Évf. 63 szám 3–4 (2024): Újrajátszások: Emlékezés, megidézés, átértelmezés a művészetekben Aktuális szám

Megjelent June 27, 2024

Teljes szám

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Tanulmányok

  • Szerkesztői előszó
    3–7.
    Megtekintések száma:
    17

    A debreceni MODEM Modern és Kortárs Művészeti Központ 2023-ban megrendezett Re:Re – Művészi újrajátszás / Az újrajátszás művészete című nemzetközi kiállítása a kétezres évek során jelentkező művészeti újrajátszások, vagyis az ún. artistic re-enactmentek működés- és létmódját, antropológiai, szociokulturális, (művészet) történeti és elméleti kontextusait kívánta feltárni. A tárlat finisszázsaként, 2023. szeptember 15–16. között a MODEM és a Debreceni Egyetem Magyar Irodalom- és Kultúratudományi Intézetében működő Magyar Emlékezethelyek Kutatócsoport együttműködésében interdiszciplináris konferenciát szerveztünk. A konferencia a re-enactment / reenactment fogalom lehetséges megközelítésein túl a traumák, tabuk, technikák, a mediatizálódás és a muzealizáció kérdésével foglalkozott, valamint a performativitás és az irodalom szerepét vizsgálta, különös tekintettel Kelet-Európa történéseire. A kétnapos tanácskozás résztvevői öt szekcióban tizenöt előadást tartottak, a program kurátori tárlatvezetéssel és kerekasztal-beszélgetéssel egészült ki. A Studia Litteraria mostani tematikus száma az előadások többségének tanulmányokká formált változatait adja közre, illetve néhány további, a konferencián prezentációként el nem hangzott írás járul hozzá a képekben is rendkívül gazdag, közel másfélszáz illusztrációt tartalmazó, a folyóirat történetében e szempontból is egyedi gyűjtemény értékéhez.

  • Collingwood – Re-enactment: Hívők és kritikusok
    8–15.
    Megtekintések száma:
    10

    Robin G. Collingwood, a British archeologist and philosopher, elaborated on the so-called notion of re-enactment. In his main theoretical work, the Idea of History, published posthumously, the editor placed an argument in the “Epilogue” in which Collingwood detailed this concept. `The truly historicist epistemological idea of re-enactment was closely connected to another one of his arguments concerning the epistemological importance of the question and answer. According to the latter, when a historian tries to find out the precise meaning of a textual testimony coming from the past, he/she must also know the question to which the historical actor addressed his/her response, and what it meant, as they are correlative. Collingwood’s historical epistemology, an extreme version of historicism, generated contrasting reactions: several theoreticians (e.g. W. H. Dray) and historians (e.g. Q. Skinner) adopt it unreservedly; there are, however, thinkers, like H. G. Gadamer in particular, who in the name of philosophical hermeneutics, reject it altogether.

  • A művészi újrajátszás terei, helyei és tájai
    16–33.
    Megtekintések száma:
    37

    –The paper explores artistic re-enactments through spatial perspectives, rather than temporal ones. Drawing on spatial theories and the “spatial turn” to shed light on the artistic process I analyse four moving image works in the exhibition Re:Re, The Art of Re-enactment, Artistic Re-enactments in MODEM. In the case of Jeremy Deller’s re-enactment of the Battle of Orgreave, for example, the artist transforms the space of power into a place with a unique identity, using its specific history to evoke and dissolve the trauma of the original event. In Irina Botea Bucan’s work, Auditions for a Revolution, temporal and spatial displacement reenacts the original shots and events, revealing the spatial aspects of artistic re-enactment. Lola Arias’s documentary theatre production, Audition for a Demonstration, contextualizes social upheavals, evoking the past to reveal changes in social norms, values, and perspectives from a spatial aspect. Finally, Andrei Maria by Ingela Johansson is a film essay on Tarkovsky’s the Sacrifice, where the airy space of atmosphere and the places of objects floating in space are combined in a montage film.

  • Ismétlés a megismétlődés ellen: Reenactment, holokauszt, dilemmák
    34–52.
    Megtekintések száma:
    2

    The first Holocaust reenactments happened right aftŸer the liberation of the camps when, as a mode of testimony and authentication of their experience, survivors themselves “reenacted” for their liberators what happened to them. When artistic reenactments entered the Holocaust discourse, it was in a different historical situation. By the 2000s, when artistic reenactment was at its peak, (1) the way to use the tools of contemporary art in connection with the Holocaust had already been paved, so that contemporary artistic strategies could be used efficiently to evoke memory and memorialization. (2) There were new disciplinary currents within history, with post-structuralism having raised complex questions in connection with the Holocaust. History’s affective turn focused on historical actors whose experiences had earlier remained unknown, invisible or had not been considered significant. (3) Important and urgent questions about the representation of the Holocaust had been widely debated in conferences, books, and were still ongoing. Reenactment can be an efficient way to evoke the Holocaust, its unknown, erased, destroyed evidence, especially aftŸer the age of direct witness and testimony had lapsed. The paper discusses a few artistic attempts to approach the mediation of the Holocaust, and the specific difficulties these reenactments face, as well as the reason why artistic-historical imagination cannot always find favourable reception.

