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Assessment of temperament and its effect on weaning performance for Aubrac and Charolais weaned calves
Published June 5, 2009
161-169

The purposes of the present study are to compare the temperament of calves of different breed and sex at weaning, to analyse the effect of temperament on weaning performance, and to
define the correlations  between the previous traits. In the experiment carried out in Gelej in 2006 the behaviour of 61 Aubrac and 25 Charolais calves (39 ...heifer and 47 bull calves) was
assessed at weaning. The weight (WW) and the age of animals were detected, in addition temperament (TEMP) of them was scored. The weaning age (AU: 190±16.96 days, CH: 176±14.94
days; P<0.001) and the weaning weight adjusted to 205 days of age (CWW) (AU: 192.39±31.32 kg, CH: 213.80±23.99 kg; P<0.01) of the two breeds significantly differed of each other. The
temperament of calves was evaluated by scale test on a 5-point scale during weighing. The data were processed by SPSS 14.0 program package (Mann-Whitney U test, MANOVA, Tukey test,
Spearman rank correlation test). Significant difference was revealed between the two breeds in TEMP (AU: 2 scores and CH: 3 scores; P<0.001), furthermore also difference was proven
between the bull calves of Aubrac and Charolais in the behaviour (AU: 2 scores and CH: 3 scores, P<0.01). Analysing the effect of sex both for 86 calves and each breed, it was showed that the TEMP of the heifer and bull calves was equalled (P>0.10). Both of the WW and CWW were influenced by the behaviour of calves (P<0.05), which meant that the more excitable calves had higher WW and CWW. Positive, weak correlation coefficients were calculated among the TEMP, the WW and the CWW (rrank=0.28 and rrank=0.31; P<0.01). By their results it was concluded that in young age not only the performance but also the behaviour of calves are determined by the calf rearing ability of suckling cow. 

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Study of changes in the strength of connection between grey cattle cows and their offspring after weaning
Published June 1, 2021
129-136

It is important to minimize stress for cattle because of animal welfare and profitability. This study aims to reveal how long after abrupt weaning the cow and her offspring show a need to rebuild the connection if physical barriers are removed and distances disappear. The research was carried out on Szamárhát Farm owned by the Tiszatáj F...oundation, Hungary. In the autumn of 2019, thirty-one calves were weaned, randomly selected from 81 grey cattle cows’ offspring. The oldest calf was 10 months old, while the youngest one was 6 months old on the day of weaning. They were divided into three groups and reunited with the cows during the first, third, and fifth weeks after weaning. Each reunion happened in the early afternoon and the cow and her offspring spent 24 hours together again. The formation and the strength of the connection were recorded for an hour three times during this period, first in the afternoon, then in the morning, and the next afternoon. It can be seen that both parties showed the need to form the connection during the first week after weaning because the bond made between them was obvious in a short time. The connections proved to be strong. However, neither the cows nor their offsprings showed any intention to form strong connections in the third and fifth weeks. In the majority of the cases, no connection was formed. 

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Effect of supplemental pig milk replacer on piglet weight gain and sow backfat thickness
Published March 24, 2015
43-47

Sow milk production is the major factor limiting pig growth to weaning. Although the milk production of the sows incremental many environmental factors affect the actual performances. The supplemental milk replacer can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and try to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to ...their appetite, to enlarge the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of liquid milk supplement on weight development and litter performance of the piglets during the suckling period. Data were collected from 60 farrowings, the weight of 649 piglets in a total were measured at birth, 14 days old and at weaning (28 days), respectively. In the control group (n=319) the piglets were suckled and got prestarter feed from day 10. In the experimental group (n= 330) the piglets had got liquid milk replacer in 10.71% solution, from day 10 after birth together with suckling and prestarter feed, as well. Based on the Duncan's multiple range tests, there were no significant differences in birth weight between the control and experimental group but we found significant differences between the 14 days weight and the weaning weight, subsequently. Based on the CV% of weight the experimental group became more homogenous, in contrary to the weight of the control group at the end of suckling period. The milk supplementation can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to their appetite, to enlarge and uniform the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately.

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‘Kindergarten’ keeping-system in farrowing house: effect the socialization of piglets on weight performances, fecal cortisol metabolite level and post-weaning behavior
Published June 1, 2021
167-174

This study aimed to examine whether litters’ let-together system before weaning (‘kindergarten-system’) has any stress effect and effect on post-weaning behavior, respectively. One week before weaning piglets were socialized by removing four adjacent farrowing crate walls. After weaning, piglets from the same experimental groups were ...housed in the same rearing crates. The piglet’s body weight was measured at birth than weekly till the 7th life-week. Fecal cortisol metabolites were measured for evaluation of the adrenocortical activity. Personal observation and evaluation were carried out for behavioral analyses after weaning. There were no significant differences in weight development and cortisol metabolite levels between the control and experimental groups. Behavioral analysis showed that pigs grow up in a socialized system, rapidly evolve ranking in the rearing crates, and the self-maintenance and social behavior were more pronounced. In control groups, the activity involving movement (exploring, walking, and running) was much more decisive. Recent work suggested the beneficial effect of the ‘kindergarten’ system in the farrowing house in animal welfare aspects.

