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The examination of human resources in the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region on the basis of human resource hierarchy
Published July 28, 2008
91-110

In this paper, I deal with the examination of the situation and change of human resources through the human resource hierarchy. My research covers the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region, which includes four settlements, two towns (Hódmezővásárhely as the centre of the area and Mindszent) and two villages (Mártély and Székkutas). Based on ...population density the micro-region is qualified as a rural territory, which is underpinned by the micro-region’s market town and homestead like character.
I took the human resource system of Cloke and Park (1985) published in their book of Rural Resource Management as a basis of my examination and I pursued my research in consideration of Fehér’s (2005) researches related to rural economy. The system of human resources provided a hierarchical and logical framework for my examination. In the course of the research I made analyses along the three levels of human resources concerning the micro-region and its settlements.
During the examination of the human resources of the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region I pointed out some negative changes and situations which unfavourably influence the socio-economic processes of the territory and its settlements. All this reveal that the human resources are not only factors of the economy of the micro-region as a rural economy but at the same time they are areas to be developed. The living standard (welfare) of the people living in the area and their quality of life (well-being) depend on the development and level of the different dimensions of the human resources largely. For that very reason there is a need for coordinated development of the human resources and the related fields with respect to the cause-effect relations.
My research contributes to the better cognition of rural resources of the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region, without this a rational improvement and sustainable development of the micro-region and its settlements based on inner resources cannot be imagined.

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Public finance resources and regional distribution of rural development
Published September 18, 2014
73-77

...x; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Rural development, more specifically the economic development of counties have three public finance resources: the municipality, the central budgetary and the labour market fund resources. Based on the provisions of public finance, there are currently five provisions of the municipality resources of rural development: supporting settlements struggling with employment problems, supporting multi-purpose small regions, supporting settlements which are in a difficult position through no fault of their own, supporting public utility development and supporting holiday resorts. The opportunity of increasing investments is using EU funds. The structural change has a favourable direction, the proportion of the economic development program and regional developments increased in the recent years, but their share is still low. The proportion of agricultural and rural development programs which are important from the aspect of rural development is a less favourable phenomenon. Furthermore, the share of human and social development somewhat decreased, but it is still high. Apart from the regional programs, the Budget Act does not specify the regional distribution of budgets, only the professional purposes of uses, of which it is possible to conclude to which county development can be requested resources for.

Between 2008 and 2011, the 13–15% share of the North Great Plain region was close to the population share of 14.7%. In 2012, there was a turn of events in which the necessity of developing the region was shown. In this year, not only the proportion, but also the absolute extent of development resources increased. Therefore, the region could use resources of 16.9 billion HUF in 2010, 31.4 billion HUF in 2011 and 56.3 billion HUF in 2012. In order to properly use these resources, determined utilisation structure is necessary to be performed. The distribution of development purposes provides an explanation for the backward position of the economic performance of Hajdú-Bihar county.

Of the development resources available for four years, the region spent only 12.2% on economic development.

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Characterization of Water Resources in Transcarpathia
Published December 6, 2005
277-281

Transcarpathia is located in one of the wettest parts of the Ukraine. There are 9429 rivers and creeks in the county with a total length of 19.86 thousand kilometers. The length of 152 rivers exceeds 10 km, 4 exceed 100 km (Tisza, Latorca, Ung and Borsava rivers). The average density of rivers is 1.7 km/km2, which is the highest in the Ukraine.... The existing water resources are distributed unevenly in the county. The river with the greatest mass of water is the Tisza. Tisza carries 75% of all existing water resources, the remaining 25% is made up of the water in the river Ung and Latorca. Disregarding the uneven distribution of water resources, 80% of water is used up in the basins of the rivers Ung and Latorca from the water resources of the county, which leads to the overload of rivers.
The main sources of water supply in Transcarpathia: subsurface waters – for the population of cities and settlements, surface and subsurface waters – for the industry, surface waters – for irrigation.
In the interest of protecting existing water resources, it is required to follow current regulations, detecting and averting contaminating sources and establishing water conservation zones.

