No 12 (2003)

Published November 26, 2003

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Articles

An Efficient Method for Making an Educational Program
3-8

Distance education, a new teaching method widely-spread in higher education nowadays, requires the extent use of multimedia self-study educational programs besides the traditional means and methods.
Experience shows that besides certain types of software like encyclopedias, dictionaries, language manuals etc. there is an ever growing demand ...for appropriate educational programs that can be tailor made, adapted or modified for various kinds of students.
These programs reflect the teacher’s approach to the subject and contain the relevant, up-to-date information.
Since they are used in a relatively limited circle, usually within a faculty of an institution or within a single subject area, it is crucially important to be able to produce them with as little energy and time as possible.
There is a PhD research program, aiming at creating a flexible multimedia framework, that can be a possible solution to the problem. This framework can be easily filled with different teaching materials compiled by certain teachers without advanced knowledge of informatics. The framework itself is carefully designed and guarantees high quality.

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Ecological Factors in Settlement Marketing Projection for Balmazujvaros
9-14

Marketing is a crucial tool for regional and local governments, and should be better employed before Hungary joins the European Union.
In my article I refer to the five-step process of environmental and situational analyses indispensable for a strategic plan, which serves as the basis for a marketing concept for a settlement. Furthermore, I ...present the necessity of the macro, mezo and local levels of environmental analyses. This part of my article is aimed at clarifying the notion of ecological marketing. My objective is to discuss its relation to settlement marketing.
The second part of my article investigated the emergence of ecological factors in settlement marketing, in its process, using the example of Balmazújváros. I presented the correlation between Balmazújváros and Hortobágy National Park, from which I investigated primarily important areas focusing on the protection and development of natural values.
In the course of strategic planning and the everyday operation of the town, ecological aspects have to be highlighted, and this process needs the development of the appropriate system of institutions and relationships. Now we can only see certain elements of environmental protection in the strategic settlement planning of Balmazújváros, and we seek to further enhance this process in the future.

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The Effect of Soil Coverings on Cellulose Decomposition Activity of Sandy Soil
15-20

The purpose of our experiments is to discover the effect of different soil cover matter (agroszövet and black polyethylene) on actual (under field circumstances) and potential (under laboratory circumstances) cellulose decomposition activity. In our field research, the Unger-test was used, and in laboratory research, the Petkov-Markova method ...was applied. In the first year of the experiment (2000) actual cellulose decomposition activity was significantly higher in covered than in the uncovered soil both in spring and autumn. The difference between the two treatments was significant only in spring. In the spring of 2001 black polyethylene showed significantly the lowest, activity, while in autumn the agroszövet (a porous black polyethylene) showed significantly the highest activity. In the autumn of 2001 the soil covered by black polyethylene gave non-significant,and the soil covered by agroszövet gave a significant higher activity value than the control. Averaging the two experimental years (2000-2001), the actual cellulose decomposition activity was significantly higher in covered soils both in spring (with 30-39%) and in autumn (with 34-69%). Moreover, in autumn a significantly higher value was detected under agroszövet than in any other treatment. The difference between the effect of treatments was not significant. In 2000, the potential cellulose decomposition activity was the highest in soil covered by agroszövet in spring, but in autumn higher activity value was detected in every covered soil than in the control. In the spring of 2001, every covered soil showed a lower, but in autumn a higher, potential cellulose decomposition rate than the control. The activity decreased significantly 27 (agroszövet) and 45 (black polyethylene) percent in spring, and increased no- significantly 8 (agroszövet) and 4 (black polyethylene) percent in autumn. During the two experimental years, we observed on average lower potential cellulose decomposition activity (15-60%) in spring and a higher one (14-43%) in autumn. Neither was significant. The dynamic of potential cellulose decomposition activity averaging 2000 and 2001 showed a slight, the actual cellulose decomposition activity an explicit non-significant upward tendency. There was a strong (r=0,189) correlation obtained between the actual and potential cellulose decomposition activity of soil, and a medium-strong (r=0,673) relationship between the soil moisture content and actual cellulose decomposition activity.

