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  • Statistical comparison of soil analysing results of chernozem soils
    93-99
    Views:
    119

    The soil fertility was degraded as a result of unreasonable tillage, therefore the application of site-specific nutrient replacement is necessary. It is essential for the application of precision fertilization to know the location, extension, soil properties and nutrient-supply of the different soil types of
    cultivated areas.
    We collected soil samples from 580 hectares of land in 2006. Soil samples were collected from every 5 ha in 30 and 60 cm depths during Spring from 20.05.2006 to 12.06.2006 and again in Autumn from 09.19.2006 to 02.10.2006. Soil samples were analysed at the Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science of DE-ATC.
    The two examined soils are slightly calcareous, weakly saline, poor in zinc. The calcareous chernozem soil is slightly acid, the content of humus, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is medium in this soil. The meadow chernozem soil is slightly alkaline, and properly supplied with humus and potassium, and middling supplied with nitrogen and phosphorus. The meadow chernozem soil is more heterogenous in soil plasticity, lime, saline, nitrogen phosphorus and potassium content and less heterogenous in pH and zinc content than the calcareous chernozem soil.
    Standard deviation of measured values in pH, soil plasticity, humus and nitrogen content significantly differ between the examined soil types. The soil plasticity, pH, humus, nitrogen and zinc content significantly differ among calcareous chernozem soil and meadow chernozem soil, but the difference in phosphorus content can be statistically proven only in case of Spring soil sampling.

  • Soil analysis as the foundation of precision nutritive supply in the Hajdúszoboszló region
    141-148
    Views:
    71

    Larger cultivated plots are heterogeneous from a pedological aspect. Heterogeneity causes problems during fertilization and harvest. The heterogeneity of cultivated areas can be compensated by fertilization which is based on soil analysis. We carried out research into the changes of the soil on three soil types, from 1966 to 2006, on the cultivated areas of Hajdúszoboszló.
    There were no significant changes in pH on chernozem meadow soil and meadow chernozem soil, but the pH increased in 0-30 cm layer on type meadow solonetz soil. The saline content decreased in every examined soil type. Decrease was the largest on meadow solonetz soil. Decline of humus content was the largest (0.95%) on chernozem meadow soil, and the smallest (0.39%) on meadow chernozem soil. The nitrogen content decreased with 528 ppm in the 0-30 cm layer on chernozem meadow soil, and decreased by 186 ppm on meadow solonetz soil. Phosphorus and
    potassium content increased in every examined soil types. Rise of phosphorus content was 188.9 ppm in the 0-30 cm layer on meadow chernozem soil. The potassium content rose by 153.7 ppm on this soil type. Phosphorus content increased with 70.8 ppm, and potassium content increased by 57.6 ppm from 1966 to 2006.

  • Comparative analysis of soil analysing datas on different sempling-plots
    85-90
    Views:
    64

    Hibrid maize is cultivated on larger plots, therefore the sown areas of hibrid maize are heterogeneous from a pedology aspect. Heterogenity causes problems during tasseling, chemical plant protection and harvest. The heterogenity of sown areas can be compensated by fertilization which is based on soil analysis. We carried out research into change of the soil on four soil types from 1987 to 2005.
    There were no significant changes in pH, hydroiodic acidity, CaCO3-content, humus-content on meadow chernozem soil. We detected equalization of salin content in the examined soil layers. There were no significant changes in the measured values on chernozem meadow soil and solonetz meadow soil in 2005. We discoverd equalization of saline content on chernozem meadow soil, but the changes were not as obvious as the changes on meadow chernozem soil. We found salinization in the 30-60 cm soil layer on type meadow soil that may be due to water movement.

