No 43 (2011): Special crop protection issue

Published October 30, 2011

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Articles

”FOR CROP PROTECTION” Establishment medallion in honour of Antal Gulyás (1884-1980)
5-10

The Public Utility for Development of Crop Protection Teaching (NOFKA) and The Hajdú-Bihar County Regional Association of Hungarian Chamber of Crop Protection Specialists and Plant Doctors (Chamber) established a joined Award Committee in September of 2011, which intend to serve as moral appreciation to prominent persons with excellent achieve...ments by award Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection“ which are available for outstanding teachers, researchers, and practical plant protectionists. 
The members of Committee: dr. István Szarukán, president, dr. György Kövics, secretary, dr. István Dávid member (Public Utility), dr. László Kiss, president, dr. Gábor Tarcali, secretary (Chamber). Handing over of medallion, charter and gold badge will be happened generally once a year in a special ceremony. The award was established in commemoration of Antal Gulyás, who was the first eminent professor of plant protection in Debrecen and reached outstanding achievements in the field of teaching of agronomists for more than 30 years, and research on plant pathology. He became one of the first Honoris Causa Doctors of Debrecen Agricultural University in 1978. The Committee made its decision on the first meeting that the first medallion will be award to dr. Oszkár Tóth retired reader of plant pathology for his excellence in teaching plant protection in 2011. His laudation is available in a separate article of this issue. 

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Dr. Oszkár Tóth awarded by „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection“ in 2011 (laudation)
11-15

The Public Utility for Development of Crop Protection Teaching (NOFKA) and The Hajdú-Bihar County Regional Association of Hungarian Chamber of Crop Protection Specialists and Plant Doctors (Chamber) established a joined Award Committee in September of 2011, which intend to serve as moral appreciation to prominent persons with excellent achieve...ments by awarding the „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” which are available for outstanding teachers, researchers, and practical crop protection specialists. The biography of late Antal Gulyás distinguished professor of plant pathology is available in a separate article of this issue. 
The first person to be decorated with the „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” is Dr Oszkár Tóth retired reader of plant pathology for his excellence in teaching crop protection. Dr Oszkár Tóth had been involved in teaching - by delivering both lectures and practical lessons - crop protection, namely plant pathology in the legal predecessor institute of Debrecen University for more than 30 years where generations of crop protection specialists were encouraged to get a thorough knowledge in plant pathology. The one-time students of the splendid teacher welcome and congratulate to the award, moreover wish him peaceful and happy years.

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Remembrance of Bognár Sándor (1921-2011)
16-20

Dr. Sándor Bognár was a distinguished cultivator of the horticultural entomology and a determining personality of the higher education of Hungarian crop protection. Training of the scientific and extension specialists of Hungarian agricultural entomology would have been unimaginable without him. He was researcher of the Plant Protection Insti...tute, innovator of the crop protection training’s essential and organisational standard at the Horticultural College and Faculty, who sacrificed his life’s work for developing the crop protection and for the tracking of the history of Hungarian crop protection. He dealt with the Pimplinae (Ichneuminidae) at the very beginning of his carrier and later with the difficulties of soil dwelling pests (Elateridae) but he dedicated a lot of time to the pests of rice and the pest-assemblages of fruit trees and grape. It is important to mention his activity on the phytophagous mites, thus one can call him as one of the founders of the Hungarian agricultural acarology. One top of his educational work was the wonderful manual „Agricultural Entomology” written with László Huzián in 1974 and 1979. László Szalay-Marzsó said of this book that it was impossible to write a better one. He has been right. In spite of his advanced age he participated systematically in the conferences in Hungary and shared the knowledge gained during his long life, and the morals and patriotism got from his models and developed considerably.