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Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils
Published December 10, 2002
62-74

Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil fu...nctions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

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Landscape use of protected areas in the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region
Published June 5, 2009
179-193

One of the biggest questions of developing rural areas is that people and organisations living and making their activity there how and in what measure utilize the local or obtainable external
resources. The concept of the landscape expresses the direct connection of the natural resources with the socio-economic processes. This is a two-way c...onnection, (1) on the one hand the single landscapes provide the unique combination of natural conditions for the socio-economic utilisation which is different from other landscapes, (2) on the other hand as the result of the interaction of natural spheres together with the social and economic spheres the landscapes change in a different manner and in a different measure. The landscape as a territorial unit and as a resource is inseparable from the natural resources, and the nature
conservation plays an increasingly important role in the use of the landscape and landscape management, which is an essential task not only in protected areas, but everywhere. The natural resources, the landscape, the nature conservation and the landscape use are related tightly, in which the so-called ecological/biological resources and their sustainable use have a
significant role. 

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Evaluation of technologies and resources from the spatial and social aspect
Published April 23, 2014
73-75

The basic functioning of the world is mostly led by negative trends. One of the fundamental reasons for this phenomenon is that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) do not act properly and in the proper structure by means of the produced products and services. Therefore, the examination of technologies and resources is a k...ey question of our world and development from various aspects. Technologies convey all positive and negative impacts which can be regarded as the fundamental reasons and causes of harmonious or disharmonious development. For this reason, the role of technologies in development and harmonious functioning is of paramount importance.

As a final conclusion, we established that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) are interpreted as impact conveyors which predominate by means of products and services in a way that their relation system is determined. By using the thermodynamic interpretation which is the basis of the functioning of the world, we built a system consisting of 14 elements to evaluate different technologies, to interpret its functioning and to develop positive interactions and trends.

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Biofuel regulations in the USA and the EU
Published September 18, 2014
25-31

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Climate change, the increasing dependency on crude oil and other fossile fuels, the expanding import and the increasing energy costs make the world’s societies and its economies vulnerable.

 The development of effective renewable energy resources has been a priority for the US since the first oil embargo. While there was only little progress for around two decades, biofuel use and production has been showing a rapidly increasing tendency since the mid 90’s.

 The EU’s objective of renewable energy resources is one of the main priorities of the Europe 2020 strategy. The European Union aims to increase the share of energy produced from renewable resources in the whole energy supply and by 10% in the transport-related energy supply by 20% until 2020.

 The renewable energy sector is the only one which is able to reduce GHG emission and pollution while utilising local energy resources and stimulating cutting edge industrial sectors; therefore, it is indispensable to develop a proper framework and regulation for supporting renewable energies.

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Possibilities of Weed Beet (Beta vulgaris, L. ssp. marritima) Regulation
Published November 20, 2011
133-136

Weed infestation regulation in sugar beet belongs to the most difficult growing measures, the aim of our work was to find out, if active substances contained in preparations Roundup and Fazor influence number, weight and germination of clusters in plants of weed beets. Statistically significant differences in germinability were found among cont...rol and all variants in which preparation Fazor was applied. The Roundup treatment did not have significant influence on germination. Presented results are only preliminary and one-year results, more experiments are necessary to determine the effects of the studied applications.

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Current Conditions and Opportunities of Biofarming in Hungary
Published May 4, 2004
150-156

The aim of organic farming is not to maximize income, but to achieve optimal product quality. It is completed by the tightest possible material, and energy flow within the farm. Organic agriculture significantly reduces external inputs by avoiding the use of chemo-synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead it works with natu...re to increase both agricultural yields and disease resistance. Total independence of external resources can not be achieved in Hungary due to the small-scale of organic animal husbandry. Some materials in limited quantities can be purchased from external resources, though the group of these materials is strictly regulated. Organic farming harmonizes with the concept of European multifunctional agriculture, because besides farming, it includes social considerations, as it helps to maintain natural resources and the relationship between people and their environment, and provides a living for those living in the region.
As regards organic farming the fertility of the soil and the health of vegetation can be influenced in various ways. Farmers have to be highly skilled and able to manage a farm with great expertise. Generally it can be stated that as the use of non-organically produced products is limited, the opportunities to correct failures made by the farmer are minimal, contrary to conventional farming. Farmers must be intent on developing the tightest material- and energy flow. This means that organic farms ideally have both animal husbandry and crop production. This energy and skill demanding system of farming is compensated by state subsidies, growing market share and relatively high prices for organic products.

