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Inner pelvic measurements in dairy breeds
Published December 16, 2012
51-56

Dystocia causes great financial losses: due to dystocia milk production is decreased and the probability of calf loss is increased. There are many factors that may cause dystocia. One of the factors –often investigated in beef cattle- is pelvic measurements. There have not been inner pelvic measurement comparisons in dairy breeds in Hungary.&...nbsp;
After comparing the imported, primiparous cows, Jersey turned out to have the smallest absolute inner pelvic measures. According to their age and weight, Brown Swiss cows had the largest pelvic dimensions. Ayrshires, Norwegian and Swedish Red, the three dairy breeds which share similar genetic background did not differ in most measures. Holsteins were closest to the seemingly ideal 1:1 horizontal and vertical diameter ratio; however this breed suffers the most from dystocia. Jerseys, despite having the smallest pelvic area are famous of their calving ease, perhaps not by coincidence. Though this dairy breed is the lightest, when pelvic area was compared in ratio of body weight Jerseys were not smaller than the 130 and 114 kg heavier Norwegian and Swedish Red cows.

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Examination of repeatability of ultrasound scanning technique in young bulls
Published November 24, 2008
43-48

The author’s goal with the methodology examination was to determine repeatability of taking and evaluating ultrasound images. In the trial an operator person took two images about the ribeye area and rump fat thickness (P8) of every young bull, which were measured by the same person in four repetitions. Also, we had altogether eight images ab...out the same part of the body. Images were collected using Falco 100 (Pie Medical) real-time ultrasonic scanner equipped with an ASP 3,5 MHz, 18 cm linear array transducer.

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Additional data for the evaluation of coat colour varieties in the Hungarian Grey cattle
Published July 16, 2007
44-47

When preserving genetic resources, one of the most important tasks is to conserve as much of the given gene pool for the future generations as we can. Therefore, traits that have no economic value at the moment should also be conserved. The great variety of coat colours seen in the Hungarian Grey cattle form part of the world’s genetic herita...ge. In order to maintain the world’s genetic diversity, we have to maintain these varieties, as well. The different coat colour varieties were determined – in both sexes and in several age groups – with a Minolta Chromameter CR-410 in an objective way. We found that the rate of the three main coat colour varieties of calves: the light reddish, the reddish and the dark reddish were 26%, 52% and 22%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between the L*a*b* values of the reddish coat colour of the Hungarian Grey and the red coat colour of the Limousin calves. The rate of the crane, the grey and the light grey coat colour varieties were determined in the measured female groups. The L*a*b* values of the Hungarian Grey and Maremman bulls’ coat were compared and evaluated.

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Analysis of longevity in Holstein Friesian cattle using proteomic approaches
Published July 31, 2012
21-25

The aim of the present study was to determine marker proteins those are associated with functional longevity of dairy cattle. Holstein-Friesian cows were grouped based on their performance as follows: group 1) individuals with good longevity traits; group 2) short production life because of poor reproduction traits; group 3) short production li...fe with low milk yield. Twelve individuals were sampled in each group, blood and milk samples were collected from cows. Blood samples were analysed with two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLCMS/MS. The milk samples were analysed with MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-MS/MS. Using the optimized gel based proteomic approach,
we have succesfully separated 143 proteins in the group1, 139 proteins in the group2 and 136 proteins in the group3, but we could not find significant differences between groups in the expression pattern. Using MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-IonTrap MS, we have found eleven protein sequences those were expressed only in the samples of good longevity group.

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Horn and coat color varieties of the Hungarian grey cattle
Published May 23, 2006
44-48

Due to the intensification of agricultural production, genetic diversity has been reduced to a large extent. Presently, in the period of worldwide genetic conservation, we try to preserve as much of the gene pool of our valuable indigenous domestic animal breeds as we can. Therefore, traits that have no economic value at the moment should also ...be conserved. The different horn and coat colour varieties of Hungarian Grey Cattle are such valuable traits. Research has been done on the largest Hungarian Grey Cattle stock, at the Hortobágy Kht. Rates of the different horn and coat colour varieties were determined and relationships were analyzed between the above mentioned qualitative traits

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Analysis of vitamin E content in pilot dairy products
Published December 16, 2012
31-34

Within the framework of Ányos Jedlik program we started an experiment on feeding anti-oxidants with dairy cows at Körös-Maros Biofarm Kft. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether vitamin E and selenium fed as feed-supplement have an effect on the composition of milk produced. Furthermore we examined the cheese and yoghurt made out ...of the milk to explore how much vitamin E and selenium is retained in the products after processing. Our goal is to develop such functional dairy product which can be part of the daily diet helping us to remain healthy.
After analyzing the data we found out that the anti-oxidant fed to the cows resulted in elevated vitamin E and selenium levels in the milk and that these were retained in the cheese and yoghurt in relatively large amount.