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The Effect of Soil Coverings on Soil Respiration in Sandy Soil
21-25

The purpose of our experiments is to study effect of different soil coverings (porous black polyethylene called agroszövet and black polyethylene) on CO2 production in sandy soil. The CO2 production was measured in our laboratory according to Witkamp (1966 cit. Szegi, 1979), after 5 days’ incubation period. Samples were taken off four times ...(March, May, July, September) in every year of the experiment. In May, July and September of 2000, the CO2 production was significantly higher in the control than in the treatment soil. With the exception of September, the value of CO2 production was significantly higher under black polyethylene than under agroszövet. In March and May of 2001, the soil under black polyethylene, and in July and September the control soil produced the greatest quantity of CO2. With the exception of July, significantly more CO2 was produced under black polyethylene than under agroszövet. To study the dynamic of CO2 production there was find a significantly higher value May and September of 2001 than 2000. Similarly significant higher CO2 production was detected in September than in the other months In average of two experimental years the difference between the produced CO2 under different coverings was occasionally. Explicit upward tendency in soil CO2 production was detected only in case of control soil. There was a medium (r=0,413) relationship observed between the moisture content and the CO2 producing ability of soil. To sum up the soil coverings had favourable effect on soil CO2 production very rearly, but they could help to conserve the moisture content of soil.

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Utility of Winter Wheat According to Visual and Microbiological Fusarium Infection, as Well as Toxin Examination
26-34

In 1998 the Fusarium infection was studied visually and microbiologically and also F-2, T-2, HT-2, DAS and DON contamination were measured using 22 winter wheat samples. The correlation between the different parameters of 22 wheat samples were determined by regression analysis. According to our results we can state the following.
There is no... significant connection between the results of visual, microbiological and toxicological examinations. This means that no certain conclusion can be drawn about the toxin contamination of samples – which is a determining factor of its utility – based on the visual symptoms and the plate dilution method.
Our results indicate however – though it is not proven statistically – that those samples in which the Fusarium infection did not exceed the limit of the standard, also had low toxin contamination, therefore they can be used as components of forage.
It is a considerable problem, however, that according to the visual qualification, such samples are excluded from the later utilisation, wherein the toxin contamination does not justify such action. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the toxin content of those samples which show high infection by visual symptoms. To reducing the number of expensive toxin examinations it would be advisable to change the currently used 0,5% limit which is indicated in the standard for a higher value of infection, for example to 2%, as recommended by Mesterházy (1998).

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The Development of a Plot Fertilizer and Distributor, Analyses of How it Works
35-38

stribution of the different types of fertilizers is essential. In my study, I recommend a solution for the mechanization of fertilizer distribution on probe parcels. I have designed and constructed a new plot fertilizer distributor. This machine of moderate price can be controlled easily; it provides accurate distribution and versatility. In my... paper I give an outline of its basic principles of operation.
The spreading pattern of the complete plot fertilizer distributor was investigated on the top of a test-desk. I constructed a test-desk, which has 16 collecting trays in transversal direction and 1o collecting trays in longitudinal direction. I developed a new method for data interpretation. A map of distribution was designed to process the data of the measured 16o trays. In the distributor, a map precisely traced the pattern of granule distribution and the amount of fertilizer as well. After this, I defined the transversal and longitudinal coefficient of variations for spreading. On the basis of my investigations I can conclude that the plot fertilizer distributor has excellent, even spreading (longitudinal and transversal) patterns.

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The Speading Pattern of Ambilateral, Cogged Belted Plot Fertilizer Distributors
39-41

The mechanization of fertilizer distribution in the case of different types of fertilizers often poses problems. As a result, I have designed and constructed a brand new type of plot fertilizer distributor. This machine of moderate price can be controlled easily; it provides accurate distribution and versatility. The main part of this machine i...s an ambilateral cogged belt. I briefly present the operation and the advantages of cogged belts.
I investigated the spreading patterns at the front and the end part of the experimental plot. I demonstrate a method never seen so far in the investigation of spreading patterns. My method also shows marginal divergences and flat wedge effects in spreading patterns.