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Changes in weed flora of basket willow (Salix viminalis L.) under different soil nutrient supply
Published November 10, 2010
116-120

The world is in a continuous progress, as a result of which energy consumption and with this the release of gases with adverse impact show rapid increase. As a result of the survey conducted by the International Energy Agency, if the major economic powers do not initiate a change in their energy policy, the increase of energy consumption may as... well reach 40 % by 2030. This increased energy demand is getting more and more difficult to fulfill with the fossil energy resources, which is to lead to an increasing significance of renewable energy resources. In Hungary, these energy resources are the best to provide with biomass growth. Biomass growth for energetic purpose can mostly be provided by energy plants, out of which “energy willow” (Salix viminalis L.) is outstanding with its high yield and with its excellent burning technology characteristics of its timber. The willow’s cropping technology is being established in our country. One of our tasks is to work out an adequate weed control plan. The professional and safe use of herbicides can increase the success of production. In our paper, we discuss the weed flora data collected on  treatments applied in the different fertilizer and compost. We started our survey in 2010. We examined twelve different fertilizer and compost treated areas. The dominant weeds were: Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli among annuals; Cirsium arvense and Agropyron repens among the perennials. 

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Marginalisation and Multifunctional Land Use in Hungary
Published December 14, 2004
50-61

Our study prepared as a brief version of National Report in the frame of EUROLAN Programme. We deal with the interpretation of some definitions (marginalisation of land use, multifunctionality of land use, marginalisation of agriculture, multifunctionality of agriculture), with sorting and reviewing indicators of marginalisation and finally wit...h the analysis of functions of land use. We suggested a dynamic and a static approach of marginalisation. We can explore the dynamic process by time series and the static (regional) one by cross-section analyses.
It is very hard to explain the perspective of the future of marginalisation of land and of agriculture in Hungary. The process of marginalisation seems faster in the agriculture in the coming years, but it depends on the utilisation of new possibilities given by the EU financial resources and by the Common Market. At this moment agriculture seems one of the big losers of the accession.
In the long term we should face considerable challenges in the land use. It is necessary to take into account that there is a supply market of foods and traditional fibre production world-wide. There are limited possibilities to produce and to market for example biodiesel (fuel), bioethanol, or maybe biogas. Thus the environment and landscape preservation becomes more and more real land use alternatives.
The environmental interpretation of the multifunctionality of land use: activities (functions) of environmental preservation and nature conservation in a certain area, which aim to preserve natural resources by the existing socio-economic conditions.
Preservation of rural landscapes is the task mainly for land-users, who can be commanded by legal means and can be encouraged by economic measures to carry out the above activity. In the recent past measures of „command and control” type regulation were predominant, however nowadays, especially in the developed countries, the role of economic incentives increases.
As a conclusion of our analysis we can state that as long as the main land-dependent activities (agriculture, forestry, housing, tourism, local mining) cease to be viable under an existing socio-economic structure, then it is hardly possible to sustain the rural landscape on an appropriate level by non-commodity products (such as environment preservation, cultural heritage, nature conservation, employment etc.).
1 The study was prepared in the frame of EUROLAN (EU-5 Framework Project), QLK5-CT-2002-02346, as a compiled version of the Hungarian National Report, The national project co-ordinator: Prof. Dr. Gabor Szabo.
A part of places with high ecological values coincides with the areas with unfavourable agricultural endowments and underdeveloped micro-regions. We think so that the marginalisation preserves the non-environmental-sound activities and hinders the development of multifunctional agriculture and this process can change only by joint utilisation of endogenous and exogenous resources and methods. Thus the successful programmes for agri-environmental protection and multifunctional land use can serve the moderation of negative effects of marginalisation or maybe the marginalisation process itself.

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The economic structure and the tertiary ecucation of the function of transformation Hungary 19th and 20th century of in economic integration periods
Published March 23, 2016
115-122

Knowledge-intensive businesses sectoral nature of the operation and the specific attributes of the innovation life cycle processes, different needs and different needs induce. These features can also differentiate time that their activities when and what type of resources they require. The availability of capacity in terms of a network co-benef...its for those businesses that are creating the possibility that such resources are available to ensure the realization of goals that are not individually owned. These factors and the availability of local availability is also motivated by the small and medium enterprises willingness to cooperate.

Regional supply of resources necessary for the operation of the business of insurance, universities play a key role. The functions of universities in innovation as a business service can be understood as an activity that mediate high added value to other organizations and companies. Questions arise as to the innovative nature of the business industry and sector weights would differentiate whether the R&D&Iintensive areas of expertise.

