Vol 9, No 2 (2018): MMXVIII vol. IX. nr. 2

Published March 18, 2019



Tóth Lajos akadémikus, a polgári jog professzora, a Debreceni m. kir. Tisza István-Tudományegyetem 1934/35. évi Rector Magnificusa
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Lajos Tóth, Professor of Civil Law, the Rector Magnificus of the Hungarian Royal István Tisza University of Debrecen during the academic year 1933/1934. Prof. Dr. Lajos Tóth (1876–1936), Member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, was a professor strongly bound to Debrecen. He was born in Debrecen, he completed his schools there too, and ...(after studying law in Budapest) he worked at he Faculty of Law from its opening in 1914 until the end of his life. The study gives a summary of his life and professional results as a professor of civil law, but focuses on his role in the administration of the university. His most active period of leadership was the academic year of 1919–20, when in fact he was the leader of the university as vice rector because of the illness of Rector Gyula Kenézy. In addition, he succeeded in completing the justification procedures during the revolutions. Although, he was ill, he was trying to solve his activities as the rector of the university in the academic year of 1934–35. Beside his academic work, he took part in the social politics of Debrecen, too. He was a member of the municipal committee of the city; he was office-holder of the Transtibiscan Reformed Church District for decades. From 1930, he was Senator in the upper house of the Hungarian Parliament, as a representative of the University of Debrecen.

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„Non procul ex proprio stipite poma cadunt”, avagy a „két Kolosváry” élete az egyetemtörténet tükrében
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Non procul ex proprio stipite poma cadunt, or the Life of the „two Kolosvárys” in the Mirror of the Univerity History. In my study, I intend to introduce the history of the Faculty. The study outlines the life’s work of father and son, who are closely related to the legal history embedded in the history of the University. They both were ...closely connected with the city, and in addition to their teaching activities they also played an active role in the social life of Cluj-Napoca: they were chief editors of the papers and presidents of scientific and civil associations. Alexander Kolosváry has played a prominent role in the life of the University and within the Faculty of Law. He was four times the dean of the Faculty and once held the post of rector. In addition, he coproduced the Hungarian translation of Tripartitum and Corpus Juris Hungarici with Professor Clement Óvári. Valentine Kolosváry was considered one of the biggest private lawyers of the century at the time. Valentine Kolosváry was a worthy successor to his father, not only as a head of department at the University but also in the patronage of the Reformed Church of John Calvin and Church Districts and its rights.

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Szakszerűség, tudományosság, kritikusság – a politikai aktivitás kezdetei az egyetemi ifjúság körében kétszáz éve
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Comp etence, Erudition and Critical Thinking. The Beginnings of Political Act ivity among University Students in the Early 19th Century. The first decade of the 19th century was a period of significant change in terms of the political activity of European university students. They had come forward before in hope of achieving interest- or value-...based goals, and in such cases, they exhibited a considerable ability to promote their own interests. However, their involvement and political role was entirely different in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. From the 1810s on, the opinion and activity of university student as political actors independent from both the university and the professors were taken into account – and often even feared – by the political elite in power. The transformation of university students’ political role was the result of several, almost simultaneous changes accumulating. Due to the branching off of professional degrees and the increasing expertise of their scientific base, expectations of civic engagement based on critical thinking, and a new kind of uncertainty deriving from various sources made university students especially responsive to problems of their times. Several factors played a vital role in this growing responsiveness: the (cameralist) teachings of the Enlightenment; the strengthening of academies of science, which were the primary competitors of universities; as well as a concomitant separation of disciplines and the disappearance of the shared theological-philosophical-philological language used before. These factors were intensified by career starter graduates’ recurring fears of unemployment – triggered by processes of professionalization – which further increased university students’ interest in public affairs and their political activity.

