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The Role of Cultivation Systems in Quality Sugar Beet Production
Published December 6, 2005
134-138

Producing sugar beet, as it is a demanding field crop, has contributed to the raising standard of plant production. It has an outstanding place among the plants that are cultivated in the intensive plant production system. Rentability of sugar manufacture is determined by the stability of yield and the quality (saccharose content) of sugar beet.... In this way, the fundamental interest both of the producers and the processing industry is high yield and quality, year by year. The yield and the quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, so we studied the effect of fertilization, irrigation and plant protection.

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Impact of weather on the spring crops yield in Croatia with emphasis on climatic change and the 2014 growing season
Published October 24, 2016
41-46

Main field crops in Croatia are maize, soybean, sunflower and sugar beet. By these crops are covered (status 2014) close to 50% (385 234 ha) of utilized arable land. Global warming, have often adverse influence on field crop yields. Aim of this study was testing precipitation and temperature regimes on spring crops yield in Croatia in 15-year p...eriod (1999–2013) and elaboration of the 2014 growing season with aspect of climatic change.

Four growing seasons (2000, 2003, 2007 and 2012) were less favorable for maize because annual yield was bellow 5 t ha-1 (average 4.38 t ha-1), while in four more favorable years (2005, 2008, 2009 and 2010) annual yield was above 6.8 t ha-1 (average 7.32 t ha-1). Average precipitation and temperature for the April-September period in Osijek were 226 mm and 496 mm, 19.6 oC and 18.6 oC, for less and more favorable years, respectively. Yields of soybeans and sugar beet have mainly similar trend as maize yields in function of weather conditions, while sunflower is more susceptible to extremely moist growing seasons (for example, 2001 and 2005: 650 mm and 697 mm precipitation and very low yields in level 1.7 and 1.6 t ha-1, respectively). On the other side, under drought conditions of 2003, 2007 and 2012, yields of sunflower were above average in range from 2.5 to 2.7 t ha-1), while at same period yields of maize, soybean and sugar beet were drastically reduced.

Average precipitation in the April-September period of 2014 for eight selected sites of Croatia was 756 mm or for 68% higher in comparison with the long-term average 1961–1990 with variation among the sites from 520 mm in Osijek to 910 mm in Varazdin. On the other side, average air-temperature in 2014 was 17.8 oC or for 0.7 oC higher with variations among the sites from 17.2 oC in Daruvar and Varazdin to 18.2 oC in Osijek and 18.3 oC in Gradiste. Under these favorable weather conditions, annual yields of maize (8.1 t ha-1), soybeans (2.8 t ha-1) , sunflower (2.9 t ha-1) and sugar beet 63.6 t ha-1) were considerable higher than usual.

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Spatially Discrete GIS Analysis of Sampling Points Based on Yield and Quality Analysis of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published March 4, 2006
32-37

Fulfilment of the increasing quality requirements of sugar beet production can be analysed with sampling of plants and soil at the cultivated area. Analyses of the spatial characteristics of samples require exact geodetic positioning. This is applied in practice using GPS in precision agriculture. The examinations were made in a sample area loc...ated in north-western Hungary with sugar beet test plant. According to the traditional sample taking procedure N=60 samples were taken in regular 20 x 20 m grid, where besides the plant micro and macro elements, the sugar industrial quality parameters (Equations 1-2) and the agro-chemical parameters of soils were analysed. Till now, to gain values of mean, weighted mean and standard variance values, geometric analogues used in geography were adapted, which correspond to the mean centre (Equation 3), the spatially weighted mean centre (Equation 4), the standard distance (Equation 5), and the standard distance circle values. Robust spatial statistical values provide abstractions, which can be visually estimated immediately, and applied to analyse several parameters in parallel or in time series (Figure 1). This interpretation technique considers the spatial position of each point to another individually (distance and direction), and the value of the plant and soil parameters. Mapping the sample area in GIS environment, the coordinates of the spatially weighted mean centre values of the measured plant and soil parameters correlated to the mean centre values showed a northwest direction. Exceptions were the total salt and calcium-carbonate contents, and the molybdenum concentration of the soil samples (Table 1). As a new visual analysis, the spatially weighted mean centre values of the parameters as eigenvectors were projected to the mean centre values as origin. To characterize the production yield, the raw and digested sugar contents of the sample area, the absolute rotation angles of the generated vectors were determined, which indicate numerically the inhomogenity of the area (Figure 2). The generated spatial analogues are applicable to characterise visually and quantitatively the spatial positions of sampling points and the measured parameters in a quick way. However, their disadvantage is that they do not provide information on the tightness and direction of the spatial correlation similarly to the original statistical parameters.

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Foliar treatments of Sugar beet
Published November 15, 2007
55-59

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active a...gents. Treatments were replicated four times.
We took root and leaf samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfaamino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were measured with ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments. 