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Harmonic development and biodiesel
Published December 22, 2010
91-95

An increased expansion of renewable resources and biodiesel is observed and prognosed, since fossile energy resources are about to run out. Hungary achieved outstanding sunflower years in the recent years in worldwide comparison. In the future, the feedstock of biodiesel production can also be rape besides sunflower.
According to the concept... of harmonious development, the balance between nature, society, economy and human environments is represented by their mutual presumptive character. Research and development need to be aligned into this system. Our aim was to examine the advantages and
disadvantages of biodiesel production in different environments, using a model to do so. In order to maintain the harmony, the existing resources have to be managed properly, taking the correlations of the system into consideration. Targeted technological developments are necessary, similarly to the improvement of energy safety and efficiency.

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The role of mediation resources in the operation and development of knowledgeintensive small and medium enterprises
Published March 23, 2016
109-113

Address social and economic processes of social capital system between universities and the business sector – because of their special and similar characteristics – major emphasis will be displayed. Knowledge-intensive companies would be hard to imagine functioning without established links with tertiary education institutions and universit...ies can now functions would be unthinkable without displaying the corporate sector sectoral specificities of knowledge and strategies of the university.

Because of the development of knowledge-intensive business activities based on innovation-oriented economic development which are specific to innovative SMEs, funding sources and opportunities. In a typical operating environment of innovation, with sectoral, spatial and temporal factors are constantly changing. These factors are decisive elements in the innovation opportunities, and through this indirectly the success of these enterprises. The resources involved in mediating the markets perceive a high risk to price this innovation activities and their funding. Under the study to try to answer that by optimizing the functions of universities, how and in what form they may have a role in mitigating financial risks.

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Regional economic achievements and reindustrialisation in Hajdú-Bihar county
Published July 24, 2014
65-74

The North Great Plain region is one of the backward regions of Hungary. The low level of economic development is mainly due to the lack of industrial development. The region is poor in natural resources, its main resources are land, natural gas fields, carbon dioxide, thermal water and the clay mineral stock.
The structure of GDP per capita ...of the county is different than the country average mainly because of the high proportion of agriculture.
The proportion of the industry and the building industry is not significant. Of the various service provider sectors, trade, transport and telecommunications have a small proportion, while financial and economic service providers have even lower share, which is due to the fact that these sectors are mostly concentrated in Budapest. The share of public and human service prodivers is higher than average due to the University of Debrecen.
The GDP which expresses the economic development of the county in a complex way increased four times its previous value in nominal value between 1995–2009. However, if the real value is considered, the increase is less than 25%, as opposed to the country average, which was less than 40%.
The most complex index of the development level of an economy is GDP expressed either in nominal or real value. If expressed in dollars, GDP is suitable for international comparison with the correction based on the purchasing power parity per person.
The county represents 4.3% of the people employed in the industrial sector in Hungary, while its share in industrial production is only 3.3% which is lower than the regional and population share of the county within Hungary. As regards industrial production per person, Hajdú-Bihar was the 10th county in Hungary; therefore, it is considered to be a less industrialised county.
The product structure of GDP is suitable for drawing useful development conclusions, but the result is more reliable if the income creation ability is also analysed on the basis of the employment structure.

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Examination of the connection between the theoretical framework and practice of workplace integration in the case of American concerns
Published April 8, 2014
119-123

The first part of this essay presents the definition of workplace socialization, workplace orientation, workplace integration and onboarding on the basis of English literature. It also illustrates the human resources and management tasks and responsibilities in the process of onboarding.

Considering the literature I set up questions for... a half-structured interview completed with American HR managers by the help of skype program. The results pointed out that the professionals refer only a few elements of definitions, and the onboarding term is used for other HR practices (recruiting, selection), too. Furthermore on the basis of the results the onboarding process in well-organized and managed, and also the related human resources and management tasks and responsibilities are correctly appointed within the examined companies.

Additionally this examination verified our previous results which showed that there is a strong documentation and controlling in the process of onboarding within American enterprises.

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Impact of lameness on the milk production of ewes
Published March 23, 2016
5-7

The aim of this study was assessing the impact of lameness on the milk production, somatic cells count and component of milk. We assess also impact of lameness on the order of entry into the milking parlour.

