No 2 (2001)

Published September 7, 2001



Morphological and leaf anatomical studies on Cleistogenes Serotina (L.) Keng (Poaceae)

The grass species Cleistogenes serotina (L.) Keng, generally found in the mountainous region in Hungary, has been observed in the lowlands of the Great Hungarian Plain in the last few decades. Since its first recent mention in sand habitat as well it, has been found in several locations in the interfluve between the Danube and the Tisza. In cer...tain, sandy grasslands, the invasion of this species is considerable (e.g. near Fülöpháza the area invaded by Cleistogenes increased almost fourfold within six years). The success of invasion on new habitats is related to changes in the
characteristics of plants comparatively studied on mountain and sand populations.
We studied blades of leaves on different levels (1st, 5th and 10th) and from different biotops. Cuttings were made, with a thickness of 10-12 μm, at the middle of the blades. The cross sections were observed using a light microscope. Digitised images (DigitPlan) and survey data were arranged into a database.
The leaf structure is characterised by the kranz anatomy, and a double layered bundle sheath, which is typical of the aspartate type of C4 grasses. There were significant differences only in cross section area and the number of bundles for various ages of the leaves. There were more bundles in the older leaves than in the younger ones. We did not find any difference in the ratio of tissues among leaves of different ages and sources. According to our study, the ratio of leaf tissues characteristic to species was neither significantly influenced by the biotop, nor by the age of the leaves. However, there is a difference in tissues size. Summarising the results, the species can be considered „only” as ecotypes on the
different studied areas. 
Our new result is that kranz anatomy can also be found in the leaf-sheath.
This research was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Fund (OTKA), grant No. T016511 and T026346.

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Application of time series in medical research

This article reviews the mortality data of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, as well as tracheal, bronchial and lung cancers, in Hungary by methods of time series analysis. The methods of time series of death rates of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis as well as tracheal, bronchial and lung cancers and their reliability, are analysed from available from WHO. The author used ARIMA models (autoregressive and integrated moving average models) and auto- and cross-correlation functions to study the substantial role an exogenous environmental factor has on incidences of
death. The confidence intervals of autoregressive (AR) coefficient are compared to the standard normal distribution, the estimation of White’s theory and the continuous time estimation model.
On the basis of the analysis, it may be concluded that chronic liver disease and cirrhosis can be influenced by an exogenous environmental factor, however, this relation cannot be demonstrated for deaths due to tracheal, bronchial or lung cancers. In each case, the continuous estimation of the AR(1) coefficients give the best results.
The paper demonstrates how the presented methods can be applied to agricultural science.

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Education and language teaching in the light of recent social and economic needs

This paper attempts to describe several general educational potentials that are assumed to facilitate adequate pedagogical response to the recent economic and social paradigm shifts that have resulted in marked changes in the requirements for the labour force on the global job market.
The article describes the most powerful pedagogical trend...s of the 20th century, selectively concentrating on the assessment of their contribution to and share in the preparation of the inevitably forthcoming paradigm shift in education.
Topic related issues of language teaching in an academic setting are then discussed, focusing particularily on English for Specific Purposes, followed by a more thorough analysis of the major types of ESP syllabi. This analysis attempts to identify those properties that empower ESP teaching to give a more sophisticated answer (as compared to general language teaching) to issues raised by the appearance of new trends and needs in the
global job market. 
The paper offers conclusions for consideration as to the responsibility of language teachers and strategy makers in higher education, acting in an intercultural environment.

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Testing disease resistance in autumn wheat genotypes by means of field experiments

According to our scientific results we can state that we have to use integrated pesticides management in crop protection against the diseases of winter wheat. One of the most important elements of IPM is to select a genotype characterised by good resistance to diseases (and by high yield ability and excellent baking quality). It is especially i...mportant that the wheat variety have tolerance against not only to one or two leaf and spike (grain) diseases, but „complex” tolerance. It is not necessary to give up the growing of a variety which has susceptibility to different diseases because we can protect it using appropriate chemical management. In the intensive growing stage of wheat (BBCH 32-37) we can use a noncompulsary fungicide-treatment (depending on e. g. the infection, ecological conditions) and, at the beginning of the flowering stage
(BBCH 59-65), we have to use a compulsary fungicide-treatment (in spite of e. g. special weather conditions, resistance genotype)to ensure high yield and good quality.

