.g., feed intake) traits. The larger the reference population, on average, the more accurate the genomic predictions; additionally, the closer genetically the reference population is to the candidate population, the greater the accuracy of genomic predictions. Research is continuing on strategies to generate accurate genomic predictions using a reference population consisting of multiple breeds (and crossbred). Retrospective analysis of real-life data where genomic predictions have been operation for several years clearly shows a benefit of this technology.

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New possibilities to determine wheat quality parameters by near-infrared spectroscopy
Published December 15, 2010
65-69

Analyses and methods in wheat quality determination require more sample, time, work and cost, thatswhy flour quality control needs rapid, reliable tools. Near-infrared spectroscopy has many advantages, which make it suitable in quality control. NIR instruments need calibrations to their work. In our study we examined gluten content, falling num...ber, valorigrpahic waterabsorption, alveographic P/L and W value of wheat samples. Modified partial least squares analyses on NIR spectra were developed for each property. The results show that we got such calibration modells, which are able to predict the properties (expect falling number) with enough accuracy.

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Study of factors controlling the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable Norg fraction
Published September 5, 2018
437-449
The use of new methods describing the “readily available” nutrient content of the soil is spreading on a global scale. The 0.01 M CaCl2 extractant is a dilute salt solution in which the easily soluble inorganic (nitrate-N and ammonium-N) and organic N fractions, P, K and micronutrients are also measurable. The 0.01 M CaCl2 has been tested... in the University of Debrecen, Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Sciences since the 90’s. The results of the researches related to organic N fraction, performed in the last decades, and the results of the present study (originating from the long-term experiment of Karcag, 2007–2009) can be concluded as follows:
The measurement of easily soluble and oxidizable organic nitrogen (Norg), besides inorganic fractions, could improve the nutrient management.
The amount of the Norg fraction is determined by the soil conditions, therefore it is considered to be a site-specific parameter.
Management practices and cropyear affect the amount of Norg as well. The present research confirmed that, the effect of fertilization on the amount of Norg can be explained by the changing of the yield (related to total biomass production), while the effect of cropyear is related to the differences in mineralization circumstances and yield as well.
The measurement of the Norg fraction is increases the accuracy of N-supply, therefore it could prevent the environmentally harmful excess N application as well.
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Topology in the fruit plantation
Published November 13, 2012
253-257

The localization of fruit trees, the topology of the branch structure and the spatial structure of the canopy are important to plan sitespecific agro-ecological and production technology projects in an orchard. The currently used instruments and technologies – in the precision agriculture – give opportunities to obtain these informations. T...he examinations were carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer. The collected spectral data were completed with the 3D point cloud by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner. The laser impulse data and the vegetation index values were integrated in a unified 3D system. The integration of the two special data collection system provides new opportunities in the development of precision production technology system. The results could be directly used in phytotechnology, water management, plant protection and harvesting in orchards. Our elaborated method can supply digital high spatial accuracy guidance data for development of the automated machines, which could provide some new developmental way in the immediate future.

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Identification of the Slovak traditional cheese “Parenica” microflora
Published September 5, 2018
227-239

Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher accuracy, faster time-to-results and lower costs provided by MALDI Biotyper systems compared to classical methods. In this study, the culturable population of total count of bacteria, enterococci, coliforms bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and microscopic fungi and yeasts from cow’s dairy prod...ucts was identified using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper. Altogether, 50 samples of the Slovak cheese “Parenica” were examined. Total numbers of bacteria were cultured on Plate count agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; enterococci were cultured on Enterococcus selective agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; coliforms bacteria were cultured on Violet Red Bile lactose agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically. The LAB were cultured on MRS (Main Rogosa agar), MSE and APT agar at 30 °C in microaerophilic conditions. The microscopic fungi and yeasts were cultured on Malt extract agar at 25 °C for 5 days, aerobically. Isolated strains (total 669) were subjected to identification by the MALDI-TOF MS. Among total count the identified bacteria mostly were Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus warneri. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant coliform bacteria representatives identified. Coliform bacteria included Citrobacter, Hafnia and Klebsiella. Altogether three genera belonged to the LAB – Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc were identified with Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. fructivorans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were considered as the dominated LAB species in dairy products. Among yeasts, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida zeylanoides and Yarrowia lipolytica were among the most isolated.

