Vol 8, No 1 (2017)
Students from the Hungarian Kingdom at the Universities of Vienna and Krakow in the Jagiellonian Age (1491–1525). This paper aims at examining the number of the students from the Hungarian Kingdom during the period of the Jagiellonian kings in Hungary. The importance of the topic is explained by the fact that 90... percent of the students attending foreign universities matriculated at these two institutions. It can be declared that the number of those who enriched their knowledge at these two universities increased
in this period. This growth stopped in the second half of the 1510s and the number of the Hungarian peregrinators radically decreased after 1521. The phaenomenon can be explained by the Reformation. Meanwhile, the war against the Ottoman conquerors has to be mentioned in the case of the Hungarian Kingdom.
From Krakow to Wittenberg. Students from the Hungarian Kingdom at the Universities of Krakow, Vienna and Wittenberg in the 16th Century. This paper aims at collecting the students from the Hungarian Kingdom at the universities of Krakow, Vienna and Wittenberg in the 16th century. According to the medieval traditio...ns, the majority of the students attended the university of Vienna and Krakow (90%) in the first quarter of the 16th century. After the battle of Mohács (1526), the situation changed
basically, and in the second period up to 1550, the University of Wittenberg started to rise, however, the total number of the peregrinating students decreased significantly. After 1550 the peregrination from the Hungarian Kingdom started to increase, however, its magnitude reached the level of the beginning of the 16th century again only in the 17th century. The heyday of the University of Wittenberg dates back to the second part of the 16th century, when the university of Krakow was hardly attended by any students of the Hungarian Kingdom. Whereas the universities of Vienna and Krakow attracted the students originated from the institutions’ neighbourhood, the university of Wittenberg was attended by the Saxons and it was also popular with the burghers of Debrecen. All the three universities had an organization for the students who came from the Hungarian Kingdom. However, the one of Vienna (Natio Hungarica) was not a national college in its modern sense; the one of Krakow (Bursa Hungarorum) was considereda national community in the first half of the 20th century. On the other hand, it seems more acceptable, that those students were its members, who originated far from Krakow. The college of Wittenberg (Coetus Ungaricus) was considered a national community, but its students must have chosen it because of their religious convictions, since many of them were engaged in the new ideas of the Reformation. Meanwhile, the most-known reformers from the 16th century attended these three universities, mainly Wittenberg. Both the first Hungarian Calvinist bishop, Márton Sánta Kálmáncsehi (Krakow 1523) and ‘the Hungarian Luther’, Mátyás Bíró Dévai (Krakow 1523, Wittenberg, 1528), moreover Ferenc Dávid (Wittenberg 1545), the founder and the first bishop of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania appeared at these universities.
Chances and consequences of Catholic academic Peregrination in mid-16th c. Hungary (1530–1580). This study deals proposes a preliminary answer to the questions what the most popular trends of Catholic academic peregrination were after the arrival of Protestantism in Hungary, and what its most important consequen...ces were in terms of career advancement and cultural influences. It seems that academic peregrination remained prevalent in the circles of higher clergy both through family ties and because
of career advancement, with the exception of bishop friars and bishop warlords. There survive only scanty sources about the actual graduation of the students, and a doctoral degree remained a rarity among higher clergy even after the council of Trient. The cultural impact of academic peregrination on Catholic lower clergy has not been examined yet in detail by current reserch. Three case studies are presented here on Stephanus Thomasius, Bálint (Valentinus) Nádasdi, and András Mindszenti, in order to demonstrate the modernisinig tendencies in the cultural ideologies of Catholicism. Beside a strong presence of Erasmianism, both Christian cabbala of the era, and the reform of Catholic homiletics seemed to have played an important role in the cultural impact of academic peregrination in this period.
Hungarian protestant peregrination in the 16th–18th century. Thanks to the researches of the last two decades nowadays we are able to nearly precisely determine the foreign educated Hungarian university students’ numbers and denominational affiliations. In the article I primary examined the order of magnitude of <...em>the catholic and protestant peregrination in the marked 3 centuries. In that era, the denominational characters of the different universities determined which students could attend their educations. Naturally, a few „tolerant” universities like Padova accepted students from every religion. In the research, we used the word „protestant” as generic term, because in the beginning of the 17th century it is nearly impossible to separate the Lutheran, Reformed and Unitarian students in the historical documents. The data of matriculations indicate that the protestant students represented a higher number in the Hungarian peregrination in every century however this fact was especially true for the 17th century. Namely, because the protestants usually matriculated at many different universities during their educations. Although, if we examine the summarized number of students who attended foreign education we gain nearly equal numbers about the Protestants and Catholics.