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From Lovrin to Szécsény – remembrance to Béla Lipthay (1892-1974)
21-32

Béla Lipthay lepidopterologist, entomologist, museologist, agriculturist, hussar lieutenant, life-saving Roman Catholic, descendant of the historical family Lipthay de Kisfalud et Lubelle did a long way from his home village Lovrin to Szécsény, the one-time land of his ancestors. His life coincided with the disintegration of the historical H...ungary, and the most serious trials of the Hungarian society, culture and spirit. These changes affected him as a member of Hungarian aristocracy many times and in fact wanted to destroy him. The fortune of the ancestors have been swept away by the storms of the wars, confiscated by the beneficiaries of tricky ideas of the new age and decimated by practical swindlers, but the human strength of character, the consciousness, the advantage of education and the with them associated ability, diligence, inventiveness and the sanctuary of faith have remained. All these made him possible to survive, to do his everyday hard creative work, which gained him the affection, the esteem and respect of the people living around him.
Protecting his remembrance we evoke his many-sided, altruistic efforts for the Hungarian people and Hungary, and we can contribute to the creation of a better and just world.

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Adequate responses to plant protection policy
33-35

The head of crop protection in the Central Agricultural Office offers a survey of the lately reconstructured official structure, outlines the sections of Central Directorate, sketches the roles of County Government Bureaues. To keep the standard of knowledge changes are necessary to make in the higher education of plant protection specialists. ...The prersentation will concern the contacts between researches made on universities and agricultural official directorates. It is analized the regulation of present and future pesticide usage, the possible alternatives of reduced quantity pesticide usage including the application of Integrated Plant Management (IPM) as well. The tasks of national activity according to the EU direcives about sustainable pesticide usage touch the problems of plant protection machinery and environment safety. It is summarized the tasks of official directorate, chamber of crop protection specialists, moreover practice of plant protection for the nearest future.

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Usage of microbiological products in the protection of the sunflower
36-40

White mould is the most important desease of sunflower. We are not able to grow sunflower on the same area for 5-6 years, because of sclerotia. One of the protection methods is if we destroy the sclerotia in the soil with hyperparasite microorganisms, so we can reduce the comeback time of sunflower.

We carried out our farm size research...es through 3 years, with the most important sunflower hybrids of Hungary in the area of Vásárhelyi Róna Kft. We can conclude that the microbiological products (Koni, Trifender, Mico’sol) effect positively on the yield of sunflower hybrids, but the weather (moisture) can significantly modify this effect.

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Q-PCR analysis of the resistance of Hungarian Botrytis cinerea isolates toward azoxystrobin
41-44

The genes being in the mitochondrial DNA primarily encode the enzymes of cellular respiration. Fungicides belonging to the family of quinol oxidase inhibitors (QoIs) play on important role in the protection against several plant diseases caused by fungi. These fungicides bind to the cytochrome bc1 complex so they block electron transport betwee...n cytochrome b and cytochrome c1. This way these fungicides inhibit the ATP synthesis consequently they inhibit the mitochondrial respiration. The QoI resistance has two mechanisms. One of them is the point mutation of the cytochrome b gene (CYTB), e.g. the substitution of a single glycine by alanine at position 143 results in high-resistance. The other is the cyanide-resistant alternative respiration sustained by the alternative oxidase.
In a cell there are several mitochondria. The phenomenon when the genomes of all mitochondria in the cell are identical is called homoplazmy. If in the cell there is wild and mutant mitochondrial DNA this is called heteroplasmy. Whether the mutation in the mitochondria causes fenotypical diversity or does not depend on the dose, i.e. it depends on the percentage of the changed mitochondrials. During our work we investigated Botrytis cinerea single spore isolates which have been collected in 2008-2009 on different host plants. Our goal was to decide whether heteroplasmy influences the level of resistance. We managed to detect the change of the level of heteroplasmy, so the change the level of the resistance due to the treatment with fungicide.