The experiment was carried at the farm, located in northern Slovakia. The farm keeps sheep Improved Valachian. Samples of milk wer...e taken during two periods: May, July. It was taken 428 samples together. We recorded three groups by lameness- strong lame, slightly lame, non-lame ewes. We recorded also the order of entry of ewes into the milking parlour in milking row. The results were mathematically processed using the Microsoft Excel program and statistically evaluated by SAS.

We found significant statistical differences between months (P<0.0001) in all the above mentioned indicators. In July we recorded 26 ewes with slightly lameness and 18 ewes with strong lameness. Other ewes were non-lame. Non-lame sheep had in July the highest milk yield (356±148 ml) and the lowest decrease in milk yield from May to July (-206±131 ml) compared with slightly (317±116 ml, -223±163) and strong (319±122 ml, -219±151 ml) lame ewes. However, these differences were not statistically significant. We have not identified statistically significant differences between groups in somatic cells count (logxSCC for non-lame: 4.83±0.608 in ml, slightly lame: 4.76±0.653 in ml, strong lame 4.71±0.787 in ml). Milk composition (fat, proteins, lactose) nor changes in the composition of milk that occurred between May and July were not affected by lameness of ewes. But lameness in July affected the change the order of entry of ewes in the milking parlour in July compared with the order of entry recorded in May.

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Opportunities of renewable energy use in Hajdú-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties
Published February 17, 2015
143-146

Today it's an important role of the renewable energy resources, improving energy efficiency, thereby contributing to sustainable, ecofriendly use of local energy resources. Globally intensify the requirements and considerations related to environmental conservation. In this light, the main objective of the Hungarian energy concept is to maintai...n long-term security of supply, the economy and the environment occurring contradictions. So there is a need for systems that, in compliance with EU environmental directives, acceptable cost level will ensure the desired and expected security of supply. In the study, three companies and other technical parameters of these are examined. For each undertaking, different results were observed. For two undertakings, we are talking about realized investments, in one case a prognosis was examined. All three companies contributed to the requirement of renewable energy sources reaching 13% in Hungary by 2020.

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Renewable energy resources in the EU (Policy scenario)
Published February 10, 2013
143-146

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The use of renewable energies has a long past, even though its share of the total energy use is rather low in European terms. However, the tendencies are definitely favourable which is further strengthened by the dedication of the European Union to sustainable development and combat against climate change. The European Union is on the right track in achieving its goal which is to be able to cover 20% its energy need from renewable energy resources by 2020. The increased use of wind, solar, water, tidal, geothermal and biomass energy will reduce the energy import dependence of the European Union and it will stimulate innovation.

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Effect of G2548A polymorphism in the leptin gene on the BMI level in human population
Published February 18, 2016
5-10

The polymorphism in leptin (LEP 2548A) seems to influence obesity among others genes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the G2548A polymorphism on body mass index. We included 79 people from Slovakia with some genetic relatedness and used barrels kit to isolate the genomic DNA from an adenoblast swab- from the salivary. PCR ...products were amplified by pursued polymorphisms and G2548A, we restriction-analyzed them and then we identified the specific fragments describing the presence of chosen SNP polymorphism by the agarose electrophoresis, to analyze SNP polymorphism by PCR-RFLP method.

The LEP gene had increased frequency of G allele (0.5506). The most common genotype occurring in the gene LEP was heterozygous genotype (AG) and the least frequent genotype in LEP was AA (0.1899). Taking the age into account the BMI is higher if the G allele occurs in the LEP gene. Moreover, if the G allele genotype was situated in dominant form, then the highest average BMI was present.

According to the results we can assume that the AA genotype (LEP) has a protective effect on the prevalence of obesity compared to the other genotypes.

