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  • Growth and clorophyll content dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in different cropyear
    101-105
    Views:
    107

    The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment in the season of 2011 and 2012 in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at three fertilisation levels (control, N50+P35K40, N150+P105K120). Two different cropyears were compared (2011 and 2012).

    The research focused on the effects of forecrop and fertilisation on the Leaf Area Index, SPAD values and the amount of yield in two different cropyears. We wanted to find out how the examined parameters were affected by the cropyear and what the relationship was between these two parameters and the changes of the amount of yield.

    Examining the effects of growing doses of fertilizers applied, results showed that yields increased significantly in both rotations until the N150+PK level in 2011 and 2012. By comparing the two years, results show that in 2011 there was a greater difference in yields between the rotations (7742 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the biculture and 9830 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the triculture). Though wheat yields following peas were greater in 2012, results equalized later on at N150+PK levels (8109–8203 kg ha-1).

    Due to the favorable agrotechnical factors, the leaf and the effects of the treatments grown to a great extent in 2011, while in 2012 the differences between treatments were moderate. Until the N150+PK level, nitrogen fertilisation had a notable effect on the maximum amount of SPAD values (59.1 in the case of the biculture and 54.0 in the triculture). The highest SPAD values were measured at the end of May (during the time of flowering and grain filling) in the biculture. In the triculture, showed high SPAD values from the beginning. The same tendency could be observed in the 2012 cropyear, although increasing doses of fertilizers resulted in higher SPAD values until N150+PK level only from the second measurement. Maximum SPAD values were reached at the end of May in both crop rotation system

  • Study of plant physiological parameters in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. napus f. biennis L.) production on chernozem soil
    111-115
    Views:
    190

    We made plant physiology examinations in Arkaso winter oilseed rape hybrid substance: relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. The experiment was set in University of Debrecen Agricultural Sciences Center at Látóképi Experimental Station in four replications, in two different sowing times (I. sowing date on 08/22/2014 and II. sowing date on 09/09/2014 sowing againhappened because of the incomplete germination in the second subtance 01/10/2014) Three different plant density 200, 350 and 500 thousand ha-1, under the same nutrient supply, 45 cm row spacing. The experiment was green crop of winter wheat. The relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements were made in seven different times. We measured the maximum value of chlorophyll content in the first sowing time at 500, and the second sowing time at 350 thousand ha-1 plant density. The measurement results proved that there was a linear relationship between the number of plants and the LAI. The maximum leaf area index values we measured in both the sowing time at 500 thousand ha-1 reached.

  • Response of maize seedlings to the latent zinc deficiency under different Fe/Zn rati
    125-128
    Views:
    92

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a critical nutritional problem for plants and peoples all over the world. Almost half of the world’s cereal crops are deficient in Zn, leading to poor crop yield. In this study, the effect of different Fe/Zn ratio on some physiological parameters of maize seedlings were investigated on the dry matter of shoots and roots and their ratio, SPAD index and the total length of shoots. The relative chlorophyll contents significantly decreased under increasing Fe given to the Zn deficient. The results showed that the different Fe/Zn supplies decreased the total length of shoots - ranging from 9% to 65% - by latent Zn deficiency. Corresponding to several scientific findings, it was observed that the non-optimal Fe/Zn ratio of tissues take part in the evolution of latent Zn deficiency in the case of high Fe concentration.

  • Seasonal changes of photosynthetical parameters as a results of forest gap model
    133-136
    Views:
    137

    Photosynthetic parameters of English oak (Quercus robur L.) as a member of Querco robori-Carpinetum were investigated in two different habitat in terms of gap forest management: in the gap and in the host forest. The artifical opening process of the forest resulted in more light for growing saplings and need for acclimatization. Photosynthesis is one of the most important way for plant life and plant production. In the centre of photosynthetic efficiency the quality and quantity traits of photosynthetic pigments are standing. During our work some photosynthetic parameters of plants (in the gap and in the forest as well) were measured: relative chlorophyll content as SPAD index, chlorophyll a and b content, total chlorophyll content and ratio of chlorophyll a and b. Based on our results no significant differences among our data in early spring. Although, during the summer significant differences occurred between the measured values in the gap and in the forest area. Lower total chlorophyll content was experienced in the gap, than in the forest area due to the lower chlorophyll-b content. Because of the high light intensity higher chla/chlb ratio was measured in the gap. The lower chlorophyll contents of gap habitat may have a part of the acclimatization process of photosynthetic apparatus against high light stress, which can determinate the survival chance of individual.