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Results of foliar treatments on Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published July 16, 2007
303-308

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active a...gents. Treatments were replicated four times.
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments in both of the two years.

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Response of sugar beet to different foliar fertilizers
Published December 21, 2008
127-136

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by level crop production system; therefore the effects of foliar fertilization were studied. Our field trials were carried out in 2005  and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two experimental sites. In our trials the effects of Biomit Plussz, Fitohorm and Kelcare Cu (having high Cu... content) as foliar fertilizers, as well as a fungicide with high sulphur content, Cosavet DF, were studied and
compared. Effects of treatments were studied in four replicates. 
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were taken three times in the growing season, element composition was measured by ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments both of the two years.

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Influence of Foliar Treatments on the yield and quality of Sugar Beet
Published May 23, 2006
119-123

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active agents. Tr...eatments were replicated four times.
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments

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Examination of Possibilities for Increasing Sugar Content
Published May 11, 2003
202-206

The result of sugar beet production is highly effected by the quality and the yield. Those agricultural techniques are very important which can be applied at low cost to improve these parameters. Such an opportunity is to increase sugar yield by foliar fertilization with nutrients and by treatment with bioactive fungicides.
In my small block... trial I examined the effect of the magnesium and strobilurin active ingredients in different combinations and at different application times on the quality and the yield of sugar beet.
I found that there was a signifficant increase in sugar content on that blocks which were treated with a bioactive ingredient combined with magnesium in the middle of July and on those which were sprayed with bioactive ingredient in August.

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Allelopathic Effect of Italian Cocklebur on Sugar Beet
Published December 6, 2005
74-77

Cockleburs are noxious weeds in Hungary, where they are widespread in row crops, especially in maize, sunflower and sugarbeet. A low density population of these weeds may be harmful because of their large competitive ability, fast growth in early phenological stages, allelopathy, and persistant sprouting.
Allelopathy of Xanthium italicum Mor.... was examined during the growing season in 2004. Root and shoot samples were collected at 4 or 5 leaves stage (in the end of May and in the beginning of June) and before flowering (in the beginning of July) before and after rain. Extracts were made in tap water. The test plant was Beta vulgaris L.; its germination, root and shoot growth were evaluated at the 6th and 10th days after treatment.
Most of extracts inhibited the germination of sugar beet. In these experiments the phenological stage of the donor plant determined slightly the effectiveness of the extracts on sugar beet. Generally, significant differences existed between treatments only in cases of concentrated extracts.
Rainfall can modify the inhibitory effect of extracts (especially shoot extracts). Shoot extracts of young plants inhibited stronger germination and growth after rain than before rain. Density of cockleburs influenced the effect of extracts, as well. Generally, differences between the efficacy of extracts was larger after rain.
The results supported the hypothesis that the phenological stage and some environmental factors can modify allelopathy of cockleburs.

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Researches on the quick method of sugar productivity evaluation
Published October 5, 2010
26-29

In a sugar factory it is necessary to be able to calculate very quickly the sugar productivity possible to obtain by processing the beet
having a certain technological quality. That is the reason why, in the following lines, it is presented a very quick method used by the Institute of
Alimentary Chemistry, the laboratory for sugar researc...h and engineering, for such kind of quick calculations, but with a high theoretical and
practical precision.

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Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops
Published September 7, 2001
41-46

The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil...s water management characteristics.
The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
• Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
• The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
• From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
• The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
• The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
• The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

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Optimization of Density of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Production Quotas by Pointwise Geostatistic Methods
Published March 4, 2005
46-50

The regional distribution of the Hungarian sugar beet production quotas was developed by the conventional concurrency relationships. In our research we analyzed 320 sectors of 9 factories with geostatistic methods in a GIS environment. The applied researches of spatial mean, spatial deviation, deviational ellipse have been introduced by us in t...his speciality. We used two different methods in our optimization inquiries, where the spatial segment of the standard deviational ellipse was based on a more robust preliminary data processing solution, and this is why it is a less parametricable method. The inquiry of the spatial buffer zones in production sectors ensures an obvious optimization possibility. We considered the supply route distances in both cases as a modeling boundary condition. Our results show that we introduced an effective decision making method to the occurent replanning of the production sectors with the pointwise density inquiries and the geometric analogy that was fitted to it.

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Possibilities of Weed Beet (Beta vulgaris, L. ssp. marritima) Regulation
Published November 20, 2011
133-136

Weed infestation regulation in sugar beet belongs to the most difficult growing measures, the aim of our work was to find out, if active substances contained in preparations Roundup and Fazor influence number, weight and germination of clusters in plants of weed beets. Statistically significant differences in germinability were found among cont...rol and all variants in which preparation Fazor was applied. The Roundup treatment did not have significant influence on germination. Presented results are only preliminary and one-year results, more experiments are necessary to determine the effects of the studied applications.