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Inner pelvic measurements in dairy breeds
Published November 20, 2011
31-35

Dystocia causes great financial losses: due to dystocia milk production is decreased and the probability of calf loss is increased. There are many factors that may cause dystocia. One of the factors –often investigated in beef cattle- is pelvic measurements. There have not been inner pelvic measurement comparisons done on dairy breeds in Hung...ary.
After comparing the imported, primiparous cows, Jerseys turned out to have the smallest absolute inner pelvic measures. According to their age and weight, Brown Swiss cows had the largest pelvic dimensions. Ayrshire, Norwegian and Swedish Red, the three dairy breeds which share similar genetic background did not differ in most measures. Holsteins were closest to the apparent ideal 1:1 horizontal and vertical diameter ratio; however, this breed suffers the most from dystocia. Jerseys, despite having the smallest pelvic area are famous of their calving ease, perhaps not by coincidence. Although this dairy breed is the lightest, when the pelvic area was compared in ratio of body weight Jerseys were not smaller than the 130 and 114 kg heavier Norwegian and Swedish Red cows.

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Comparative analysis of Staphylococcus aureus strains by molecular microbiology methods
Published July 16, 2007
34-39

Staphylococcus aureus is a very important pathogen for dairy farms and milk processing plants. Subclinical mastitis is often caused by this species, and it can contaminate bulk tank milk when milking cows are suffering from mastitis. Additionally, thermostable enterotoxins (SE) produced by some types of this bacterium can cause food poisoning.<...br>The aim of our research was to examine the number of S. aureus in bulk tank milk in two dairy farms and the enterotoxin-producing ability, genetic relation (pulsotype) and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains from different sources (bulk tank milk, udder quarter milk and environment).
The results show that the mean number of S. aureus of bulk tank milk of two farms significantly differed (P<0.05). Fourteen isolates were selected for further molecular genetic studies (five isolates were from bulk tank milk and nine isolates were from udder quarter milk). S. aureus was not recovered from the environmental samples. Three of the fourteen isolates (21.4%) tested by multiplex PCR were positive for SE genes. Two isolates carried one gene (seb) and one isolate carried two genes (seg and sei). The fourteen strains were classified into three pulsotypes and two subtypes at 86% similarity level. Isolates from bulk tank milk (n=5), were divided into 2 pulsotypes (A, C) and one subtype (C1). The isolates from udder quarter milk (n=9) belonged to three different pulsotypes (A, B, C) and two subtypes (A1, C1). The distribution of pulsotypes in the present study revealed genetic relationship between S. aureus isolated from udder quarter milk and bulk tank milk. This could be explained by the fact that in farms with a high number of infected cows, these cows could represent the main source of contamination. The results of the antibiotic resistance investigations show, that all strains were susceptible to methicillin, cefoxitin, lincomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Thirteen out of fourteen strains were resistant to penicillin (A and C pulsotypes, A1 and C1 subtypes) and just one isolate was susceptible (B pulsotype) to all antibiotics tested.

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The effect of breed and stage of lactation on the microbiological status of raw milk
Published May 23, 2019
37-45

The microbiological quality of the milk is important not only for food safety, but it can also influence the quality of dairy products. The microbiological status of raw cow milk can be influenced by many factors. Our aim was to determine whether there was a difference between the microbiological quality of milk of two different cow breeds (Hol...stein Friesian and Jersey) kept and milked in the same conditions, and how the microbiological quality of the raw cow milk changed during lactation (beginning, mid, and end). Samples were taken and analysed in July, August and September in 2018 from two dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar county. During the conducted studies, the total plate count (TPC), the coliform count, the Staphylococcus aureus count and the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) count of raw milk samples were determined.

There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the milk of the Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds in the case of TPC. However, the mean coliform count of milk samples taken from Holstein Friesian cows was significantly lower (P<0.05) than the mean coliform count of milk samples taken from Jersey cows. S. aureus was detected in one of the twelve milk samples taken from Holstein Friesian cows, and in two of the eleven milk samples taken from Jersey cows. CNS was found in larger amount in milk samples taken from Holstein Friesian cows, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Both TPC and CNS count were significantly higher (P<0.05) in individual milk samples taken at the end stage of lactation, than in samples taken in the earlier stages of lactation from Farm “A”. However, in the case of Farm “B”, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in colony counts at different stages of lactation. S. aureus was only present in milk samples that collected from cows, which were at the beginning and middle stages of lactation. Testimg the hemolysin production ability of S. aureus strains isolated from the raw milk samples, only weak hemolysis was observed on blood agar. In case of antibiotic resistance testing, it was found that all strains were susceptible to cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin G, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole.

Based on the results of our studies, staphylococci were detected in a higher amount in the milk of Holstein Friesian cows, and coliform bacteria were detected in a higher number in the milk of Jersey cows. Summing up the results of the milk samples taken from the different stages of lactation in one of the farms, it can be concluded that higher TPC and CNS count could be detected at the end stage of lactation than in the samples taken from the earlier stages of lactation. The fact that at the end of lactation the microorganisms could be detected in a higher colony count may be related to the fact that teats could be damaged during lactation by the milking machine, which increased the chance of imvading the microorganisms into the udder.

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