  • A város tere és ideje: Gondolatok az ismétlésről és a művészi újrajátszásról
    53–65.
    Megtekintések száma:
    13

    In this study I focus on the aesthetics and methods of artistic reenactments and try to interpret and emphasize the urban background of those artistic reenactments which problematize culturally significant themes, such as the post-Soviet state. I argue that one of the most characteristic elements of literary repetition is space in novels, more precisely Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of the chronotope and the culture-forming character of the city. I also analyse the distinction and characteristics of (re)enactments and fictitious reenactments. However, in this paper I do not aim to give an overview of art history, but rather to discuss the interpretation experiment that appears in a less prominent way in the international and Hungarian literature on artistic reenactments: definition of parallelism as a text organizing element in literature and the significance of repeating spatial situations. I apply this approach in the interpretation of artistic (re)enactments related to the Soviet and Russian past and present, and to the city of Saint-Petersburg.

  • Az újrajátszás romlékonysága: Kis Varsó munkája Debrecenben
    66–77.
    Megtekintések száma:
    13

    Th˜is paper revisits the artist duo Little Warsaw (Kis Varsó), and their work titled Marble Street, recently re-exhibited at MODEM in Debrecen. I aim to point to their relevance for the theory of artistic re-enactment, which could not prevail to the naked eye. In my interpretation, Marble Street plays on the sacral element of the relocation of buildings, and in doing so, not only assesses the preservation of material heritage but equally seeks to adumbrate the community-building power of regular commemoration. ˜e relocation of buildings seems to be a relevant matter of engineering, preservation, and rehabilitation. Yet, it has a role similar to that of religious processions in countries (e. g. Romania) where the objects to be moved were themselves sacral structures, and dealing with them raised and still raises the question of attachment to the cultural homeland. In the Hungarian context, the Little Warsaw experiment gains specific pertinence for the relocation of built structures eluded local urban planning under socialism. Consequently, the quasi-sacral aspect of moving mid-size objects could not be registered in the minds of the observers.

  • Összetett médiumhasználat az alkotói gyakorlatban
    78–90.
    Megtekintések száma:
    14

    Th‹is article delves into the intricate nature of creative practice and its associated media usage. I substantiate theoretical approaches with practical examples, drawing primarily from my own work and experience. ‹e analysis covers various aspects, such as the medium as message, the exhibition as a medium, and the role of structure, in a spatial network that can intersect and overlap. ‹e article includes examples from my own artistic projects, including documentary photography, and discusses my creative insights on re-enactments. ‹The article emphasizes the pivotal relationship between message and structure in the creative process. It underscores that combining different media can lead to deeper understanding and emotional connections with the audience.

  • Provisorium Hungaricum: A rendszerváltás heraldikája
    91–100.
    Megtekintések száma:
    48

    Each political system creates its own places of remembrance, for example monuments, names, holidays. However, the transition between systems (interregnum) is not institutionalised, and usually lasts for a short period of time, therefore it cannot create official places of remembrance. Or, unintentionally, it does create some. Still, it is in these spontaneous non-places that the transience itself is preserved. Of the painted, pasted, painted over, and knocked down examples, those that are of particular interest are those where it is clear that the aim was not total disappearance. In Hungary, the Kádár coat of arms has survived in the absence of its own image, creating a ritual continuity between the past lived and the past already transformed into history. ”The double title, representing the ideological superposition of the transitional state separating the two successive regimes, is in fact a heraldic leak through which the double talk seeps from so• dictatorship to lukewarm democracy.

  • Mitikus távlatok, misztikus élmények és a szavak mágikus ereje: Szövegalapú közelítési kísérletek a transzcendenshez a kortárs magyar képzőművészetben
    101–137.
    Megtekintések száma:
    3

    After the liberation from the communist dictatorship, text in Hungarian visual art becomes more and more o¢en and directly a means of updating or subverting religious tradition, beliefs and myths, a recollection of sacred time, of the eternal present promised in discourses on transcendence. “e analyses in this paper illustrate this through interpretations that do not consider textual elements as ancillaries but treat them on an equal footing with other visual elements, that also validate semantic contexts, poetic aspects, and that open up space for the movement of meaning experienced in the interpretative process. As can be seen in the interpretations, works that often imitate archaic systems of signification only in their visuality o¢en seem to be representative of forgetting rather than conveying communal memory. Th“e majority of the works examined here make sense in dialogue with various sacred texts or canonical documents, and in some cases, the potential of intertextual relations to make meaning is explicitly revealed in the dialogue of distant moments in time or different conceptions of time. In a further group of works, the attempt to cross the boundary between spheres of being is expressed in ritual action, in prayer or supplication, as an apostrophic discourse that is essentially an approach to the non-human or the unborn.