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Studies on the Fusarium stalk rot infection of the maize genotypes using the Findex percentage and a computerised image analysis program
45-51

In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. When the pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harveste...d. During the three years of the experiment, 14 inbred lines were examined. The genotypes were sown in a two-factor split-plot design with four replications, with the genotypes in the main plots and four treatments in the subplots: two Fusarium graminearum isolates (1. FG36, 2. FGH4), 3. sterile kernels, 4. untreated control. The results experiments showed significant differences between the genotypes for resistance to fusarium stalk rot. Among the inbred lines the best resistance to fusarium stalk rot was exhibited by P06 and P07, both of which were related to ISSS. The precision and sensitivity of disease evaluations carried out visually and using image analysis software were compared in the experiment, and with two exceptions the CV values were lower for the image analysis. As the CV for measurements can be considered as a relative error, it can be stated that image analysis is the more precise of the two methods, so this technique gives a more accurate picture of the extent of stalk rot. The extent of stalk rot developing in response to natural infection is extremely environment-dependent, so the use of artificial inoculation is recommended for selection trials. 

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The virus infection of South-Hungarian corn fields
52-55

The past years cereal diseases, including the virus diseases have been increased in Hungary as well as worldwide. The aim of our work was to survey the virus infection of South Hungarian wheat fields. Leaf samples were collected in Szeged at the experimental farm of Cereal Research Nonprofit Co., in April and Junes of 2009 and 2010. DAS ELISA t...ests were carried out using Loewe antisera of Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), Brome streak mosaic virus (BStMV), Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and measured with Labsystem Multiscan RC Elisa reader at 405nm. In the samples of 2009 the Wheat dwarf and Wheat streak mosaic viruses were dominated. It was also significant the appearance of the. Barley yellow dwarf virus. 2010. was favourable for the spread of the virus vectors, therefore the incidence of virus diseases increased.

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Azoxystrobin resistance of Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. isolates
56-63

Fungicide resistance is one of the most important problems endangering the effectivity of practical plant protection today. The frequent and subsequent usage of specific fungicides results the emergence of resistant fungal populations. This threatens is especially high in case of Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. being an endemic pathogen with frequen...t infection. Nowadays the main method of protection as against Botrytis cinerea is the application of chemical fungicides chemicals. Therefore, a better knowledge of local populations is necessary for the planning of the protection procedures.
Based on the results of our examinations we may establish that the growth of the examined samples showed a significant difference under in vitro circumstances, which shows a great deal of variability of the Botrytis cinerea populations in Hungary. Twenty-five Botrytis cinerea samples from different hosts were analyzed in this study. High resistance was found towards azoxistrobin in seven cases, and low resistance in eight cases.
It was also proved, that the B. cinerea is able to bypass the inhibition site of the azoxistrobin via the alternative oxidase. The presence of this altermative mitocondrial electrotransport route considerably reduces the effectivity of the chemical. 

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Fruit melanotic ringspot (FMRS) – a disease of resistant Capsicum genotypes infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on the fruits
64-69

Etiology of pepper fruit melanotic ringspot (FMRS) disease (Salamon, 2009) was studied on fruit samples collected in forced pepper populations. It was noticed that in spite of heavy thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) infestations and of TSWV epidemy detected in the forcing houses, FMRS occurred only in plants having healthy foliage. Symptomato...logical surveys strongly suggested that FMRS appeared exclusively in specific pepper genotypes. The size of melanotic ringspots has been observed to grow at room temperature during postripening of diseased fruits. A mechanically transmitted plant virus was isolated from symptomatic parts of 9 white pepper fruits affected by FMRS. On test plants each of the virus isolates caused systemic symptoms characteristic to TSWV. Using cDNA/PCR technique and TSWV N-gene specific primers a ca. 300 bp long DNA fragment has been amplified from total nucleic acid extracted from symptomatic tissues but never from asymptomatic parts of the fruits showing FMRS. Plant progenies grown from seeds of FMRS diseased fruits segregated in respect of resistance and/or susceptibility to TSWV infection. TSWV was also detected in and isolated from three fruits showed non-melanotic yellow rings (one of them was infected with a tobamovirus, too). Seedlings derived from these fruits proved to be susceptible to TSWV. Based on the above results we could conclude that the FMRS disease developed on fruits of “cecei” type white peppers that carry a TSWV resistance gene, most likely the Tsw gene in heterozygous form. These fruits were infected with thrips transmitted TSWV and FRMS appeared as a hypersentive reaction (HR) manifested in fruits.