  • The effect of water supply and crop year on the yield potential of sweet maize (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) hybrids with different genotypes
    203-210
    Views:
    166

    The successfulness of crop production is significantly affected by not only the the average yields that provide cost effectiveness, but also the success of striving for yield safety, therefore, varieties and hybrids tolerant to environmental stress factors are worth being included into the sowing structure. Our aim was to further the decision making of producers in prepaering the right sowing structure by the evaluation of sweet maize hybrids’ tolerance to excess rainfall.
    We performed our examinations in an extremely wet year (2010) on chernozem soil on three sweet maize hybrids (GSS 8529, GSS 1477, Overland) in 12 replications. Comparing the yields of 2010 with those that can be expected under optimal rainfall conditions, we showed that the examined hybrids react to the amount of rainfall higher than their needs with yield depression. The excess rainfall tolerance of the examined hybrids is different in the case of each hybrid.

  • The effect of drought and cropping system on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.)
    51-53
    Views:
    123

    Different Cropping Systems have many advantages and ensure better crop growth and yielding. Its combination with other agronomic measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximum crop growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems on monoculture and biculture rotations [maize- wheat]. The study found that crop rotation does not have a significant effect on the grain nutrition quality, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) but has a significant effect on the Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD). Yield and yield components were significantly influenced by crop rotation in this study as yield, plant height, cob weight and number of grains per row all recorded lower mean at 5% probability levels.

  • Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment
    147-151
    Views:
    126

    The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The wheat variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
    The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
    significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
    not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

  • Relationships between nutrientsupply, genotype and some physiological properties of winter wheat
    141-145
    Views:
    134

    The chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) of three winter wheat varieties have been investigated on a chernozem soil. Three winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Pannonikus and Genius) in three different nutrient-supply levels have been involved in our experiment in the crop-year of 2010/2011. The investigated physiological properties have been set against to the yield results. Upon the results of this comparison it has been stated that there is a close relationship between the investigated physiological properties and yield averages. The SPAD-values showed a growing tendency parallel to the growth of the nutrient-supply levels. The varieties have the highest SPAD-values at the nutri ent-level of N120+PK. Compared to the yield averages we have stated that varieties that have higher SPAD-values have realized higher yields as well. Higher nutrient dosages have increased in the leaf area. In case of all the three varieties the highest LAI-values were measured at the flowering stage (23. 05.) in the treatment whit N120+PK. Varieties with higher leaf area have produced higher yields as well. Parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels the value of leaf area duration increased as well. We measured the highest LAD-values in the treatment of N120+PK nutrient-level. By the LAD-values it can be stated that more durable and larger leaf area has been produced in the flowering and ripening phenophases, due to the higher nutrient-dosages. Analysing the relationships between the results it can be stated that there is a strong positive relationship between fertilizer treatments and SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values. The genotype showed a strong positive correlation to SPAD-values. Yield averages showed strong positive correlation to SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values as well.

  • Comparative analysis on the fertiliser responses of Martonvásár maize hybrids in long-term experiments
    111-117
    Views:
    78