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Az egyetemi és akadémiai ifjúság politikai szerepvállalása 1830–1880 között
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The Political Involvement of the University- and Academic Youth between 1830 and 1880. The institutional network of the higher education in Hungary was very diverse on the turn of the 18th and 19th century and in the first part of the 19th century. In the multi-national and multi-confessional country, 88 institutions provided higher than medium... level education. Most of these institutions were related to the historical denomination but besides them several state higher educational institutions existed. We reported about the student movements of these schools in this paper. In the first part of the 19th century the Holy Alliance’s system prohibited the foundation of student movements, although, in most of the institutions, reading circles and literature student associations were formed in which the leaders of the future national movements played an important role. The period of the revolution and the fight for freedom of 1848–1849 was significant regarding the student movements as well, because at most universities the studentry listed their requests aiming not only the reform of student life but the social changes as well. After the defeat of the freedom fight it was not possible to form student associations for ten years. But from the 1860s the battle for the national language of higher education marked the Hungarian youth movements. After the Austro- Hungarian Compromise, the studentry’s activity decreased, although they spoke in some political questions. For example, in 1867–1877, during the time of the Russian-Turkish war, the students in Pest and Cluj- Napoca stood against the Russians and not the Turks. This action produced that the university youth got back 36 valuable medieval codices from the Turks which were stolen in 1526 from the Royal Library in Buda.

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Politikai küzdelmek a századfordulón a budapesti egyetemi körben (1888–1899)
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Political Struggles at the Turn of the Century in the University Circle of Budapest 1888–1898. The study presents details about the activities of the, so far quite unknown, University Circle of Budapest in the last decade of the 19th century. Its source is the Egyetemi Lapok university periodical, voicing the political views of the youth. In ...the writings thereof, the author tries to find sings of how the university students became divided, which manifested itself in the anti-Semitic cross movement in the first year of the new century, in 1901. What led to the principally liberal Hungarian bourgeoisie and gentry youth interested in politics separating itself, or even turning against, their Jewish counterparts, formulating their own interests against them? The Budapest University was one of the prominent locations of the assimilation process of the Jews concentrated in the capital, and the roots of the dividedness of the Hungarian intellectuals may be found in the events, and intellectual reactions, that took place at that time.

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A „nagy háború” hatása a magyar felsőoktatásra és az egyetemi ifjúságra
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The ’Great War’s Influence on the Hungarian Higher Education and Youth. The study examines the different effects that occurred as a consequence of the First World War, such as the reduction of student numbers due to enlisting the army, the society’s reaction to the increased number of women and Jewish students, the reduced activity of uni...versity societies, the loss of territory due to war, the continuous inflation, and the radical right wing’s reaction to the lack of stability of the Hungarian youth. These consequences resulted in the increased popularity of the so called association of army brotherhood. To sum up, the author concludes that the Hungarian higher education wasn’t well prepared for the war, which in turn resulted in a number of negative consequences in the following decades.

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Az egyetemi ifjúság útkeresése az 1930-as években és 1940 körül
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The Soulsearching of Hungarian Higher Education Students in the 1930s and 1940s. The study primarily focuses on the influential role of army brotherhood societies between the two world wars. The author outlines the ideological background and intellectual pursuit behind the movement. These brotherhood societies were so powerful, that in the 1930...s and 1940s part of their activities manifested outside of the higher education environment. The societies actively engaged in politics, as much so, that their aim was to be part of the development of laws and the constitution. The author discusses the ambitions of both the radical right and the somewhat left wing youth establishments.

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A nagyszebeni jogakadémia hallgatóinak kérelme az oktatás megreformálása tárgyában 1848 májusából
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The Request for Educational Reform of the Students of the School of Law in Nagyszeben of May 1848. In spring 1848 amidst the zeal of the revolution started in almost all of the higher educational institutions in Hungary and Transylvania student movements to reform education in the institutions. In May 1848 the students of the Law School of the ...Saxons in Transylvania at Nagyszeben also submitted an application through the institution’s Senate to the sustaining Lutheran Church including – among others – the following issues: guaranteeing the freedom to education and teaching, reforming the study and exam system, significantly developing the substance of the library, getting the right to meet and vote for the students’ representatives during procedures against students; reviewing the academy’s disciplinary regulation. The following source-presentation – besides the Hungarian translation of the request – explains the circumstances of origin and the afterlife of the application.

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A debreceni Kossuth Lajos Tudományegyetem archontológiája 1950–1990 XI. rész
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The Archontology of Lajos Kossuth University of Arts and Sciences (1950–1990), Part XI: University Library. The Archontology of Kossuth University for the School of Arts, the School of Sciences, and for the so-called „Central Units” between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 1990, was compiled on the basis of the personal cards and persona...l files of the Personnel Department of the Rector’s Office, and the scantily documented section for the 1950s was supplemented from the annually arranged documentary material of the Personnel Office. Even so, however, the existing material fails to be complete. It is impossible to compile the archontology with perfect accuracy. Part XI presents the complete list pertaining to the University Library from director-general to janitor.