Coetus Ungaricus. Hungarian student body in Wittenberg (1555–1613). At the University of – Wittenberg, in 1555, the Hungarian students – with Philipp Melanchthon’s support – founded a student society (in Latin: a coetus) which existed until 1613. Its important documents are the university records, now ke...pt in Halle, and the society’s register-book can be found in Debrecen. The most important documents of the university archive (to be found also in Halle nowadays), due to the stormy historical events only a fragmental one, can be reached today in a printed form. The Hungarian scholars started to deal with the history of the coetus in the first half of the 20th century, but those publications are not accurate enough according to the modern norms. The majority of the students arrived from the rural layers of Hungarian society, from villages or small towns, and this fact can be witnessed in their family names. An element of which was generally the very name of their native settlement. (See: Gáspár Károlyi, who was born in Nagykároly, etc.) In certain periods some young men from the smaller nobility, or even aristocracy appeared in this community. Most of the Hungarians studied in Wittenberg only for one-two years, and couldn’t reach an M.A, degree, but some of them spent a long time abroad, in several countries. After their arrival the served as professors, and later ministers of the Hungarian protestant churches, some of them became superintendents, bishops of our Reformed Church.
Lutheran students in Wittenberg. The essay presents a short overview of Lutheran students from Hungary in Reformation-time Wittenberg. More than a thousand pastors-to-be spent several semesters in Germany, the Lutheran orientation of which influenced their further career. Scholarly research has revealed an impress...ive amount of details regarding this multifaceted group of students, Mátyás Dévai Bíró among the most well-known. Luther’s Table Talks include a variety of remarks related to Hungarian students. Dévai Bíró also appears in the 10th, closing episode of the Luther animation series being produced for 2017. In the last section, the author shortly presents three ex-Wittenberg students whose heritage lies in hymn writing: Besides Dévai, the works of András Farkas and András Batizi. Tihe philological and theological input the Wittenberg students produced for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Hungary was accompanied by intensive international networking exemplary for us today.
The Students of Wittenberg and the Transtibiscan Reformation. The three generations of Hungarian ministers which returned from the University of Wittenberg each walked a different path in spreading the Reformation. Some of them remained followers of Luther (Mátyás Dévai Bíró, Imre Ozorai, István Gálszécsi, ...>Sebestyén Károlyi Boldi). The next group represented a shift in the teachings, and they established church administration after the Swiss model, while still being direct students of Melanchthon. Later, they became bishops and deans, the elite of church leadership (Benedek Bánffyhunyadi Mogyoró, György Czeglédi, Ferenc Czeglédi, Péter Méliusz Juhász, György Gönczi Kovács alias György Fabricius). It is safe to state that both the Lutheran and the Calvinist forms of Reformation were distributed by students of Wittenberg, in which Melanchthon played a crucial role. His work was characterised by temperance and tolerance: he proclaimed fidelity in cases where it was necessary, and in the rest – for the sake of unity –, compliance. Many believe that this was what allowed the Swiss school of Protestantism to spread quickly across Hungary in the second half of the century. Concerning the dispersion and the positions of the Lutheran and the Calvinist branches throughout Hungary, however, not only confessional issues should be examined but contemporary politics, too. It was the Wittenberg generation that came after the death of Melanchthon (but was still educated in the spirit of Melanchthonian theology and humanism) which brought about the establishment of a church from the Swiss branch, organised along political lines and firmly dependent on them. This generation included Péter Károlyi and Lukács Hodászi Pap. 16th-century Hungarian Reformed theology was characterised by eclecticism which did not originate from Wittenberg alone, but Wittenberg provided it with the ground where it could develop.
Academical Noble Students from Zala County and the Beginning of the Reformation in Zala County in the 16th Century. The appearance and spread of the Reformation in Zala county in the 16th century has been hardly examined so far. It can be explained both by the low number of the sources and their low exploration. T...he new researches in connection with the 500th anniversary of the appearance of the Reformation have revealed several new, unexplored primary sources unknown up to the present and the publications on the Hungarian academica peregrinatio uncovered the academical home students of the mainly German, Protestant universities. Furthermore, the charters of the Zalavár and Kapornak convents as places of authentication (locus credibilis) and the notes of the minutes of the general meetings of Zala county can also be involved in the research. These diverse sources complete the well-known data of the Bánffy diary, the Canonica Visitatio of the Veszprém bishopric in 1554 and the personal letters of Tamás Nádasdy. However, it has to be mentioned that these sources contain only few direct details referring to the Reformation. Meanwhile, the noblemen residing in Zala county or having connection with it (Alsólendvai Bánffy, Nádasdy, Zrínyi) and their familiaris (Csányi, Háshágyi, Terjék, Zele, Kávásy and other families), who were devoted to the new religion or sympathized with it, and among them the students of Wittenberg, appear in several charters or minutes which demonstrate the obvious appearance, spread and social background of the Reformation in Zala county.