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Studies of Cryphonectria parasitica (MURR.) BARR subpopulations on Quercus petraea in Ukraine
70-75

Chryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr, the casual agent of chestnut blight disease, which is one of the most important fungal pathogens of chestnut (Castanea sativa). The disease seriously affected the chestnut in Northern-America and in Europe as well. It is important to mention that the pathogen does not only infect the chestnut but oak spec...ies (Quercus spp.) also. In the Carpathian-Basin, the chestnut is endemic in the Mecsek mountains, in Zala, in Somogy counties but it also can be found in the Danube-Bend. In the Carpathian-Basin (outside Hungary) the chestnut is found in Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania. In our study bark samples infected by Cryphonectria parasitica were collected from Bobovyshche, Serednje and Rostovjatica (Ukraine). The rate of infected chestnut tree were higher than 90% around Bobovyshche and beside chestnut, the symptoms were detected on oak trees as well. We collected bark samples from chestnut and oak as well and then we isolated the pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica in the lab of University of Debrecen. Symptomatological observations, laboratory examinations on fungus morphology, as well as comparisons of ITS sequency homology were made and approved that the causal agent of new disease was Cryphonectria parasitica. Our results proved that the Cryphonectria. parasitica infects oak trees beside chestnut in the Carpathian-Basin. Further studies are needed to determine the VCG (Vegatative Compatibility Group) group of the Cryphonectria parasitica found on oak trees. 

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Molecular studies on Cryphonectria parasitica isolates from Carpathian-basin
76-80

Chryphonectria parasitica, the casual agent of chestnut blight, is one of the most important fungal pathogens of chestnut (Castanea spp.) in Europe and Hungary. In this study we analyzed the diversity of 14 Cryphonectria parasitica strains isolated from different location of Carpathian-Basin. For the analyses we used the partial sequences of th...e translation elongation coding gene, tef1. Our results showed that the tef1 gene, contrary to other fungal species, is not suitable for the molecular analyses of C. parasitica. In the future, for the molecular studies of C. parasitica, we need to use other molecular markers like microsatellites.

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Pathogenicity differences between group I and group II of Botrytis cinerea
81-85

Botrytis cinerea has been reported as a species complex containing two cryptic species, groups I (Botrytis pseudocinerea) and II (B. cinerea sensu stricto). In order to compare the pathogenicity of group I and group II of B. cinerea, we have selected 4 strains of group I and 4 strains of group II. The results demonstrated that competitive infec...tion of group II was more on grape, cucumber and paprika leaves, than group I. However the results on bean leaves did not correlate the applied B. cinerea group.

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An unusual occurrence of Taphrina deformans on apricot trees in Hungary
86-92

In 2011 a very rare occurence of leaf curl (leaf blaster) disease symptoms of apricot (pathogen: Taphrina deformans) was observed in different apricot plantations in Eastern-Hungary (Debrecen-Józsa, Hajdú-Bihar county) and Northern-Hungary (Bekecs district, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county). The pathogen is common on peach and nectarine resultin...g serious symptomps and considerable damages in almost every year, although in this year infections of peaches were very low close to the locations. Although there are some references that apricot and even almond are hosts of the fungus but in Hungarian circumstances the infestation on apricot counts unique and rare. Observations were made on symptoms, microscopic photos and measures were taken on exoasci, ascospores and blastospores, respectively. As far as we know this is the first description of Taphrina deformans fungus on apricot in Hungary.

