No 8 (2002)
In Germany, the new integrated breeding value estimation is based on a multiple-trait animal model, considering simultaneously information from performance test of stallion on station, performance test of mares as well as competition results of sport horses. The objective of this study was to estimated the genetic parameters of the traits used...in the integrated breeding evaluation including all German warmblood breeds. The analysed data consisted of 4527, 40670 and six million records for performance tests of stallions, mares and for competition results, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multivariate BLUP animal model. Heritabilities for traits obtained from stallions tested on station ranged from 0.33 (jumping under rider) to 0.51 (trot) and for the traits from mare performance test from 0.27 (walk) to 0.38 (trot). Genetic correlations between corresponding traits recorded on performance test of stallions and mares ranged from 0.87 (canter) to 0.98 (free jumping). Heritabilities of competition traits from horses (build up for sport) were estimated as 0.12 and 0.11 for dressage and jumping, respectively. The use of all traits for estimation of genetic values of horses is expected to reduce pre-selection and optimal combines all information resources based on the estimated genetic parameters.
Following unilateral right sympathectomy in sheep, it was found on the strength of retrograde changes in the anterior cervical ganglion, the stellate ganglion and neuromeres Th1 – Th4 that there exists a connection between the cervical sympathetic trunk and the vagus nerve.
Zusammenhang mit der Milchrind – u. Fleischrindproduktion zu sehen.
In M/V haben sich die Rinder – u. Kuhbestände seit 1991 so entwickelt, wie in der Tabelle dargestellt (Tabelle 1).
Die Tendenz gilt in etwa für alle 5 neuen Bundesländer. Während die Zahl der Milchkühe auf etwa 75% gesunken ist, stieg die der Mutterkühe auf 660%
Gleichzeitig hat die Milchmengenleistung der Kühe durch kontinuierlich Steigerung eine respektable Höhe erreicht (Tabelle 2).
Daraus ist zu entnehmen, dass die kontrollierten Kühe in den fünf neuen Bundesländern beachtlich über dem Gesamtdurchschnitt liegen. Besser sind nur Niedersachen mit 7.963 kg, Weser – Ems mit 7.812 kg und Westfalen mit 7.742 kg je Kuh.
Die quotierte Milch wird demzufolge mit immer weniger Kühen produziert, die Zahl der Milchkühe geht zurück und Grünlandflächen werden frei für anderweitige Nutzung. Der Schlachtwert der Milchkühe nimmt ab!
Although the model described here was developed from research in controlled environments, there is now considerable evidence that in can be applied to a very wide range of natural environments in several species. Multi-locational trials augmented by successional sowing and, if considered necessary, supplementary illumination in the field to inc...rease daylength, can be used to estimate the values of the model coefficients: (1) to characterize germplasm collections and so predict flowering behaviour elsewhere; (2) for interpreting and understanding crop adaptation; and (3) for genetic analysis of photoperiod sensitivity. We do not yet know whether the model has any contribution to make to the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of photoperiod and temperature responses, but at the very least, it should provide the basis for indicating the most appropriate environmental conditions, genotypes and physiological stage of the plants most suitable for such investigations.
Agricultural chemical states and processes are arranged in open and closed systems. Investigations of state are static systems independent of time, testing of process is dynamic systems dependent on time.
In order to follow up special facts and occurrences the stable isotope 15N is suited. It is demarcated of native nitrogen of existing syst
In the report as well as results of experiments with 15N tracers in systems soil, fertilizer, plant and animal and too the path as brigde between soil and fertilizer, fertilizer and plant and soil and plant are represented.
Ergebnisse der Mikronährstoff – Forschung an den Rostocker agrarwissenschaftlichen Instituten werden mitgeteilt.
Entscheidungskriterien für eine ökologisch und ökonomisch vertretbare Mikronährstoffanwendung als Boden- und Blattdünger werden diskutiert.
Plant and ear height are very important characters not only for describing new varieties of maize (Zea mays L.), but for green and dry matter production, and even for grain yield. Significant positive correlations have been reported by various authors between plant height and stover yield, plant height and dry matter yield, and plant height and... grain yield. The height of the main ear is also correlated to plant height. It depends on the variety or the environment, but is likely to be the same height within a population. Many environmental and agronomical factors (e.g. plant density, fertilization, pests and diseases) influence the expression of these characters, which are not quality traits. Their expression is controlled by many genes and by the interactions between these genes. The heritability of these traits is high and they show significant genotypic variability and positive heterosis, as reported in many research publications.