    The results of experiments carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences clearly show that in the case of hybrids grown in a monoculture greater fertiliser responses can be achieved with increasing rates of N fertiliser than in crop rotations. In the monoculture experiment the parameters investigated reached their maximum values at a rate of 240 kg/ha N fertiliser, with the exception of 1000-kernel mass and starch content. In both cases the starch content was highest in the untreated control, gradually declining as the N rates increased. Among the parameters recorded in the crop rotation, the values of the dry grain yield, the 1000-kernel mass, the protein yield and the starch yield were greatest at the 160 kg/ha N fertiliser rate, exhibiting a decrease at 240 kg/ha. Maximum values for the protein content and SPAD index were recorded at the highest N rate. It is important to note, however, that although the N treatments caused significant differences compared to the untreated control, the differences between the N treatments were not significant.
    In the given experimental year the values achieved for the untreated control in the crop rotation could only be achieved in the monoculture experiment at a fertiliser rate of 160 kg/ha N, indicating that N fertiliser rates could be reduced using a satisfactory crop sequence, which could be beneficial from the point of view of environmental pollution, crop protection and cost reduction.
    The weather in 2006 was favourable for maize production, allowing comparative analysis to be made of the genetically determined traits of the hybrids. Among the three hybrids grown in the monoculture experiment, Maraton produced the best yield, giving maximum values of the parameters tested at a fertiliser rate of 240 kg/ha N. The poorest results were recorded for Mv 277, which could be attributed to the fact that the hybrid belongs to the FAO 200 maturity group, while the other hybrids had higher FAO numbers. Maraton also gave the highest yields in the crop rotation experiment at the 160 kg/ha N level. All three hybrids were found to make excellent use of the natural nutrient content of the soil.
    It was proved that the protein content of maize hybrids can only be slightly improved by N fertilisation, as this trait is genetically coded, while the starch content depends to the greatest extent on the ecological factors experienced during the growing season.

  • Integrated nutrient supply and varietal difference influence grain yield and yield related physio-morphological traits of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) varieties under drought condition
    111-121
    Views:
    109

    The ever-growing world population entails an improvement in durum wheat grain yield to ensure an adequate food supply, which often gets impaired by several biotic and abiotic factors. Integrated nutrient management, such as nitrogen rate × foliar zinc × sulphur fertilization combined with durum wheat varieties were investigated in order to examine the dynamics of yield and yield related physio-morphological traits under drought conditions. The four durum wheat varieties, three-level of nutrient supply (i.e. control, sulphur, and zinc), and two nitrogen regimes (i.e. zero and 60 kg ha−1) were arranged in split-split plot design with three replications. Zinc and sulphur were applied as foliar fertilisation during the flag leaf stage, both at a rate of 3 and 4 liters ha-1, respectively. Results showed existence of genetic variability for grain yield, plant height, NDVI, SPAD and spike density. Foliar based application of zinc and sulphur at the latter stage improved the plant height. Nitrogen fertilized varieties with lower spike numbers showed to better yield formation. Co-fertilization of nitrogen and zinc improved grain yield of responsive varieties like Duragold by about 21.3%. Spikes per m2 were statistically insignificant for grain yield improvement. It could be inferred that the observed positive effect of sulphur, nitrogen and zinc application on physio-morphology and yield formation substantiates the need to include these essential nutrients in the cultivation system of durum wheat.

  • Sewage sludge compost as an alternative source of phosphorus to rye in acidic sandy soil
    11-18
    Views:
    40

    Today, the use of chemical fertilisers is significantly determined by their production and purchase costs, which are high. In contrast, phosphorus (P) is present in sewage sludge in a form that is easy for plants to absorb. Good quality sewage sludge compost (SSC) could contain a high quantity of P, together with other macro- and microelements and organic matter. The effect of regular SSC application on soil characteristics as well as plant parameters has been studied since 2003 in Nyíregyháza in a small plot experiment. Focusing on the P in the soil-plant system, our hypothesis was that SSC covers plants’ P demand through enhancing soil P content and its plant availability in the acidic sandy soil. The effect of the SSC was examined at the doses of 0, 9, 18, and 27 t ha-1 on rye as a test crop. Some soil chemical parameters (pH, soil organic matter - SOM, ammonium lactate (AL) extractable P2O5), and the relationship between plant development (green weight, shoot length), physiological parameters (SPAD index), plant shoot P content, and soil available P content were studied. The obtained data indicated that the SOM content, pH, and available P content of the treated plots increased as a result of the long-term applied SSC compared to the control. Measurement of the relative chlorophyll content showed a strong correlation with the available P content of the soil, but surprisingly less correlation with shoot P content was found. The results of plant biomass and soil P content proved that SSC could be used as a low-cost and good source of P for plants.