On Calvin Volumes bought in Wittenberg. An Experiment for Improvement of the Peregrination Research. This paper represents a further step towards the exploitation and extension of the current achievements related to the research of peregrination with the help of Book History. The main focus is on those volumes of...John Calvin, which were bought by Hungarian or Transylvanian students in Wittenberg during the 16th century and in present they are being located in Transylvanian collections. Analyzing the dates of
the acquisitions it is revealed that during the 1570’s 32 volumes got to inland owners. This represents 15% of the records being available to our disposal, and one third of the volumes of John Calvin arriving in the 16th century. About 60% of the owners are Transylvanian Saxons. Their purchase of books reflects on the one hand the crypto-Calvinist-Melanchtonian intellectuality at the University of Wittenberg before 1575, and the theological disputes present at the church of the Transylvanian Saxons on the other.
Contribution to the sources of the desciption Nürnberg by Márton Szepsi Csombor. The first travel book in Hungarian – Europica Varietas – was printed in 1620 in the town Kassa, which at that time „Cassovia Superioris Hungariae civitas primaria” was. It is well-known, that Márton Szepsi Csombor read before his travel numbersone ge...ographical and historical books, but he hasn’t mentioned his reading list. It is most probably, that Szepsi Csombor (1595–1622) knew well the descriptions from Conrad Celtis and
Johannes Cochlaeus (Brevis Germaniae descriptio, 1512), too. From the sights of Nürnberg he has admired the fine but fortifide castle on the hill, the beautiful stone buildings, the magnificent hospitals, the famous churchyard St. Johannis, the old churches, the market-place, the fine fountain „Schöner Brunnen, and many – but not very expensive – inns. Szepsi Csombor belived, that „Norimberga* is a famous town of repute among all nations.” Finally the Author has mentioned the Altorfiana university and the name of
Dr. Remus, who „has* rendred great service to the Hungarian youth and still does.” The critical edition of the complete works of Márton Szepsi Csombor was edited by Sándor Iván Kovács and Péter Kulcsár in Budapest, 1968. The Europica Varietas translated from the Hungarian and with an Introduction by Bernard Adams [Corvina, Budapest 2014] *The quotations were taken over from the Translation of Bernard Adams.
Unitarian Peregrination in the 16th and 17th century: Narratives and the Bessenyei-problem. This paper provides a fresh examination of the peregrination of Transylvanian Unitarian students in the 16 th and 17th century. Focusing on keyexamples, putting the details into a more accurate context, the question of the...choice of university – Wittenberg, Frankfurt, Padua, Rome, Vienna, or Dutch universities – among different generations becomes more nuanced. Bookentries, inscriptions, marginalia, letters, diaries, and travelentries are used to identify new names in the matriculas, and to refine knowledge of student networks: social circles (and patrons), contacts, and relations. This study examines members of the Kornis and Haller families, and provides a clearer identification of two Wittenberg students: Jakab Bessenyei and Péter Bessenyei.
A little work of Hungarology with jurisprudential acc ents from the first half of the 17th century. Wilhelm Artner was the second person from Sopron, who became a jurist doctor in the Early Modern Age and applied his professional knowledge for the benefit of his city and Lutheran church. The present paper gives an... outlook of his studies in Tubingen by introducing one of his works created there in detail. First, a draft is presented of the education and professors in the Law Faculty of Tubingen in the first third of the 17th century. Second, the circumstances of the creation and content of the disputation titled „De Regno Hungariae ejusque jure” – which was created with the co-operation of Professor Christoph Besold and Artner – is emphasized. The paper tries to eliminate the erroneous and stereotypical evaluations that have been linked with it throughout the past centuries and now the disputation is viewed as one of the first works of Hungarology.
Theological studies of Hungarian students in the Netherlands based on archival sources. Hungarian peregrination found their new routes after having banned Calvinists students from Wittenberg and after the fall of Heidelberg. Hungarian students visited Dutch universities from the end of the 16 th century till 1795...when French troops occupied the Netherlands. Most of the Hungarian protestants were Calvinists and the main goal of the peregrination academica was the education of Hungarian Calvinist clergymen. This papers aims at presenting the most important theological movements based on archival sources which originated from the Netherlands or reached the Hungarians Calvinist church through the Dutch universities: arminianism, puritanism and coccejanism. Hungarian representatives of these theological movements, their theological debates in the Netherlands and in their home church and furthermore their influence on the Hungarian/Transylvanian Calvinist church will be mentioned. In the last part I will examine the theological exams, testimonials and dissertations of becoming Calvinist theologists.