  • Botanical Survey of a Seminatural Saline Meadow
    38-44
    Views:
    71

    We made a botanical survey of a seminatural meadow situated in the vicinity of Hajdúnánás-Tedej in Hungary, using traditional phytocenological methods. The habitat, based on its soil-, and botanical characteristics, can be classified into the category of saline meadows. One of the landscape ecological values of this area is its mosaic-like structure and, as a consequence, this habitat can be divided into six characteristic associations with blurry borderlines and characteristic overlaps. Because of its rare plant species and species richness this area can be considered to be a valuable „seed bank” and a „stepping stone” in the ecological network among the larger, intensively cultivated fields. The area can be evaluated as moderately recovered, the natural species are dominant, but there are few disturbance tolerant species. Except for the two saline associations, the high grass associations, which make up about two-thirds of the habitat, are cut once a year; therefore, the agricultural utilisation of the area and its prevention against weediness are being assured at the same time.

  • The effect of different genotype cattle grazing on the nutrient content of saline grasslands vegetation
    46-50
    Views:
    173

    Maintaining saline grasslands in good condition, preserving their yield and diversity is important not only for the purpose of nature conservation, but also for farming. Therefore, the primary purpose of our study is to analyse the effect of pasture use of the smaller weight extensive and the larger weight intensive beef cattle on the grassland vegetation and nutrient content. In this way, we can answer the question whether grazing for nature conservation can be achieved with more profitable, more economical and more intense varieties.

    The tests were carried out in May 2016 and May 2017, in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám puszta), where a total of 16 sample areas were analysed. These areas are grazed with extensive beef cattle (Hungarian grey) and mixed genotype of intensive cattle. The associations were selected along a moisture gradient, such as wet salt marsh (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier saline meadow (Beckmannion eruciformis). All the vegetative material collected both years in May was analysed for the following parameters: dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and life-sustaining net energy content. We compared the effects of medium grazing (0.46 livestock/ha) and abandonment on vegetation and nutrient content.

    We examined the effect of (i) grazing, (ii) different grasslands (salt marsh, saline meadow) and (iii) grazing of different cattle breeds (Hungarian grey, intensive beef) on the nutrient content of the vegetation of grasslands Based on our results, it was found that grazing had an impact on crude protein and life-sustaining net energy content. The highest crude protein content (12.75 m/m%) was obtained in the year 2017 in the area where higher density had been grazed for two years. For the lifesustaining net energy, the highest value (5.05 MJ/kg d.m.) was also obtained in 2017 and the lowest in 2016. Furthermore, it was found that there was no significant difference between the effect of the two cattle breeds on the parameters examined. Significant effects were observed only in the case of life-sustaining net energy: in the area of intensive beef cattle we received a higher value (5.15 MJ/kg body weight) than in the area with extensive beef cattle (4.96 MJ/kg body weight).

    Our results have also shown that cattle grazing is of the utmost importance for the maintenance of both wet and mesophilous habitats. Based on our three-year study, we can say that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds is suitable for the management of saline habitats.

  • Effect of sufficient and deficit irrigation with different salt inputs on the yield of cucumber
    19-25
    Views:
    53

    Soil salinisation is considered one of the major environmental hazards threatening agricultural productivity and can be accentuated by climate change as well as the use of low-quality water in irrigation. This is the case in our study area which is affected by secondary salinisation due to the use of saline irrigation water for horticultural production. Deficit irrigation technique is implemented especially in arid and semiarid regions due to its potential to optimise water productivity while maintaining or increasing crop yield. The main objective of this study was to compare the effect of irrigation with sufficient (SD) and deficit (DD) doses. This research was carried out in Karcag in 2020. Cucumber was grown on a meadow chernozem soil and was irrigated with SD and DD of two irrigation water qualities. Soil moisture was monitored and crop yields were recorded. Despite the differences in quality and quantity of water, the application of less water by DD maintained the same yield as SD. We found a non-significant difference between the average soil moisture contents under the treatments (15.5 v/v% for SD and 13.5 v/v% for DD). Deficit irrigation can be an efficient technique due to its potential for improving water use efficiency, maintaining sufficient soil moisture content favourable for proper crop development and yield.