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Impact of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the growth and micronutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published September 5, 2018

Micronutrients are as important as macronutrients for crops. Each micronutrient has its own function in plant growth. Zinc is important for membrane integrity and phytochrome activities. Copper is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of wheat. Manganese is required for enzyme activation, in electron transport, and in disease resis...tance. The pot experiment was set up in greenhouse on calcareous chernozem soil Debrecen-Látókép with a spring wheat. In certain development stages (according to BBCH growth scale of wheat), at the beginning of stem elongation (29–30), at the heading (51–59), at the flowering (61–69) stage three average plants were removed from all pots for analysis. Fresh and dry weight of the plant samples were measured. Plant leaves after drying were digested by HNO3-H2O2 methods and manganese, zinc and copper contents of plant were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At the flowering stage, when the nutrient uptake of plants is the most intensive, the weight of wheat ranged between 0.94–1.57 g plant-1. In this development stage, the NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of wheat, and compared to this the NS3 treatment decreased that value already. The results show unfavourable effect of NS3 treatment. On the basis of microelement content of wheat and the weight of a plant, nutrient uptake by plant were calculated. At the beginning of growth the starter treatment had positive effect on Cu-uptake compared to the NS1 treatment, where the same dose of fertilizer was stirred into the soil. Wheat is very sensitive to copper deficiency, so copper dissolved by starter treatment could be favourable to the early development of wheat. At flowering stage the Zn-uptake of wheat became the highest and it was between 133.7–234.6 mg plant-1. The Mn-uptake of wheat plant was higher than the Cu- and Zn-uptake of wheat.

This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the untreated soil had higher Mn-content, than Cu- and Zn-content. To summarize the results, it can be stated, that the copper uptake of wheat was more affected by the different treatments in the stage of stem elongation, while Mn- and Zn-uptake of wheat were influenced primarily in the stage of heading and flowering.

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Effect of divided nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on the quality of winter wheat
Published February 3, 2016

The ecological characteristics and agro-ecological conditions in Hungary provide opportunities for quality wheat production. For the successful wheat production besides the favorable conditions; the proper use of expertise and appropriate cultivation techniques are not negligible. Successful cultivation affected by many factors. To some extent ...we can affect, influence and convert the abiotic factors.

Today, a particularly topical issue is the question of nutrition and that the species’ genetic code can be validated using the appropriate quantity and quality fertilizer. Beyond determining the fertilizer requirements of the winter wheat it is important to align the nutrient to the plant’s nutrient uptake dynamics and to ensure its shared dispensing. In any case, it is important to note the use of autumnal base-fertilizer as complex fertilizer. Hereafter sharing the fertilizer during the growing season with the recommended adequate nitrogen dose.The first top dressing of winter wheat in early spring (the time of tillering) can be made, the second top dressing at the time of stem elongation, and the third top dressing at the end of the blooming can be justified. Determining the rate of fertilizer application depends on the habitat conditions and the specific nutrient needs of plants. In autumn the 1/3 of the planned amount of basic fertilizer should be dispensed (in case of N). During setting our experiment we used 3 doses (0 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient; 90 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredients and 150 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient). Application dates beyond the autumn basic fertilization are the following: in one pass in early spring, divided in early spring and the time of run up, early spring and late flowering. In addition to nitrogen the replacement of sulfur gets a prominent role as a result of decreased atmospheric inputs. The proper sulfur supply mainly affects the quality parameters. It influences positively the wheat flour’s measure of value characteristics (gluten properties, volume of bread, dough rheology.

In terms of nitrogen doses; the larger amounts (150 kg ha-1 N-1 drug), is the proposed distributed application, while in the case of lower nitrogen (90 kg ha-1 N-1 drug) in a single pass in the early spring can achieve better results. After using sulfur the quality values among the nutritional parameters that can be associated with gluten properties took up higher values than the samples not treated with sulfur.