Rangelands occupy about 50% of the world’s land area. They are ecologically and economically as important as rain forests and in even greater danger of degradation and disappearance. This paper reviews the definitions and distribution of rangelands and describes their global environmental importance in terms of erosion control, carbon storage... and methane emission. Condition and degradation of rangelands are defined and discussed and it is argued that soil protection and carbon storage can be increased and methane emission per animal decreased by conservative use and improvement of rangelands, whilst at the same time alleviating hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. It is concluded that policies should be adopted by national governments and international deve-lopment programs to conserve and improve rangelands.
An der Schwelle eines sich vereinenden Europas besteht unter dem Wettbewerbsdruck der Globalisierung und dem Verbraucherdruck nach Qualitätssicherung der Nahrungsmittels sowie Erhalt der Naturgüter die eigentliche Herausforderung an die Agrarpolitik darin, die Politiksteuerung bei abnehmender Protektion langfristig stärker als bisher für de...n nachhaltigen Aufbau der Eigenwirtschaftlichkeit von Unternehmen und zugleich für den Abbau des Dualismus von Produktion einerseits und Naturschutz andererseits auszurichten. Transfermittel müssen deshalb strukturell verändert und differenzierter unter Beachtung regionaler und nationaler Erfordernisse eingesetzt werden. Dies erfordert eine Neuordnung des Agrarhaushalts und der agrarpolitischen Steuerungsinstrumente. Im Rahmen des Beitrages werden zur Politiksteuerung und zur Unternehmensstrategie Lösungswege aufgezeigt. Beachtung erfährt hierbei der Strukturwandel in der Landwirtschaft, besonders unter Berücksichtigung von Unternehmensgröße, Betriebsverfassung. Eigentum und Rechtsform. Der Übergang zum umweltgerechten Landbau wird begründet. Folgen aus der neuen Grenzziehung der Europäischen Union werden angerissen.
This Conference has more then lived up to its billing, exploring policy options for a new rural America but in addition identifying the basis for a new framework for rural policy. Evidence that a new policy framework is needed is abundant (Stauber). In one way or another, rural areas of North America and of most of the developed world have for...at least the past century experienced secular decline compared to urban areas. This has occurred during a period of high government transfers or subsidies, both direct and from policy interventions that have distorted the functioning of markets. It is clear that the systemic discrepancy between rural and urban populations/areas is a public policy priority. It is just as clear that there has not been a consensus on how to address these development and economic issues. Much funding and technical assistance has been allocated with little apparent impact on the condition of rural areas and rural people.
Since the Dayton Agreement on Bosnia of 1995 there is peace between Croats, Bosnians and Serbs. Whether this is a lasting situation remains to be seen (de Rossanet, 1997). Pessimists refer to Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” and argue that because Bosnia is situated on the fault line of the Western and Orthodox civilizations and on t...op of that has a large muslim minority a new war can not be avoided (Huntington, 1997). Others don’t accept this and are of the opinion that rational governance will overcome the problems of the multicultural society. In this view the restoration of the country’s economy is a major priority. However, on the long run, a peaceful outcome is not to be taken for granted.
At present, the international community represented by the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) controls the political situation and the three ethnic groupes are forced to cooperate. To sustain a lasting peace in the future without the guidance of the OHR the reconstruction of the Bosnian economy starting with the agricultural sector is a precondition. This paper reports on a quick scan carried out in the period 15-19 April, 2002, in order to evaluate the possibilities of the agricultural sector as an economic booster in the post war situation. The quick scan was necessary to evaluate and give advise with respect to the plans of the OHR to engage in a public information campaign in order to stimulate the transformation of subsistence farming into commercial agriculture, and to encourage young urban Displaced Persons (DP’s) to consider life as a farmer as an option for their future. The campaign will include a number of sub-regional radio and television series, and a booklet and videos for distribution among the target groups.
Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportun...ities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).
The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.
Special purpose language courses have always pushed the boundaries that set them apart from, for instance, courses offered in a business department. When we as foreign language teachers enter the special purpose language classroom and begin to explore such areas as ecology, agriculture, biology, mathematics or even law, we inevitably have had t...o immerse ourselves in those disciplines, in order to be effective. Foreign language departments, like those from any other field of academia, are continually developing courses with cross-disciplinary topics which challenge the competence of our staffs. However, my experience tells me that our ability as language teachers to integrate knowledge from across the disciplinary spectrum is misunderstood, mistrusted and under-exploited. This article explores this unused, and sometimes undiscovered, potential.