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Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops

The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil...s water management characteristics.
The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
• Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
• The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
• From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
• The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
• The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
• The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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Evaluation of long term experiments from a new aspect

During our work, we developed a new, simple method to show the effects of fertilization on yield, which can both be applied over the long term as well as in series of independent experiments.
During the testing of this method, at the experimental farm of the Debrecen University Center for Agricultural Sciences at Látókép on a chernozem with lime deposits, we examined the fertilizer reaction of maize hybrids between 1989 and 1994. The treatments were: winter tillage, plant density of 70-80 thousand, unfertilized, N 120, N 240 kg/ha fertilized treatments, long term experiments using Dekalb 524 and Volga SC hybrids in long term experiments.
Four parameters are shown in the model. In the examined period TRmax represents the greatest yield in the fertilized treatments, NT the yield in unfertilized treatment, k the „efficiency of fertilizer” to NT and b the depression-coefficient, where the expected value is zero. The expected grain yield of the fertilized treatments (Y), in the function of the unfertilized grain yield (x) is the following:

The parameters were determined using the Monte Carlo method, in the optimizing process the sum of deviation square was minimized. The correct conformation of the functions was determined by the greatness of the R-value and the standard error. We found that during six years of testing, the tendency of fertilization efficiency was similar in the case of both hybrids. There was an unfavorable weather interval and, in these years, the yields were low, fertilization did not have an effect and moreover, in extremely bad conditions resulted in an obvious yield decrease. With the  improvement of conditions, which in the case of our country means an increase in precipitation, the efficiency of fertilization increases and reaches its peak at 13-14 t/ha. At this point, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is 4-4,5 t/ha. If the yield of the unfertilized treatments increases from 8-9 t/ha, then the efficiency of the applied fertilizer decreases.
Most likely, the k and b parameters depend on the soil of the experimental location (nutrient and water management) and on the amount of  pplied fertilizer and the characteristics of the  hybrid. With the increase of fertilizer dosage the k-parameter also increases. The greater value though does not obviously mean a more favorable situation. It is true that in medium and good years this means great fertilizer efficiency, but in low or extreme precipitation conditions it also means greater risk. With the increase of the k-parameter, the yield deviation also increases which, from a cultivation point of view, is quite unfavorable. If the value of the b-parameter is other than, zero then the effect is clearly unfavorable, because with the increase of this value, the yield decrease is also greater. The fertilizer reaction of the two examined hybrids can be well characterized by these two hybrids.
Examining the six years, our created model estimated the effect of fertilization on the yield accurately and with a high degree of safety. Both in highly unfavorable and extremely good years, it gave an exact estimate. In our opinion, it can be used well to evaluate the effects of fertilization on yield in the future.

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Studies on yield stability in autumn wheat species

The environmental adaptability of crop production is basically determined by the selection of biological background (plant species and varieties) suitable for the region and the site. The sowing structure adapted to the ecological background increases the yield and decreases the yield fluctuation caused natural effects. Exact long-term trials essential to develop variety structure of winter wheat production suitable for the given ecological conditions. We have examined the productivity and yield stability of genetically different state registered winter wheat varieties. We have compared the varieties’ yield results in plot trials, at similar agrotechnical conditions, in different cropyears. We have examined the absolute and relative (compared to the mean of varieties) yield of winter wheat varieties. We have valued the yield stability of genotypes with the help of analysis of variance and linear regression equations. We have defined the connection between productivity and yield stability of varieties. We have pointed out the varieties with good productivity and yield stability in given agroecological conditions.
According to the results of our examinations the developing of variety structure suitable for the agroecological conditions could increase the potential and effective yield level of wheat production.

