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  • Examination of compost maturity using reflectance
    29-34
    Views:
    120

    Composting is one of the most popular recycling processes for organic waste. Composting plays an important role in waste and by-product management and is becoming increasingly important in both sustainable energy management and circular economy. Composting transforms organic matter to produce a safe and stable by-product (compost) that can be applied to arable land in a similar way to fertilizer. Physical, chemical and biological methods can be used to monitor the process and to determine the maturity of the compost, as spectrometric/spectroscopic methods play an important role in the analysis of different environmental samples.

    Our aim was to (1) non-destructively detect the effects of different additive ratios on the spectral properties of the composting process and the spectral data of different compost mixtures, (2) to find the wavelength ranges of the reflectance curve (inflection points) sensitive to compost maturity, (3) to determine the correlation between the inflection points and the chemical and physical parameters measured in compost by conventional methods.

    The mixture of broiler and hen manure and zeolite was composted 62 days in windrow composting. In the composting experiment, the moisture content and temperature (°C) were measured every three days and compost samples were taken and in 10% destillated aquaeous suspension were measured the pH and electrical conductivity (mS cm-1). Compost samples dried to mass stability were spectrally analyzed in the wavelength range 400–1000 nm with AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer.

    Based on the results, the reflectance of mature compost were smaller in the last days of composting than the reflectance values of day 0 samples, thus compost maturity can be detected spectral in the VIS-NIR wavelength range. For the tested compost prisms, the reflectance of each sampling day shows a constant slope, with a significant overlap of the reflectance curves up to 400–700 nm wavelength range, and there was a breakpoint in the 700–750 nm wavelength range which was proved by binary encoding.

  • Examination of soil parameters based on the evaluation of the spectroradiometric reflectance characteristics of the topsoil
    75-80
    Views:
    132

    In this article we are presenting the methodology applied to analyse and interpret the topsoil surface reflectance parameters of multiple samples collected in the Mugello valley area in northern Italy in October 2012. The main aim of the whole project was to discover geomorphological behaviour and situation of the area ino order to improve potential for correct dating of certain archaeological artefacts found in the nearby areas. One of the crucial problem researchers are facing in the area is the lack of understanding of the underlying geological and geomorphological processes that were describing and characterizing the area and that played important role not only in the current geography and landscape formation but also in the transportation of various sediments and artefacts. In this particular research the main aim is to examine the possibility of developing a quick way to assess low level properties of the soil using hand held spectrometer and rapid analysis of cross-section using in situ measurement techniques. In this work we collected over 2000 individual samples of topsoil surface reflectance properties that we organized into a spectral library. This library is then to be used to describe physical and chemical processes in the soil. To support the analysis results were compared to analysis results from different kind of assessments in the same area. Our results show a great potential of application of hand held imaging spectrometer in soil property analysis based on the top soil surface reflectance parameters.

  • Applicability of reflectance to determine compost maturity
    31-35
    Views:
    104

    The utilisation of composts depends on their maturity and stability. A great part of the determination methods can be set in laboratory and needs complicated sample preparation. The aim of this paper was introduce an effective and fast method which based on the different reflectance of the different organic compounds.
    During our research we examined the degradation process of compost prisms based on sewage sludge, wood-clipping and straw with temperature and reflectance measurements.
    As a result, we came to the conclusion that the reflectance, measured at 645 nm or higher, is applicable to determine compost maturity if it is used with temperature measurements.

  • Analysis of aerobic biological waste treatment methods especially in the case of composting
    33-37
    Views:
    135

    In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used in agriculture. The characteristics of the organic wastes in most cases make the direct utilization impossible, they need pre-treatment before use. One treatment solution of these wastes is composting. During composting the organic wastes lose their hazardous characteristics and we gain a final product, the compost, which can be used in agriculture as organic fertilizer. The main conditions of effective composting are the follow and understand of the degradation process. During our research we examined different measuring methods (gas concentration and reflectance measurements, temperature mapping) that makes a cost and time effective possibility to directly analyze the degradation.

  • Methodological development of the determination of the compost mixture ratio
    29-33
    Views:
    72

    The mixing rate of the compost raw materials basically determines the procedure of degradation. In most cases, in practice the real mixing ratio is not equal with the counted ratio – which based on the C/N ratio – and the check of the fulfilled mixing is not possible.
    The homogeneity of the prism is also one of the fundamentals of the effective degradation process. There is no available method to determine the homogeneity of the compost prism. 
    During our research we examined the reflectance values of different compost mixtures where sewage sludge and rape-straw were used as raw materials.
    According to our results we built up a regression model which gives the ability to determine the mixing rate (in 5% margin of error) and makes possible to check the homogeneity of the prism together with the access of immediate action. 