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Occurrence of the tulip tree aphid (Illinoia liriodendri Monell, 1879 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Hungary
93-96

The genus Illinoia is found primarily in North America. Illinoia liriodendri (Monell, 1879), the tulip tree aphid, has been observed and caught for the first time in Hungary. Nymphs, apterous and alate viviparous females in colonies of I. liriodendri were found on a tulip tree, Liriodendron tulipifera L. (Magnoliaceae), in Debrecen, Hungary. Tu...lip tree aphid feeds on the underside of tulip tree leaves. The consequences of this are honeydew and associated black sooty mould causing a mess – in countries where the tulip tree is native or abundant - for walking people and parked cars. A short report is presented here on the discovery in Hungary and characteristics of this aphid.

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Arthropods assiciated with the stinging nettle in Hungary
97-103

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica Linnaeus) (Urticaceae) is a well known medicinal plant cultivated in some European countries for a long time. Because of its multiple usability (food, medicinal plant, feed, fiber), adventageous agrotechnical qualities and low demands for plant protection, its more extensiv utilization can be expected. However, du...ring cultivation from time to time little damages can be occurred on it. The aim of this paper is to show and estimate the most important arthropods (pests and natural enemies) of stinging nettle. Under the pests characterized in the paper according to the references the peacock and the small tortoiseshell are the most important species living on stinging nettle. Their individuals from time to time propagated can cause an important damage on nettle leaves in cultivated nettle stands or assemblages. On the base of a 12 year observation period (Gödöllő, Debrecen, 1998-2010) the following species have been observed: Psylliodes attenuata, Chrysomela fastuosa, Phyllobius pomaceus, Pleuroptya ruralis, Inachis io, Aglais urticae, Microlophium evansi, Microlophium carnosum, Aphis urticata, Dasineura urticata, Tritomegas sexmaculatus. Inachis io has been the only species which during the observation period did danger the stinging nettle stand. The other pest species have not threated even timely either the stinging nettle stand or a single plant. The number and diversity of natural enemies was rather low: running crab spiders (Philodromidae), tangle-web spiders (Theridiidae), crabbing spiders (Thomisidae), lacewings (Chrysopa perla, Chrysopa formosa), coccinellids (Coccinella septempunctata, Propylea quattuordecimpunctata, Adonia variegata), hoverflies (Episyrphus balteatus), earwigs (Forficula auricularia), scorpionflies (common scorpionfly (Panorpa communis) and European paper wasp (Polistes dominula) predominated. 

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A forgotten sour cherry pest, the stone fruit weevil (Anthonomus /Furcipes/ rectirostis L.) appeared again
104-106

The stone fruit weewil (Anthonomus rectirostris L.) has been known as the kernel pest of the wild cherry in Hungary. There have been no data about its harm on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) in our country, yet. 5-10% of stone infection has been observed on some sour cherry trees (cultivars: Debreceni bőtermő, Újfehértói fürtös) in the e...astern side of an orchard at Debrecen-Józsa adjacent to a wood in early July 2011. The damage can be in connection with the fact that the yield has not been harvested for years.

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Study on distribution and relative abundance of click beetle pests (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) in Hungarian maize fields
107-113

Click beetle pests (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) of 24 sites in different regions of Hungary were studied in 2011. A. brevis, A. sputator, A.
obscurus, A. lineatus, A. rufipalpis and A. ustulatus were sampled by pheromone traps in maize fields. During the study 65895 beetles were
caught. A. ustulatus and A. sputator were the most abundant sp...ecies. Beyond that 23 additional species were trapped so the total number of sampled species was 29. The distribution of the six studied species was uneven. In east Hungary A. ustulatus were the most abundant, while
in the Transdanubia A. sputator was dominant in the most studied sites. A. obscurus occurred mostly in Transdanubia (western Hungary), and it occurred only in one site of eastern Hungary. 
The abundance of one or simultaneously two species reached the threshold of significant damage in 14 sites. Additionally there were three sites where the total abundance of the two most dominant species reached the threshold. There were only six sites where we should not expect significant damage. In this reason we have to monitor the populations of these pests and if it is necessary we have to take actions against them.