  • A kifejezés és befogadás boldog lehetetlensége: Mítosz és újrajátszás Süli-Zakar Szabolcs Sziszüphosz című kísérleti videóinstallációjában
    138–148.
    Megtekintések száma:
    3

    ™This study explores the possible correlations between the aesthetic procedures of artistic re-enactments as a critical re-translations and performative modes of recontextualizing the events of the past and the mythical narratives/tropes preserved in cultural memory that mainly have been transmitted by literary and visual art history. Th™ese practices are still alive today through a contemporary Hungarian artwork, Szabolcs Süli-Zakar’s video installation Sisyphus. ™The experimental artistic approach shows the myth of Sisyphus, which embodies certain insights of existentialism and the absurd, through reappropriation, becoming a specific metacommentary on aesthetic communication and cognition. It also addresses productive expression and reception, while condemned to eternal repetition and the inaccessibility of transcendental sign and meaning.

  • Újrajátszás és körforgás: színház, tánc, történet
    149–161.
    Megtekintések száma:
    17

    In recent decades, contemporary dance and theatre performers have explored various ways in which bodily energies, sounds, movements, gestures, and choreographies can initiate dialogues with the past. Current artistic encounters with past historical events have thus entered the realm of fluidity, eventfulness, and, in some cases, destabilization. The article discusses how ]eatre, Art, and Performance Studies have integrated the notion of repertoire and re-enactment as body-based methods of addressing the past. Calling attention to the connection between archival and performative practices, the article presents two brief case studies on how (re-)enactment can become the basis of various dance and theatre productions. While works by the Természetes Vészek Kollektíva (Hungarian Collective of Natural Disaster) underlined the circularity of historical and aesthetic dynamics, a production by the US-based Wooster Group showed the vital and subversive nature of presence and acting.

  • Újrajátszani, ami nem történt meg: A performatív múltfikciók nemzetközi és magyar példái
    162–176.
    Megtekintések száma:
    5

    Th˜is paper examines acts and artefacts that can be interpreted as performative statements. I focus on international and Hungarian, artistic and partly amateur re-enactments, as well as on fiction and works of history writing that can be considered pseudo-historical, counterfactual or, in Sylvia Sasse and Inke Arns’s term, “as-if ”-reenactments in their entirety or to some extent. ˜These performative accounts of the past, both in the artistic and in non-artistic fields, have not been systematically investigated in reenactment studies.

  • Kölcsönzés, átszabás, reklamáció: Adalékok az újrajátszás kortárs popzenei változataihoz
    177–201.
    Megtekintések száma:
    20

    As there have been major shi—fts in the field of modern pop music when it comes to multimedia presence, platform types, functions, and consumption, the content and form of music videos have changed consequently. Postmodern ideas, such as the recognition that everything has already been attained, appeared in 80s and 90s productions and impacted the blossoming age of music videos a—fter the millennium. ’is study explores major directions artists have taken visually from different techniques of citations (Madonna), through creating a patchwork of preceding trends and figures (Lady Gaga) as well as mimicking and altering culturally ingrained images (Lana Del Rey), to individually constructed, interreferential and reflective self-mythology (Taylor Swi—). Th’rough the interpretation of music videos and short clips, we aim to highlight various mechanisms of re-enactment, how techniques such as cutting, transferring, de- and recontextualizing certain details formulate meaning, and how methods varied throughout the years. When visual extensions of sound and lyrics are understood as a continuation or extraversion of tradition, artworks are inevitably linked to the past, whereas the usage of reenactment variants within one’s lifework vitalizes itself. With the rise of TikTok, revisiting and reclaiming the past, inviting memories as building blocks of self-mythology exceeds the level of the artist saliently, as the artwork is tailored by an audience; influence works as a pendulum.