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Examination of the Effect of Cropyear on the Yield Potential and Yield Stability of Winter Wheat Varieties
Published December 6, 2005

Variety selection is one of the most important, determinative elements of sustainable winter wheat production. Yield potential, and yield stability are the most important elements in the variety selection of winter wheat, but baking quality parameters play an important role, too.
Several winter wheat varieties were tested for yield and yield... stability on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (in the eastern part of Hungary), in the 2001-2002-2003-2004 cropyears. The management factors were the same for all cropyears. 15 varieties in early the maturity group, 14 varieties in the middle maturity group and 4 varieties in the late maturity group were tested in the above mentioned cropyears. The climatic conditions were average in 2001, dry in 2002, extremely dry in 2003, and very favourable in 2004.
We obtained 5298-6183 kgha-1 yield from early maturity varieties, 5683-6495 kgha-1 from middle, 5694-6031 kgha-1 from late ones in the average of four years. The cropyears had strong influence on the yields, even on chernozem soil, and were characterized by excellent water – and nutrient – husbandry. Averaging of cropyears and genotypes, we obtained 6984 kgha-1 in 2001 (average cropyear), 5452 kgha-1 in 2002 (dry cropyear), 3120 kgha-1 in 2003 (extremely dry cropyear) and 8400 kgha-1 in 2004 (optimum cropyear), respectively. The yield differences between the minimum and maximum yields were 885 kgha-1 in early varieties, 812 kgha-1 in middle and 337 kgha-1 in late maturity varieties, respectively. The varieties characterized by high yield potential and the varieties characterized by good yield stability were different, so in variety selection we have to take both genetic traits into consideration. There were positive, significant correlations among the yields of winter wheat varieties (early, middle, late), the temperature of spring months. (March-April), and the rainfall of spring months (March-April) (R2=0,703**-0,768** and R2=0,681**-0,749**, respectively). We found a high negative correlation between the temperature of early summer months (May-June) and the yields of wheat varieties (R2= -0,856**- -0,918**).
According to the results of our experiment, it is very important to harmonize yield potential and yield stability in the variety selection of winter wheat.

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The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published June 30, 2018
Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot exper...iment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
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Effect of the Cropping Year on the Quality of Winter Wheat
Published May 4, 2004

We examined the formation of quality parameters of winter wheat in a small plot variety comparison experiment from four cropping years. Our aim was to estimate the year effect on several quality parameters of winter wheat.
We established in relation to the distribution of precipitation of the examined years that the years 1997 and 2000 were ...behind the thirty year average typical precipitation of this site both in the case of the whole vegetation period and the spring and summer. It was unfavourable for qualitative wheat production. 1998 and 1999 were good for cropping considering the amount and distribution of rainfall.
Examining the formation of quality parameters we found that the baking value was maximum in 1997, with a moderate amount of normal distributed rainfall for the examined varieties. The mid-late maturating varieties showed better baking value in drought years than in wet years. In the case of the wet gluten content, we established higher values after a rainier spring-summer period. There is a conspicuous difference between the falling number of extensive and intensive varieties and the year had significant effect on the formation of values. We established with correlation analysis that both the precipitation of vegetation period and the maturing rainfall had considerable effect on the value of falling number. Examining the effect of fertilization on the formation of wet gluten content as a quadratic equation, we found that precipitation may both increase and maximalize the value of this quality parameter.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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Evaluation of the yield and baking quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in different cropyears
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We have investigated the effect of the cropyear, the genotype, the nutrient supply and their interactions on the yield and the quality parameters of three different winter wheat genotypes in three different cropyears. The most disadvantageous influence on the yield averages was caused by the moist weather of 2010, when yield results fell behind the mean of the two other examined years and the nutrient optimum was around low doses. The optimal cropyear turned out to be the ordinary 2011, the best yield results were experienced during this cropyear. Although the drier periods in 2012 decreased the yield values, the varieties could realize high yield maximum values. Considering the yield results, Genius turned out to be the best variety. In respect of the quality traits, 2010 turned out to be the best cropyear in case of all the three varieties. Despite the dry weather of the spring of 2012, the precipitation fell during flowering and ripening phases had positive impact on the grain-filling processes and contributed to the development of better quality. As a consequence of the significantly lower amount of precipitation during the generative phenological phases, the worst quality parameters were realized by the varieties in 2011.