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Development of precision apple production technologies in Institute of Water and Environmental Management
Published July 18, 2012
97-101

From the precision agriculture point of view, by the rapid development of the investigated technological elements – global positioning system (GPS), remote sensing (RS), global information system (GIS) – the number of services, which were not available in the past, because of their speed, complexity or price are increasing. The high accurac...y high-tech instruments provide opportunity to elaborate several fruit production technologies, which aim is creating and operating water and energy safe quality fruit production systems. To evaluate these possibilities, experience was carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer, and a ScanStation C10 laser scanner by Leica. The results show the absolute applicability of these equipments in precision horticulture.

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Evaluation of dry matter accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published June 30, 2018
35-41

The increase of the grain yield of maize is closely correlated with its seasonal dry matter accumulation. Dry matter is accumulated into the grain yield during the grain filling period. The following maize hybrids were involved in the experiment: Armagnac FAO 490, Loupiac FAO 380 and Sushi FAO 340. In order to determine dry matter content, two ...samples per week were taken on the following days: 22nd, 25th, 28th, 31st August, 4th, 7th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th September and 2nd, 6th, 9th, 13th October. In the course of sampling the weight of 100 grains from the middle section of 4 ears was measured in 4 replications. Dry matter content was determined after drying to constant weight in a drying cabinet at 60 °C. Harvesting was performed on 13th October 2017.

The daily precipitation sum was determined by local measurements, while the daily radiation and temperature data were provided by the Meteorological Observatory Debrecen of the National Meteorological Service in Budapest. Among the agrometeorological parameters, an analysis was made of the precipitation during the growing season, effective heat sums during the vegetative and generative phase, and the water supplies. The daily heat sums were determined using the algorithm proposed.

The amount of precipitation in the winter period before the 2017 growing season was 210 mm. The soil was saturated until its field capacity. The rather dry and warm March and April had a favourable effect, but there was no worthy amount of precipitation until May (51 mm) due to the condition of the dried seedbed. Sowing was performed on the 5th of May 2017 in a randomised small plot experiment. There was favourable precipitation and temperature during the growing season, thereby providing ideal conditions for maize development, growth and yield formation. There was near average amount of precipitation in each year. The total amount of precipitation in the summer period is 342 mm. Temperature was mostly above the average, but there was no long and extremely warm period.

The Armagnac hybrid reached its highest dry matter mass 126 days after emergence. Physiological maturity was reached sooner (on the 119th day) in the case of Loupiac, and even sooner in the case of Sushi (116th day). The thousand grain weight of Sushi (which has the shortest ripening period) was 286 g at the time of physiological maturity, while that of Loupiac was 311 g. Compared to Sushi, Armagnac showed 12 g more dry matter accumulation (306 g). In the case of all three examined hybrids, physiological maturity was preceded by an intensive phase, when the dynamics of dry matter accumulation was rather quick. On average, Sushi gained 2.8 g dry matter per day between 103 days following emergence and physiological maturity, while the same values were 3.2 g for Armagnac and 3.3 g for Loupiac. The aim of the regression line slope is to predict the behavior of the dependent variable with the knowledge of the values and characteristics of the independent variables using the regression line equation. Furthermore, to determine how the location affected the dynamic of dry matter accumulation in the Armagnac, Loupiac and Sushi hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97%, in the Loupiac 94%, in the Sushi 90 %. The determination coefficient (R2) is useful in determing how the regression equation fits. But, as we have seen, the determination coefficient alone is not sufficient to verify the model’s accuracy, in addition to the determination coefficient (R2), the normality of the data or the residuals, the variance of the variables at different levels, the independence of the data relative to time and non-oblique. Observations are evaluated for the correctness of the fitted model.

Dry matter values decreased evenly and slightly following physiological maturity. According to our research results, it was established that physiological maturity is followed by a moderate dry matter loss. Until harvesting, Armagnac lost 40 g of its thousand mass weight in 29 days, while the same value pairs were 69 g in 36 days for Loupiac and 29 g in 39 days for Sushi. Loupiac – which had the highest weight at the time of physiological maturity – lost the most of its dry weight; therefore, Armagnac and Sushi had higher values at the time of harvesting.

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