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Use of Clearfield technology in the sunflower
114-118

Sunflower is one of the most important cultivated plants in Hungary. We carried out our research in 2009 with eight imidazolinone resistant hybrids and one conventional variety in order to compare the efficiency and selectivity of Clearfield technology to the conventional system. In the trial the Clearfield hybrids were treated by 3,5 l/ha Wing...-P (pre) and 1,2 l/ha Pulsar 40 SL(post). The plot of the conventional variety was sprayed by 4,0 l/ha Wing-P and 0,5 l/ha Goal Duplo (pre).
Wing-P also had a poor effect because of the lack of rain. Pulsar 40 SL gave an excellent result against the 2-6 leaves of monocotyledonous and the dicotyledonous weeds. Only the well-developed Hibiscus trionum survived the treatment. The combination of Wing-P and the Goal Duplo herbicide provided poor result against the caracteristical weeds of the experimental area because of the lack of rain. Oxifluorfen with contact effect burned the leaves of the sunflower.

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Occurrence of woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) in Hajdú-Bihar county, Hungary
119-123

Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) is native to East Asia, it spreads in several parts of the World and causes difficulties in plant protection, especially in maize. Difficulties in control of Eriochloa villosa originated from several reasons: seeds continue to germinate later in the season, significant part of seeds emerges fro...m a deep layer of the soil, and the species is less susceptible to some herbicides applied to maize than other annual grass weeds.
The first report on the occurrence of woolly cupgrass in Hungary was published in 2008, and it reported about the appearance of this species near to Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county), however, no information has been added about spread of the weed in Hungary until now.
A significant population was discovered next to Debrecen (Hajdú-Bihar county) in summer, 2011, and then weed associations were examined in maize, sunflower and stubble-fields on several km2 in the area to estimate the Eriochloa villosa infection. The weed species was found on every maize field bordering with a ground cover of 0.5-4%. Woolly cupgrass occurred inside of the 50% of maize fields, and reached a ground cover of 76% in case of most infected area, in addition it was found in sunflower and stubble-fields.
The spread of woolly cupgrass is expected in this area, which requires the consideration of this species in the planning of weed management technologies.

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Changes in the herbicide tolerance of maize genotypes in wet and dry years
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The tolerance of 15 inbred maize lines grown on chernozem soil with forest residues in Martonvásár was tested against herbicides applied post-emergence in two dry, warm years (2003 and 2011) and in two cool, wet years (2004 and 2010). The herbicides mesotrione + terbutylazine, nicosulfuron and dicamba were applied to maize inbred lines in the... 7–8-leaf stage at the maximum dose authorised for practical use and at double this rate. The plants were scored for the intensity of visible phytotoxic symptoms 14 days after treatment.
The level of phytotoxicity observed in dry, warm years was 5.14%, averaged over the lines, herbicides and rates. The intensity of visible symptoms was almost 2.5 times as great in cool, wet years (12.76 %).
Averaged over the four years, the lines and the rates, the least damage was caused by dicamba (5.77 %), followed by mesotrione + terbutylazine (7.23 %). The most severe symptoms were induced by nicosulfuron (16.17 %). This could be attributed to the fact that some of the inbred lines were extremely sensitive to herbicides, especially those of the sulfonylurea type.
A difference of more than 1.5 times was observed between the two doses, but the correlation between the concentration and the severity of the visual symptoms was not strictly linear. Compared to the normal dose (100 %) the double rate resulted in a 162.5% increase in symptom severity. In most cases plants treated with the normal dose were symptom-free or only exhibited a low level of phytotoxicity.

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