  • Archívumok és újrajátszás: A szolidáris emlékezés stratégiái Radu Jude műveiben
    202–225.
    Megtekintések száma:
    13

    ThŽe paper analyses and (re)structures the works of contemporary Romanian director Radu Jude with heavy focus on the re-enactment. On the one hand, Jude’s films reflect on contemporary media conditions and their influence on society investigating different types of advertising as re-enactment processes (Do Not Expect Too Much from the End of the World, 2023, 4e Happiest Girl in the World, 2009); on the other hand, his artworks as intermedial collage constellations create social platforms for mnemonic solidarity for silenced and unprocessed social traumatic past events. As a socially engaged artist Jude analyses the historical, media and consequently mental legacies of Romanian society regarding the Holocaust. In his documentary collage films combining photographic and acoustic (e. g. military songs) archives, diaries read out by the director himself (4e Dead Nation, 2017), conflicting photo archives, re-enacted statements and testimonies documenting the Pogrom in Iaşi in June 1941 (4e Exit of the Trains, 2020) Jude is enabled to create structurally open intermedial constellations, which turn into a re-animated and re-enacted experience by the viewer’s implication. Žese sites of mnemonic solidarity reflect on the “implicated subject” (Michael Rothberg) position of contemporary society as well as on our current implicated positions, including the director’s position as a responsible agent in the process of image production and visual conditioning (especially in I Do Not Care If We Go Down in History as Barbarians, 2018).

  • A hétköznapi tárgyhasználat mint kultúrafenntartó újrajátszás: Kunkovács László fotói a paraszti élet szocialista átalakulásáról
    226–248.
    Megtekintések száma:
    4

    László Kunkovács’s oeuvre, which focuses on the visual documentation of the socialist transformation of the peasant way of life, is a hard-to-miss achievement in the history of Hungarian photography in the second half of the 20th century. Not only because of the undisputed social historical significance of his subjects and the documentary value of his images, but also because he built up a very specific aesthetic vision of the subject on the borders of social science and photography. Kunkovács’s most significant works are concerned with the memory of objects, the mimetic memory and its ritual dimensions, but he is most interested in their interplay and interaction. —Through the photography of these aspects he demonstrates the body techniques, in the Maussian sense, of transmitting cultural or culturally fixed knowledge that are difficult to grasp in other ways. —is paper views Kunkovács’s work from the perspective of the role of memory and body techniques in cultural transmission and the possibility of addressing these issues through visual anthropology.

  • Újrajátszás és újra-játszás: Glokális történetek az ókígyósi Wenckheim-kastély megújításánál
    249–276.
    Megtekintések száma:
    5

    Communities select and mark spaces of experience for practices of collective memory through various social practices. Focal points designated for remembering can be specific spaces, streets, but even buildings or objects, which can become sites of local memory through their names. See > monument, > memorial, > skansen, > museum. Marking something with inscriptions, plaques, naming specific points of physical space is the first and most important step in protecting a monument. In comparison, taking possession of the site, turning the monument into a skansen and filling it with content befitting a museum (site-specific artefacts) represents a qualitative change. When it was built, the Wenckheim Palace in Ókígyós was not yet a museum or a collection of museum objects, although it did have an art collection and on some sections of its walls the family kept its own museum “stories.”

    After the change of its function in 1945, the palace functioned as a school for a long time. The first real attempts at renovation and the protection of the building as a historic monument only began in 1956. At the end of the 1960s it was briefly used as a film set and then gradually became a tourist attraction. The completion of these works was marked by a contemporary plaque at the entrance staircase. The park was not given protected status until the late 1980s. The change of function was not smooth: it involved the forced removal of the family, the looting of the palace, the nationalization of the building, the appropriation of furniture and objects, and the conscious collection of objects for museums. The people who lived there approached the palace sometimes with a certain amount of passion (thereby reinforcing forgetting), but sometimes with certain pride, cherishing a sense of ownership of the walls and preserving a few of the palace’s details. Instead of destruction and forgetting, however, the benevolent appropriation of the past has saved the palace and sometimes its accessories rather than letting them perish.

    The recent transformation of the building into a museum has been gradual and initially slow. In 2011, the school ceased to operate, then an inventory of the heritage was completed, an architectural survey of the building was carried out, the archaeological and archival past of the walls and the park was explored; finally, the reconstruction plans were drawn up and the building was renovated. This process involved supplying the rooms and spaces with new content, and the creation of a thematic exhibition at the end.

    Gathering, staging, or (re)creating the mosaic-pieces of the past (whatever it may have been) was part of this re-playing. These were necessary points of reference, supported with the commonplace that the “history” of the palace had to be re-played and replayed here. Therefore, the most important task was not the “repetition” of the stories themselves, but the act of repetition, of re-playing itself. This became the learning process through which the palace found new life. Understanding the past, the transmission, and the channelling of knowledge. In this study I seek answers to the question of how to refill the emptied spaces, what to do with the lost and then found objects in the palace, and how to “fill” the place with “memories”?