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Human resource management surveys at organizations operating at profitoriented and public spheres
Published September 2, 2009
79-86

I introduce the performance management from the area of human resource management that I examined at organizations operating in market environment and in the public sphere as well. The reason of my choice of subject is that the performance management got into the centre of interest also in Hungary lately.
The scale of values connecting tradi...tionally to the organizations of the private and public sphere is different vitally, what affected substantive differences of the organization, the management and the human resources management environment. Within these I tried to reveal their performance management system and with their comparison to draw conclusions. I did my surveys at profit oriented organizations and at organizations operating at the public sphere.
Performance management is one centre field of modern human resource managing, as the basis of the successful functioning of any company is the possibly most effective operation of its resources. Performance management is a possibility for the company and for the employer to overview the realization of the determined aims and the factors that block or promote accomplishments. Considering the results, the employee and the manager could determine subsequent realistic and accessible aims for the following period. Achievement management is extremely
important in those positions where achievement could not be measured accurately.
I carried out my surveys according to performance management by observation and data acquisition. I applied questionnaire survey to collect data, or rather made deep interviews; I talked personally with more employees as well.
The questionnaire consisted of one data format and performance management questionnaire. I processed the gathered data by computer and visualized graphically. I also did examinations by using statistic methods, by which I was able to get to know the certain organizations deeper and thus it was possible for me to reveal more connections.

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The Aalborg process and its Hungarian connections
Published May 23, 2006
5-14

The four European Conferences on Sustainable Cities and Towns gave birth to documents that are important from the point of view of local sustainability. These are, in chronological order, the Aalborg Charter – 1994 Aalborg, the Lisbon Action Plan – 1996 Lisbon, the Hannover Call – 2000 Hannover, and the Aalborg Commitments – 2004 Aalbor...g. Throughout the process, the emphasis gradually moved from planning to the implementation of plans.
Today, there are more than 2000 signatories of the Aalborg
1A tanulmány az OTKA T-046704 sz. pályázatának támogatásával készült.
Charter. The cutting edge of the process are Italy and Spain, the municipalities of these two countries add up to 80 per cent of all signatories. In both countries, the national commitment is given, but there is not a body that could coordinate the activities related to sustainability, so local governments play the major role in it. The constitutions of these two countries also pass on some duties that are relevant from the point of view of sustainability within the competence of local governments, and allow resources to implement them. In the case of the United Kingdom, the commitment of the national government, and especially the Prime Minister, is the major factor in the movement towards local sustainability.
The former socialist countries in Europe, as well as Hungary are relatively underdeveloped economically, so the social and environmental pillars of sustainable development are pushed into the background behind the economical pillar. As a result of the lack of national commitment, there is no guidance and there are no case studies available, so only a small part of local governments are informed of this important international movement, and so are committed to it. The lack of resources is also a problem. The consequence of all this is that there are 35 municipalities from the Eastern European countries that joined the EU in 2004, and only four from Hungary – to mention by name Aba, Kecskemét, Monor and Nagykanizsa – that signed the Aalborg Charter.

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Differences in Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
170-180

An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.

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Findings on the cultivation of potatoes in organic farming
Published November 20, 2011
113-116

This paper explores the effectiveness of organic and plastic mulching for potato production in the Czech Republic. The mulching with chopped grass (GM) and black textile mulch (BTM) were compared to non-mulching control variant (C) with mechanical cultivation. Especially in plots with BTM were first formed ridges and covered by the black polypr...opylene non-woven textile and then they were planting. During vegetation the infestation of Colorado potato beetle (CPB), weeds biomass, course of soil temperature and soil water potential were assessed. The results showed that surface of GM had a positive effect on soil temperature reduction, soil water potential depression. This study also indicated a positive effect of GM on the larvae of CPB diminution, on the other hand higher incidence of larvae and higher defoliation was observed in BTM. GM had a significant effect on the yield of potatoes. The yield of ware potatoes was higher by 27 % higher on plots with GM and by 16 % lower on plots wit BTM in comparison with C. NeemAzal T/S decreased statistically significantly % of defoliation and increased yield of ware potatoes by 35 % in comparison with control.

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Caliometric characterisation of crop production byproducts
Published February 25, 2014
55-58

By the decreasing tendency of the fossil energy resources more emphasis put on the usage of renewable energy resources. The consideration of environmental protection and the efforts of the European Union make current the widespread usage of renewable energy within biomass energy. One of the determinative trends of biomass energy is the direct c...ombustion of biomass. Characteristically woody stocks are produced for this aim, but there is a considerable potential in several byproducts of growing herbaceous plants or of other processes.

In our study three byproducts of plant production have been investigated which appeared at the harvest. The Higher Heating Values of wheat, maize and sunflower byproducts have been determined by an IKA C2000 Basic adiabatic calorimeter. According to the statistical analysis of the measured data the HHV of the byproducts are different, and these values are in a negative correlation with the amount of ash in % (R2=0.873) appeared by the combustion.

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