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Prof. Endes Pongrác élete és munkássága visszaemlékezés születésének 110. és halálának 25 éves évfordulójára
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The Life and Scientific Career of Prof. Endes Pongrác: In Memoriam of His 110Th Birthday, and the 25Th Anniversary of His Death. The study reminisces on the life and work of Prof. Pongrác Endes, through the account of the author who was a colleague and student of Endes. Professor Endes had been a dominant figure of the field of pathology at t...he Faculty of Medicine of the University of Debrecen for a number of years. He became a legend even before his death, and a number of anecdotes circulated about his expertise. The study is based on the presentation of the author, adjured by the Hungarian Society for the History of Medicine, and the Professor’s Club of the University of Debrecen, to celebrate the dual anniversary of Professor Endes. The presentation includes bibliographical details, in addition to interesting scientific and educational information. The tone of the study clearly indicated that the Master and student relationship between Professor Endes and the author turned into a friendship over the years.

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30 éves a debreceni angol nyelvű orvosképzés
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The 30th anniversary of the English Program at the Facult y Of Medicine. The Faculty of Medicine at the University of Debrecen celebrated the 30th anniversary of the English Program in medical education in 2017. The program was initiated in 1986 with a one-year premedical course and this training has been upheld with great s...uccesses up to now. In the 1987/88 academic year 52 students from 15 countries started their studies on the General Medicine course and eight of them graduated as medical doctor (MD) at the end of the six year training period in 1992. During the 30 years the number of the admitted and then the graduated students had increased yearly. Thus, 307 students started on the first year and 180 sixth year students received MD diploma in 2017 implying the significant development and a continuous interest in medical education in English in Debrecen. From the very beginning, the curriculum of English language programs is identical with that of the Hungarian one. Students apply for admission directly or via recruiting agents while entrance exams are conducted exclusively by the staff members of the University. The English language medical education in Debrecen has been accredited in many countries including some states in the USA. From 2000 to date other medical and health related programs such as Dentistry, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Public Health, Molecular Biology and Complex Rehabilitation have been started and in the last year altogether 264 students graduated in these courses including also General Medicine. Parallel to the extension of the above programs from 2007 the other faculties also started education in English. By 2017 more than 5000 foreign students from 109 countries study at the University of Debrecen. Now the Coordinating Center for International Education organizes the English programs and its duties, among many other responsibilities, include contracting with recruiting agents, organizing entrance examinations, caring for the incoming students with respect to visa, health control and insurance. The income from the tuition fees has increased during the years and now represent a significant portion of the University budget, therefore it allows the renovation and also the establishment of new facilities at the University to the benefit of students. Although the students of the English Programs have different cultural, political and religious background, they establish good relation with each other and with the students studying in Hungarian. In summary, as a result of the high standards in education in English the University of Debrecen became a well-known and important institution on the educational map of the world and our intention is to uphold and further develop this acquired status in the future.

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Book Reviews

Lexikon der Studenten aus Estland, Livland und Kurland an europäischen Universitäten 1561–1800 - recenzió
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A Lexikon der Studenten aus Estland, Livland und Kurland an europäischen Universitäten 1561–1800 című könyv recenziója

Študenti z bratislavskej stolice Na zahraničných univerzitách A vysokých školách do roku 1918 - recenció
188 - 191

A Študenti z bratislavskej stolice Na zahraničných univerzitách A vysokých školách do roku 1918 című könyv recenziója.



Gondolatok a pécsi tudományegyetem jubileuma kapcsán
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Thoughts about the University of Pécs Celebrating it’s 650th Jubilee. The University of Pécs, the first ever university in Hungary, celebrated the 650th anniversary of its establishment in September 2017. The study briefly describes the different projects and events that were initiated in Pécs but also around the country in order to celebr...ate the jubilee condignly. These efforts included university and department level publications, exhibitions, and other events that attracted attention above and beyond the city of Pécs. It is important to note, that there were a number of international scholars and collaborators involved in the organization of some events.

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