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Influence of Foliar Treatments on the Sugar Yield Changes of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published May 4, 2004
108-111

In our small block experiment in randomised blocks, we examined the effect of 6 foliar treatments at 3 different nutrition levels in 2002 on meadow chernozem soil.
The experiment consisted of 3 blocks, which corresponded to 3 different nutrition levels. The first block was the control, the fertilization rate of the second block was 20 kg ha<...sup>-1 N, 40 kg ha-1 P2O5, 120 kg ha-1 K2O, on the third block 40 kg ha-1 N, 80 kg ha-1 P2O5, 240 kg ha-1 K2O were applied. We applied magnesium and strobilurin active ingredient (Juwel, BAS 51200), in different combination and with different application dates.
We found that the foliar treatments with bioactive fungicides significantly influenced the yield and some quality parameters in this field experiment.

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The Effect of Zanthium Extracts on Germination in Relation to Interior and Exterior Factors
Published May 4, 2004
65-69

In Hungary, the cocklebur species significantly endanger row crops (i.e. corn, sunflower, sugar beet). Their fast spreading is caused by many reasons: long-lasting emergence, reduced sensitivity to many kinds of herbicides, vigorous competitional ability, allelopathy, fast initial growth and changes in climate. The means of allelopathy is used ...by many species of plants in the competition with one another, as well as by the cockleburs. But the efficiency of this is influenced by many factors. Species with allelopathical effect could show different behaviour under different conditions: they can produce compounds with retarding and stimulating effects in different quantities or compositions. The actual condition of the acceptor plant and the mediator agent (i.e. soil) influence the final effect.
In this experiment influence of phenology and rainfall was studied on allelopathy of cockleburs in May, July and September. A stronger inhibition was observed on growth of cress before rain in July than in May, but this retarding effect disappeared after rainfall. However, the samples collected in September have significant inhibitory effect after rain. Inhibition of sugarbeet’s germination was stronger in May than in July, and the difference increased after rain.

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Remembrance to László Huzián (1923-1996)
Published November 10, 2010
5-11

László Huzián was a determining personality of the higher education of Hungarian crop protection more precisely that of the agricultural entomology. Training of the scientific and extension specialists of Hungarian agricultural entomology from 1960 till 1983 would have been unimaginable without him. He was the builder of the agricultural ent...omology school established by Gusztáv Adolf Manninger, the developer of the training’s essential and organisational standard, who sacrificed his life’s work for developing the crop protection. He found, characterized many pests (E.g. Scrobipalpa ocellatella, Lixus scabricollis, Tanymecus palliatus, Mesagroicus obscurus) new for the Hungarian fauna and worked out a control technology against them. It is important to mention his activity in creating the forecasting of the big field crop animal pests mainly that of the sugar beet pests. One top of his educational work was the wonderful manual „Agricultural Entomology” written with Sándor Bognár in 1979. László Szalay-Marzsó said of this book that it was impossible to write a better one. He has been right. The magnificent crop protection library and the unique richness and accuracy of the animal demonstration material (slides, pictures, preparates, showcases, etc.) established at the Gödöllő University of Agriculture can be thanked to his extraordinary systematizing mentality and tireless efforts.

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Spatially Continuous GIS Analysis of Sampling Points Based on Yield and Quality Analysis of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published March 4, 2005
56-61

The homogeneity of a study area of 20x20 m used for beetroot production in North-West Hungary was analysed with geo-statistical methods on the basis of measured plant and soil parameters. Based on variogram calculations (Equation 1 and 2), the yield surface showed homogeneity in North-South direction. Considering the results, decrease of sampli...ng distance to 17 m can be suggested. The direction of the variability of yield (Figure 1) could be modelled with a direction variogram based on analysis of the variogram surface. In the study, developed methodological processes are presented for the analysis of spatial relationship between measured production and soil parameters. 5 spatial evaluation methods for yield surface were compared (Table 1). On the basis of the analysed methods, it can be stated that different methods (LP, RBF) should be used when the reasons for locally extreme yields are in focus than in case when the yield surface of the whole area is estimated (IDW, GP). Using adequate parameters the kriging method is applicable for both functions. Similarly to the results of an ordinary Pearson correlation analysis, spatial correlation analysis was shown using soil pH and Cu concentration data. The results of cross variogram analysis (Equation 2) and the North-South direction of the variogram surface showed negative correlation (Figure 3). Based on simulation calculations, decrease of 30% in sampling points resulted in increase of 12% in error for the total sample number considering Cu concentration. The method provides a tool to decrease the cost of sampling and sample analyses of spatially correlating features, and to increase the reliability of spatial estimation using a better sampling strategy with the same sample number.

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