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Data supporting the quality of sheep milk for processing

Although the volume of ingredients in ewe’s milk is substantially higher than in cow’s milk, its hygienic quality is lower. The weak quality of raw ewe’s milk limits the possibilities of processing and results in bad quality products. In our investigation we analysed the state of ewe’s milk processing at a typical medium size dairy firm.... We investigated the collection, the amount and the quality of milk and the level of ingredients in milk throughout the purchasing period (lactation period).
The purchasing of ewe’s milk was limited to 5 months (from April to September). Although meat (lamb) provides the major source of income to sheep breeders the extension of the period of ewe’s milk production can be beneficial to shepherds and dairy firms. The amount of ewe’s milk ingredients found corresponded to published findings. However, the hygienic quality of ewe’s milk was varied greatly in the different milk samples and these deviations meant bad quality on average. Physiological factors, the circumstances of sheep breeding and milking, the slow cooling of the milk, the little amount of daily milk and the long storage before transportation to the dairy firm together cause poor hygienic quality. The main problem is the long storage time of milk, but our results raise the question of reconsidering the quality classes. Investigating the effect of the hygienic quality of raw milk on product quality, we can get correct data that can be really authoritative.

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Analysis of integrated, quality and environment focused management practices in the Forage Industry Ltd, Bábolna

The significance of the effect of agricultural activities on the environment was focused on later than that of industry; however, today, an increasing number of companies using an environmental management system (EMS) has been registered in this sector, too. In the agricultural sector, EMS according to ISO 14001 was introduced first in the industry by Bábolna Takarmányipari Kft. In our study, we analyze the environmental management system integrated into the quality system of this company and discuss the effects on the organization and the economic issues. As a result of the EMS, emissions have been reduced effectively, and both the responsibility system and technology have become more controlled. The company chose to develop its environmental performance continuously, which is proved to have been performed successfully, considering its limited, one-year experience.

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Financial interrelationships of public warehousing

In my paper I examined the institutional and market connections warehouses use emphasising the role of financial institutions. I stressed that for the proper functioning of a warehouse the mutual trust of the economic participants is required. This presupposes a tight relationship between warehouses and banks, as banks have to accept warehouse ...warrants in such a manner that the credit suppliant can more readily access current assets credit.
Today, we can say that the moneylender bank is strongly confident about deals involving warehouse credit. The amount of goods stored in warehouses is increasing. Warehouse deals offer better conditions to depositors, which can be explained by the fact that the creditor does not examine the management and credit standing of the depositor. Most important for them is that the goods provide enough collateral to ensure marketability, and that the warehouse storage conditions are proper. On the other hand, with the support of an interest subsidy system credit is obtainable at very auspicious conditions. To top it all off, and this is the most important aspect participants can receive access to funds unavailable to them in any other case.

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Economic issues of crop based ethanol production for energetic uses

The United States Congress passed the “Clean Air Act” in 1990, which targeted the creation and use of so-called “green fuel”. This Act came into full force on January 7, 1995. Its essence is that an oxygen rich component is added to fuel by which it burns more cleanly and harmful emissions of vehicles are reduced by 25%. This oxygen ric...h component is basically ethanol and its ether ETBE, made of domestically produced grains.
America’s traditional grain exporter status could be converted into a stabile income resource during production, many more valuable by-products – should this program succeed – are also produced, giving the opportunity for further utilisation either in the foods or form feeds industries, or as export products.
Ethanol or ETBE production is also important to replace fuel imports from any specific country, the additive which is necessary for producing the fuel is the imported product MTBE.
This programme therefore simultaneously assisted in environmental protection, agricultural and foreign trading issues as well as some market regulation issues. At the same time, based on grain production, it has an effect on the social strata by creating new jobs, especially in those areas which can be considered in recession due to the lack of any large-scale industrial cities.
In the future, the European Union should carry out this project and it will affect Hungary, as well.

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Income and cash flow in some agricultural enterprises of Hajdu-Bihar county on the basis of data in 1997-98

The income of agricultural enterprises varies greatly according to the type of agricultural production. The available data was classified and averaged on the basis of the form of association.
Although the management of the examined enterprises ensured a profit, closer analysis of their cash flows reveals that, at least in some cases, expense...s were not always coverable, despite income. In all forms of association major emphasis was put on improvement and support investments. It is highly probable that later on these investments will result in an increasing income level and profit. The situation is the most advantageous in the case of co-operatives, as the cash flow of the second examined year originated from regular activity could cover the cash flow of investments and financing. In the case of limited liability and shareholder companies the above is not true, but advantageous changes occur there too. Unfortunately, in most cases the role of loans is very important in the operation of the company. As far as favourable aspects are concerned it can be stated that credit repayment covered by the regular activity.

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