In respect of crop year effect, 2010 was unfavourable for the amount of yield, but the most beneficial for the quality. 2011 was the most advantageous for the yield amounts but disadvantageous for the quality parameters. Although in 2012 extreme crop year effects were experienced after each other (dry and warm spring, moist and warm summer), the yield average and quality trait values were close to the yield averages of 2011 and quality parameters of 2010. Analyzing our results we can state that the average crop year was favourable rather for the yield. The appropriate amount of precipitation during the whole 2010 and that during the generative phenophases in 2012 favoured the development of good quality.

Consequently, the appropriate amount of precipitation is essential for the development of good quality during the grain-filling period. The negative crop year effects were only compensated but not eliminated by the good nutrient supply. Genius achieved excellent yield averages but performed worse quality parameters than Mv Toldi, whose quality parameters were outstanding but the yield averages fell slightly behind those of Genius. Considering the yield results, the variety Genius turned out to be the best, while Mv Toldi was the best in quality.

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Changes in the Sulphur Content of Winter Wheat in a Field Experiment
Published May 4, 2004

The use of superphosphate as P-containing fertiliser decreased in the last years in many countries in accordance with strict air pollution laws, and the S-deposition decreased from the atmosphere to the soil as well.
Winter wheat is the one of the S-demanding plants. Recently, the gradually increasing S absence endanger the formation of requ...ired average yield of winter wheat, and has bad effect on its quality.
We examined the effect of treatments on the sulphur-, nitrogen content and the N/S ratio of winter wheat in the whole upperground plant and in the grain and straw at harvest in a arable land sulphur fertilization experiment on brown forest soil (Agricultural Company of Felsőzsolca).
We analysed the samples from spring to harvesting, in the critical phenophases. In this study we discuss only the values from the stooling and stalking and the results of analysis of grain and straw in the harvest.
We experienced that the concentration of sulphur in the whole upperground parts of winter wheat showed increase to the end of vegetation independently of fertilization. The N/S ratio was between 8% and 12% in the beginning of the growth period in the whole upperground plant, while the ratio in the grain at harvest was between 13 and 14%. When we examined the whole upperground plant, stalk and leaf at stalking, we got the highest sulphur content in the leaf. Mostly the middle level sulphur fertilization dose (4 l/ha) increased the sulphur accumulation in the green plant. At total maturing, the greatest part of accumulated sulphur is in the grain, but then the effect of fertilization is less glaring.

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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
Published November 2, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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Nutritional disorders of arable crop growth in eastern Croatia
Published September 5, 2018

Nutritional imbalances accompanied with growth retardation of crops at early growth stage were found since the last 40 years on certain arable lands in eastern Croatia. In this regard, phosphorus (P) deficiencies in maize and wheat were found mainly on acid soils of the western part of the region, potassium (K) deficiencies in maize, soybean on... the hydromorphic neutral to alkaline calcaric drained gleysols of Sava valley lowland, while zinc (Zn) deficiencies were observed mainly in seed-maize and soybean on neutral calcaric eutric cambisols of the eastern part of the region. Cold and moist spring is factor promoting P deficiency symptoms. As oasis of normal crops existed on same arable land, comparison of plant and soil composition was possible from typical sites. P nutrition disorders were in connection with the lower P and the higher aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations in the top of plants and the lower soil pH values. K-deficiency as result of strong K fixation and imbalances with high levels of magnesium (Mg) were the main responsible factors of low maize and soybean yields on some drained gleysols. Chlorosis incidences typical for Zn deficiency in maize and soybean were in close connection with the higher soil pH, the lower quantities of mobile Zn, here and there the higher mobile P in soil, the lower concentrations of Zn and the higher levels of Al and Fe in plants. Overcoming the above mentioned disorders and normalization of yields were achieved using ameliorative fertilization either by K or P fertilizers and in case of Zn by foliar spraying of crops with 0.75% ZnSO4 solution. Also, alleviations are possible by selection of more tolerant genotypes of field crops to specific types of nutritional disorders. From this aspect, some practical solutions were recommended for maize with reference to K nutritional problems.

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