University Studies of Professors at the evangelical Colleg of Presov up to 19th century. Evangelical College in Presov, as one of the most important evangelical schools in Hungary, considered the high quality education of its teachers to be very important since its establishment, and as a rule, the positions of professors<.../em> were occupied by the graduates of German universities. Before establishment of the College, the Town Council likewise had seen to it that the humanistic „gymnasium” had been lead by rectors with high quality university education. This paper aims at creating a portrait of studies of professors at Evangelical College in Presov, and at its predecessor – the Municipal Lutheran Gymnasium over a period of three centuries, from the half of the 16 th to the half of the 19 th centuries whereby the data about its rectors, conrecors and subrectors were used as a source. In the period of these three centuries 111 Presov Evangelical rectors, conrectors and subrectors acquired their education at 26 universities or colleges. Most of them, 34, studied at Wittenberg (30%), followed by Jena (11), Tübingen (7), Thorn (6), Halle (4), Vienna (4) and Frankfurt (4). Three of them graduated from the University in Altdorf, two in Greifswald and the Reformed College in Sarospatak and by one in Rostock, Prague, Gdansk, Graz, Strassburg, Helmstädt, Erfurt, Giessen, Erlangen, Rinteln, Paris, Vratislav, Dresden and Göttingen. Other 16 professors studied at unknown places, eventually did not obtained higher education. 20 professors obtained their education at more than one university or college, most of them (7) in the first period of existence of the College (1667–1711), and least of them (2) in the first half of the 19 th century.
Unpredictable Peregrinations. Rates and Figures of Late Peregrination at the Reformed College of Sárospatak. Between 1781 and 1857 two third of the professors and approximately half of the junior lecturers at the Reformed College of Sárospatak left for foreign universities and colleges. Instead of the Netherlands, by the... 19th century the most preferred destinations of these 1–3-year-long study trips were more accessible German universities. It was the sign of a new era that the most renowned professors of the Reformed College were those who stayed away from these peregrinations and traditional ways, and many of whom became members of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Interestingly, major curricular reforms and endeavours in the reform period may also be linked to such figures, including János Erdélyi, Sándor Kövy, István Nyíry and Antal Pálkövi. Comparing the life of the two professors with the longest and most successful peregrinations, we may come to completely contrasting results: while the great success of Pál Beregszászi Nagy’s peregrinations led to a rapid failure, Gábor Őri Fülep’s career took off after his long stay abroad.
Historical Overview of the Lyceum of Leutschau. The script summerizes the story of the Lutheran lyceum in Leutschau, based on the Lutheran archives from there. Between 1544–1674 the whole city was Lutheran, the secondary grammer-school reached a high level, lead from the rector, who was financed by the city-admi...nistration. In the time of the counter-reformation the Lutheran community tried to keep up their school, which was financed by the German burgher. At the time of rector Marton Liedemann, 1793–1813 developped the lyceum, on the highest degree were taught philosophy and theology on high-school level. The building of the school became the sc. Hain-house on the market-place. Because of financial problem since 1859 became the school a „state Lutheran grammer-school”, from 1869 a state „Hauptrealschule”. The lyceal library remained at the Lutheran congregation, it has develepped to the famous Lutheran library and archives of Leutschau, which contained material not only for the Lutheran, bot also for the burgher and the city.
Ways and possibilities in the analytical comparison of lycea of Bratislava and Sopron. In 1781 Joseph the II’ Edict of Tolerance has opened a new age in the life of the protestants’ educational system. After its introduction radical alterations took place in these institutions. Guarded by the law these schools started...to expand and modernize their higher educational environments. On one hand I would like to briefly summarize these processes until 1849. On the other hand, I wish to present all the information we collected
about their students from this period.
Not catholic Students at Royal Law Academies between 1777 and 1850. In the following study my goal is to examine an unusual question about the royal academies: the religious structure of the students. The most students were catholic in this institutions. The explanation of this fact is these academies were founded ...>by Maria Theresia, and before that were owned by the Jesuit order. From 1777 these academies were state institutions. However, the Protestants had their own school network in this period, we could also find not catholic students at the register books. I would like to examine these students’ social background, and try to answer the question, why they chose for the royal academies. All of these data are collected by the MTAELTE Histories of Universities Research Group.