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Preliminary results on Siberian sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus marsiglii) fries rearing under intensive conditions
Published February 10, 2013
27-31

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In our experiments production performances of Siberian sterlet were tested under intensive tank conditions. During the 25 days long experiment effectiveness of weaning to artificial diet of the fish was investigated. Production performances of fish fed on exclusively dry diet from the beginnings were lower than the other two groups. Between the values of sterlets fed on live food also then suddenly vs. continuously were weaned to dry diet there were no significant differences. Based on our results live food feeding could be suggested for the Siberian sterlet larvae for some days but the method of the weaning to dry diet has no significant influence to the production performances.

In 21 days long experiment four different feeding frequencies were tested in Siberian sterlet (~13 g) fingerlings. Dry feed was offered for the fish continuously, 2, 3 and 4 times per day. There were no significant differences between the values of the four treatments. Based on our results there is no high influence of feeding frequency in case of this size group of Siberian sterlet.

During the nursing in two different size groups of Siberian sterlet the optimal daily amounts of feed were aimed to determine. In case of growth values of the group fed at 7% of the total biomass were higher than the other two groups (3 and 5%). Feeding performances of fish fed at 5% were significantly better than fish fed at 7%. Based on our results for ~20 g size of the subspecies at least 5% of total body weight could be suggested.

In case of ~150 g size of the fish the production performances of fish fed at 1% were lower than the other two groups (2 and 3%). Between the values of stocks fed at 2 and 3% there were no significant differences. Based on these results 2% of total body weight of dry feed could be suggested for the Siberian sterlet with ~150 g body weight.

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Examination the stresseffect of litter’s let-together system (“kindergarten”) by measuring faecal cortisol metabolites of sows and piglets
Published March 23, 2016
87-90

Piglets in commercial intensive pig husbandry are often abruptly weaned between 3 and 4 weeks for economic reasons. The process of weaning is a multifactorial stressor, in which nutritional, social, physical and psychologic stressors are combined. Piglets are often exposed to unfamiliar piglets around weaning which results in a period of vigoro...us fighting. Stress plays an important part in welfare research. Traditionally glucocorticoids are measured in blood samples but their use is often limited as the act of sample collection may stress an animal. Measurement of faecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites is a non-invasive method for evaluation adrenocortical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of litter’s let-together system (“kindergarten”) in the farrowing house by measuring faecal cortisol metabolites. According to our results the “kindergarten” system has no stress effect on sows and piglets, respectively.

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Effect of different n-6/n-3 fatty acid proportion oil sources on reproduction performance and fatty acid profile of milk in modern genotype sows - Pleminary results: Preliminary results
Published May 20, 2020
121-128

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on sow’s milk fatty acid composition during the lactation period and on reproductive efficiency of sows in the subsequent gestation period. Data were collected on a total of 213 DanBred sows (108 control and 105 experimental) representing parity of... 2–7, respectively. Control and experimental sows were placed in the same housing conditions during lactation and gestation period. Control group received 6.3 g of sunflower oil (SO) per kg feed as n-6 fatty acid supplementation, whilst experimental animals received the same amount of fish oil (FO) as n-3 fatty acid source. Diets were corn meal-extracted soybean meal based. The experiment was conducted in one replication as being a part of a longer and more comprehensive trial. It was found that the consumed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) appeared in the sow’s milk and changed its fatty acid profile. With this alteration, the n-6/n-3 ratio of experimental (FO) sows’ milk were narrower than in SO group (SO: 13.82 vs. FO: 5.89). The benefits of n-3 fatty acids supplementation were evident for the subsequent reproduction cycle, when experimental sows heated more reliable and earlier than control (weaning to oestrus interval: SO: 5.86 vs. FO: 4.48 days). Only 2.33% of experimental sows (FO) did not heat within 7 days after weaning, but this was 12.36% in the control group (SO). The present study requires further research to evaluate the effect of n-3 fatty acids on maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size.

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Age-Related Anatomical and Morphological Development of the Ruminant Stomach in Kids
Published December 4, 2001
55-56

We observed the anatomical and morphological development of each compartment of the ruminant stomach in 3. 6. and 14 week old kids. Weaning from milk to roughage foraging, depending on the kids’ ages, stimulated the development of the rumen and reticulum, and decreased the abomasum portion. A 3 week old kid’s rumen has dense and thin papill...as but, with advancing age and with roughage foraging, the number of the papillas on cm2 decreases and their width increases. The omasum tertiary laminae and especially the quaternary laminae are observable only in the advanced age categories.

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Effect of different weaning time on the growth and survival ofCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae
Published December 28, 2018
55-59

Within our experiment, we studied the combined effect of live food application and feed training on the production parameters of carp larvae. In addition, we examined whether there is a difference in the growth rate and survival rate of the specimens of Szeged mirror landrace reared in similar stocking density but with different treatments.

...

Specimens of Szeged mirror landrace from induced propagation were placed into 12 pieces of 40-liter aquaria. For the 4 different treatments, (K, A3, A6, A9), live food (Artemia salina) was fed, as well as feed training was applied.

We also sought to find an answer as to how our feeding and rearing conditions can affect the production parameters of common carp fries and what impact these conditions may have on their survival rates. At the end of the 2-week experiment we determined the individual weight gain of the carp fries, their survival rate and the biomass growth. The purpose of the study is to examine the optimum timing of shifting from live food to feed for carp larvae.

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