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Effects of Tillage Systems on Physical Status and Organic Matter Turnover of the Soil
42-45

The cultivation technology for those plant, that play a key role in arable land production need to be renewed in order to reduce production costs and to protect arable land. The modernisation of technologies can only be achieved by applying appropriate tillage systems. Our measurements were carried out on chernozem soil with lime deposits at th...e Látókép Experimental Station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University, in long term tillage experiments set up in 1989. We examined the typical physical parameters, the albedo, field capacity, the bulk density of the soil, organic carbon content (humus %) and the measured pH-values in the water solution within the two tillage variations. We have also modelled nitrogen cycle formation in different treatments.
A significant difference occured between the albedos of the two soils, which may be the result of significant amounts of stem remaining on the surface in the case of the reduced tillage method. The yellow, waxy stem of maize reflects 21% of the sun’s rays, especially at the beginning of the vegetation period, when its decomposition has only just started. This delys the warming up in early spring, which delays the sowing time of maize and reduces evaporation. In the two tillage variations, the water management characteristics do not differ practically, the wilting point field capacity are in accordance. In reduced tillage methods, the so-called „plough-pan” can be well measured at 15-20 cm, while in winter ploughing it is at 30 cm. The humus % of the soil does not differ in the two tillage variations, but due to the difference in bulk density this means a different humus and organic nitrogen content. The organic nitrogen content is greater in the reduced tillage method. On the basis of pH value evaluations, we could not detect significant differences in the two tillage variations. The organic nitrogen content of areas where reduced tillage method was applied is higher than in areas where conventional winter ploughing was applied.

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Managerial Questions of Human Resource Management in Agriculture
45-54

Human resource management has many charasteristics in the field of agriculture, which should be taken into consideration from the point of view of management. Becoming a farmer is a result of a socializational process, in which tradition has a determining role. The ratio of unqualified labour in agriculture is high, compared to other sectors, a...nd the situation is similar considering age. The number of employees is continuously decreasing; and this kind of work is determined by seasonality. Fluctuation is high, and methods for evaluating production are not well accepted. Managerial expectations changed considering labour. According to experimental results, the importance of qualification has decreased, while suiting a specific job and its duties has become more important.

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Economic Aspects of Rural Tourism
55-71

necessary to ensure the livelihoods of those leaving the agricultural sector and to supplement the incomes of those working in agriculture. I research rural development in four settlements in Hajdú-Bihar County, in Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek, all bordering Hortobágy National Park.
There are many alternative income so...urces in settlements in the Hortobágy area, such as organic farming, production herbs, hungaricums, small animals and arts and crafts, as well as rural tourism. Rural tourism is not for subsistence, but a supplementary income source, mainly available during the summer time. I made a survey of rural hosts in the four examined settlements, and according to my results, I constructed a model reflecting the cost-benefit relation, as well as the payment period conditions of rural tourism. I am going to show whether it is worth dealing with rural tourism, and if yes, under what conditions. Rural tourism contributes to the maintenance of rural modes of living, in this way it has significant cultural, economic, ecological and social aspects, as well. It is crucial for settlements to create the appropriate conditions needed for joining rural tourism, if it is worth joining at all, and to realise investments for all these. Rural tourism has strict requirements for the levels of environment, infrastructure and services. Studying the Western-European practices, Hungary is lagged behind in the conditions of rural tourism and rural hosts have done their activities mainly out of necessity and not to maintain traditions. Rural tourism may result in success only by co-operation and over the long-run.

