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  • The Factors of Digitality and Sustainable Competitiveness in the Domestic Context

    The recovery of international relations and the development of technology are in correlation with the increasing globalization tendencies. These processes increase the interdependence of countries, but also the competition between them. The factors of competition are constantly changing and being revalued. As a result new elements appear in addition to the traditional elements, and there are assimetries between existing components. The economic performance of a country increasingly depends on the knowledge and technology, its economic success on the use of knowledge. The purpose of the study is to present and analyze the proxies that define and shape the role of Hungary by IMD Competitiveness Research Center and by the complex indicators developed by Korea-based SolAbility. It also draws attention to all the factors that will significantly effect our country's economy in the future.

  • Knowledge of Control Methods and their Application in the Practice of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Northern Great Plain Region

    Like large companies, the small, and medium-sized businesses need also all the information to ensure the efficiency and effectiveness of their business by making sound management decisions. Compared to large companies, SMEs have significant development potential, which can be created in part by the companies themselves, possibly through the introduction of new-modern management - business administration methods or economic policy measures (= targeted and efficient support system), which, by stimulating R & D & I processes, serves to increase competitiveness and contribute more and proportionally to domestic GDP and exports. The analysis presented in the study covers the controlling knowledge of the leading SMEs of the Northern Great Plain Region, the conscious or unconscious application of controlling tools, the assessment of succession, customer and supplier valuation and certain areas of managerial accounting. Overall, it can be concluded from the small sample size that the use of controlling tools is proportional to the size of the business, but nevertheless, many mid-size business executives do not require the collection and analysis of insider information that could explicitly help decision making for example  through advanced costing procedures.

  • Economic Effect of the Coronavirus on the Companies Involved in Car and Automotive Parts Trading, and Manufacture of Tires of Hungary, Including Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, in Respect of 2020

    In Hungary the wake of the first wave of the Covid-19 epidemic (March 2020), caused a decline in demand for goods and services in most sectors. There were sectors (accommodation services, art, recreation, etc.), which were economically severely burdened by the imposition of restrictive measures, and there were some (financial services, communication), which experienced the change positively. In our research, our goal was to assess the changes caused by the Covid-19 epidemic in the property, financial and profitability situation of the companies involved in car and automotive parts trading, and tire manufacturing, in Hungary, and within the country, in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county. We established three hypotheses: (1) As a result of the spread of coronavirus epidemic, in Hungary and in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county as well, the profitability of companies of NAICS codes 441 (car and automotive parts trading) and 4231 (wholesale of road vehicles and parts), decreased. (2) The outbreak of the epidemic had a negative impact on the liquidity of companies established in Hungary, including Szabolcs- Szatmár-Bereg county. (3) As a result of the Covid-19 epidemic, the resource structure of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county companies, analysed in the framework of research work, transformed. To prove or disprove these, secondary research was used. Finally, we put forward conclusions and proposals for the management of the companies active in this industry.


  • The Efficiency of Intellectual Capital as a Crucial Factor of Innovation

    In today's global economy, there is a substantial shift from manufacturing to services, which challenges both economic policymakers, business stakeholders, owners, suppliers, competitors, and ordinary people: restructuring will encourage all economic players to learn how to adapt to new trends. That is why our research focuses on innovation and the ability of companies to create value. The IT sector is currently one of the fastest-growing and most innovative sectors within the service industry. The success of IT companies is greatly determined by their ability, how to make effective use of their intangible assets at their disposal, including intellectual capital, which is defined as a non-financial asset. So the question may arise: how is it possible to quantify and in monetary terms the intellectual capital of the companies to be examined? That is why, we calculated for the most successful Hungarian IT companies the widely recognized index, the VAICTM index, for which domestic calculations are not yet available. Indeed, this indicator eliminates the lack of information stemming from reporting standards by the methodology relying on publicly available financial reporting data. The indicator itself is a top indicator whose two main sub-indicators quantify the effectiveness of intellectual capital and physical capital.

  • Presentation of Employment and Economic effects of the Covid-19 Epidemic between March and November 2020 among Companies Dealing with Car and Parts Trade in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County

    The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic during the spring of 2020 entailed major economic and social changes all over the world. In this study, we aim to investigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the labor market and the economy with relation to the automotive industry in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Apart from secondary data collection, this research also relies on primary data collection methods, including self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews, all conducted with several employees and finance directors employed by the automotive companies present in the county.  The focus of this research is to study how the pandemic affected the balance sheets and the gross revenue of these companies; how it altered the repayment obligation of their current loans and how it influenced their willingness to enter into new loan agreements or relief options offering financial assistance.  Apart from these factors, this research also studies how the pandemic restrictions affected the work schedule and the benefits of the employees.

  • The Economic and Social Effects of the COVID-19 Epidemic in the European Union over the Past Year, Especially in Hungary

    The apparence of the COVID-19 pandemic at the beginning of 2020 affected all countries in the world, entailing major changes in everyday life. In our study – in a one year perspective – we summerize the socio-economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on various economic sectors and their consequences for the European Union and Hungary. As a result of the pandemic restrictions the role of some sectors were decreasing considerably, while on the other hand the other sectors emerged and underwent a significant improvement. The growing trend of working from home, as well as the decline of the tourism, the catering service and the entertainment industry has led to a change in the behavior of the population. .    Changes during the pandemic period led to an increase in wealth inequalities.Changes  during the pandemic period led to anincreas  in economic inequality. The transformation of consumers’ values and income situation is having an huge impact on all sectors of the national economy. When reflecting upon the current situation, the following questions arise: When will the declining businesses be able to recover? Will they be able to achieve their pre-pandemic profit level, and if yes, how long will it take them?

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