  • Evaluation of the blood product characteristics of meat meal and hemoglobin with non-invasive methods in the VISNIR wavelength
    49-56
    Views:
    224

     

    The separate collection of poultry slaughterhouse trimmings and blood is partially solved in Hungary. Only properly prepared animal by-products, protein meals can be utilized as animal feed additive. However, different protein meals are appropriate for feeding different animal species. That is the reason why it is important to avoid accidental cross contamination of the products. Meat and blood meal produced on the same technological line, therefore mixing of the products can happen in various proportions during the shift of production.

     

    Thus the aim of this study is to develop a spectral method which will allow to estimate the ratio of meat and blood protein meal in the final product. During the test the products were mixed in different proportions and were examined by the spectral method. Measurements were conducted with AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer in visible (VIS) and in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (400–1000 nm) to define the spectral differentiation of the different meal products. Significant difference can be detected in spectral reflectance between the meat and blood product in the VIS-NIR range. The blood product has a characteristic spectral property: in the range of 600 and 735 nm reflectance values are increasing following a sigmoid curve. This property is not observed in the case of meat meal: close to linear rising is detected. Effective protein rate and purity detection could be made by Blood Product Sensitive Mixing Index (BPSMI – R930/R600), and by the calculation of inflection point in 600–735 nm.

     

  • Leaf reflectance characteristics and yield of spring oat varieties as influenced by varietal divergences and nutritional supply
    29-34
    Views:
    87

    Inadequacy of nutrients in the soil and sufficient inaccessibility to nutrients is caused by factors that affect production and productivity of spring oat varieties. Exogenous application of nutrient and real time nutrient assessment can therefore reverse these associated negative consequences. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of spring oat varieties to sulphur and silicon based fertilisation. Eight spring oat varieties, four level of nutrient application was arranged in a split-plot design with three replications. The obtained results showed that foliar application of sulphur improves the grain yield of most nutrients responsive varieties by about 34.7%. However, application of silicon had shown a diminishing return association to grain yield of variety GK Kormorán, GK Pillangó, Lota, Panni. LAI, thousands grain weight, SPAD, NDVI was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by genetic difference of the tested varieties, developmental plasticity, and nutrient application. Significantly higher grain yield was obtained from the variety Mv Pehely than the other tested varieties. Therefore, it could be inferred that a combined use of nutrient responsive spring oat varieties and sulphur containing fertilisers could be important agronomic practice to improve grain yield and to develop climate resilient oat varieties.

  • Preliminary studies to evaluate the use of spectral data in monitoring of apple orchard parameters
    37-41
    Views:
    91

    The introduction/application of precision agricultural technologies has more important role in various fruit growing sectors among others apple growing. Remote sensing methods can detect electromagnetic waves where the green colour of the leaf is responsible for the chlorophyll content. The absorption of chlorophyll is in the wavelength range of 450–670 nm. Samples of apple tree leaves were taken on a weekly basis from the apple orchard at Horticultural Unit of Pallag on University of Debrecen in 2019 summer. Our studies were performed on 2 cultivars (Early Gold, Golden Reinders) and the samples were processed using 2 methodologies: a non-destructive spectral method and spectrophotometric method chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were calculated, which were created into some groups and compared with the spectral values. When the plant begins to lose strong green colour and turns yellow spectral measurements show that chlorophyll content decreases as the proportion of chlorophyll-carotenoid in the plant changes.  In case of grouping into intervals, it can be observed that as the chlorophyll content increases the reflectance value decreases continuously due to the strong absorption. Based on the results, close relationship between the pigments can be detected.

  • Spectral analysis of stress symptoms caused by apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha
    83-88
    Views:
    156

    An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Calculated on the basis of such hyperspectral data from different index numbers the water supply of foliage conditions can be well characterized.

    The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in University of Debrecen, Agricultural Sciences Centre, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During my experiments the preliminary evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by Podosphaera leucotricha.

    Based on the results narrow band greenness indices (NDVI705, mNDVI705, mSR705 and REP) can be used for determination of diseased canopy and for the detection of stress symptoms of Podosphaera leucotricha,. These statements can be utilized in precision plant protection systems, since it can be a basis for such integrated active sensors with LED or laser light source, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can facilitate real time status assessment of orchards and can control precision fungicide utilization.