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The Possibilities of Futures and Option Hedge in Price Risk Management for GrainProduction
72-80

The greataest risk tograin production is fluctuation in market prices, which is over 50% over the course of a year; and year by year, as well. There are real market circumstances in the grain market, instead of state guaranteed fix prices, which was the norm under the former political system.
According to the general opinion of producers, lo...sses come from their defencelessness against buyers. The real situation is that price risk can be managed by suitable market strategy, and loss production can be avoided.
Hungary has a futures market (which is organized according to the CBOT system) in the grain sector, which is an unique institute in Europe. This organisation is suitable for hedge businesses and it has convenient technical and institutional background.
There are two possibilities to make hedge business. One of them is the short hedge with futures contract when the producer sells his product for long term if an acceptable profit is included in market price. In this case seller can protect himself against low market prices.
This technique can be considered as professional for price risk management, but possibly has financial cost because of the weak financial situation of Hungarian producers this solution seems expensive for them.
There is an other possibility in the Commodity Exchange for manage price risk, that is the option technique. This solution is suitable for insure prices as well, and has an other additional advantage, namely: there is no financial costs in this case.

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E-business in Hungarian Tourism
81-86

Thanks to communication tools, globalization is spreading wordwide. For this reason, it is crucial to protect and strengthen our feature. On the one hand, we are repetitive joining the uniting world of economics, on the other hand, it is our responsibility to preserve our national characteristics with conscious politics.
Responding tardy to ...the touristic demands of the information society without risking the loss of our competitiveness market is highly dangerous at the current situation of the touristic, as the Hungarian Economic Development Program sets down. Unless we develop a strategy that realized radical changes in the next 4-5 years, Hungary can find itself in a disadvantageous situation regarding the touristic market of the 21st century.

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The Present and Future of Tokay Aszú
87-92

Tokay wine is Hungary’s noblest wine. Beyond doubt, it is one of those uniquely Hungarian products, which has been without rival for centuries. Today the role of quality has become increasingly important and consumers who are ready to pay more for quality wines expect it. This wine will be able to get back its original popularity if the messa...ge of its excellence reaches the public. Knowledge of historical wine-producing regions constitutes a part of basic education and wine-marketing could take important measures to spread it since good products need to be sold properly and consumers require information about wines – with gastronomy – and wine producing regions.
With foreign invested capital, advantageous changes have been started in Tokay-Hegyalja. However, there is much still to do in order to produce, sell and consume Tokay wine on such conditions that are really worthy of a Hungaricum. It is essential to approach the famous oenologists of Europe and the world and to establish suitable production conditions for every winegrower. In addition to following consciously prepared wine-marketing directions, our country needs to make an expected name for this Hungaricum. These aims are important mainly because of approaching EU-accession. There is timely to study on what conditions Hungarian viticulture and oenology could access. It would be a great success of the Hungarian delegation if they could make current Hungarian laws of Tokay-wine-production accepted in the EU. Of course, all of these would be valid after EU-accession. During the pre-accession period, our country needs to fulfil several stipulations. For example, origin-protection, establishment of a registry system, law harmonisation, development of an institutional system.
Strengthening of home consumption has always been an inspirational tool in a product’s life cycle. It is important not only to take the requirements of foreigners into consideration and to produce for export, but we also need to satisfy the home market. Considerable stress should be laid on establishing and preserving viticulture. Increasingly, buyers expect high standards and they are ready to pay more for quality wines. They also demand appropriate professional information and consultation. So there is a lot to do and theoretical approach should be followed by action. In order to get to know what quality expectations exist, we have to examine the consumers of the Hungarian wine-market. Study of the Hungarian people’s consumption behaviour, referring to Tokay „aszú”, was closely connected with my work.
Participants of my study were consumers who buy Tokay „aszú” mainly in shopping centres, supermarkets and low-price shops specified for wine selling. Wine shops have important roles as they give opportunity for salespersons to make closer relationships with buyers. These shops could be communication channels of spreading wine culture. It would be favourable if in every town or city there were at least one wine shop giving the opportunity of consultation besides commercial activity and also providing services that support the improvement of wine culture’s position. The majority of questioned people spend less than 4.000 Forints on buying of Tokay „aszú” in a year. Results of the questionnaire survey support the fact that there is a demand for these wine-specialities, but lack of money strongly effects demand.
The Following summarises the history of Tokay wine, tasks of Hungary and the expected effects relating to EU-accession. Regulation of oenology and the wine-market, referring to quality wines and main results of the survey are also overviewed in the text.

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