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Effect of tillage practices, fertilizer treatments and crop rotation on yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published December 1, 2020

This research was conducted at the University of Debrecen Látókép Research Station and is part of an ongoing long-term polyfactorial experiment. The impact of three tillage systems (Mouldboard plowing-MT, Strip tillage-ST, Ripper tillage-RT) and two levels of fertilizer treatments (N80 kg ha-1, N160 kg ha...-1) along with a control (N0 kg ha-1) on the yield of maize hybrids (Armagnac- FAO 490 & Loupiac-FAO 380) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat was evaluated during a two-year period (2017–2018).

Amongst the three tillage treatments evaluated, ripper tillage (RT) had the highest average yield (10.14 t ha-1) followed by mouldboard tillage (MT) and strip tillage (ST) with 9.84 and 9.21 t ha-1 respectively. Yield difference between RT and MT was not significant (P>0.05), as compared to ST (P<0.05). Soil moisture content varied significantly with tillage practices and was highest in ST, followed by RT and MT (ST>RT>MT). Yield of RT was 7–9% higher than MT in monoculture plots, while MT reign superior in biculture plots (monoculture: RT>MT>ST; biculture: MT>RT>ST).

A positive interaction between tillage and fertilization was observed, with higher yield variation (CV=40.70) in the non-fertilized (N0) plots, compared to those which received the N80 (CV=19.50) and N160 kg ha-1 (CV=11.59) treatments.

Incremental yield gain from increase fertilizer dosages was significantly higher in monoculture, compared to biculture. There was no significant difference in yield between N160 and N80 in the biculture plots (12.29 vs 12.02 t ha-1). However, in monoculture plots, N160 yield was 23% higher than the N80 kg ha-1 (N160=11.74 vs N80=9.56 t ha-1).

Mean yield of maize in rotation with winter wheat was 28% (2.47 tons) higher than monoculture maize. The greatest benefit of crop rotation was observed in the control plots (N0) with an incremental yield gain of 4.39 tons ha-1 over monculture maize (9.92 vs 5.43 t ha-1).

Yield increased with higher fertilizer dosages in irrigated plots. Fertilizer application greatly increased the yield of maize and accounted for 48.9% of yield variances. The highest yield (11.92 t ha-1) was obtained with N160 kg ha-1 treatment, followed by N80 kg ha-1 (10.38 t ha-1) and N0 kg ha-1 (6.89 t ha-1) respectively.

Overall mean yield difference between the two hybrids was not statistically significant, however, yield of FAO 380 was 3.9% higher (9.06 vs. 8.72 t ha-1) than FAO 490 in monoculture plots, while in biculture plots, FAO 490 was 4.1% higher than FAO 380.

Average yield in 2018 was 13.6% (1.24 t ha-1) higher than 2017 for the same set of agrotechnical inputs, thus, highlighting the significant effect of cropyear.

Armagnac (FAO 490) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat, under ripper tillage and N80 kg ha-1 is the best combination of treatments for optimum yield.

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Comparative analysis on the fertiliser responses of Martonvásár maize hybrids in long-term experiments
Published December 21, 2008

The results of experiments carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences clearly show that in the case of hybrids grown in a monoculture greater fertiliser responses can be achieved with increasing rates of N fertiliser than in crop rotations. In the monoculture experiment the parameters investigated re...ached their maximum values at a rate of 240 kg/ha N fertiliser, with the exception of 1000-kernel mass and starch content. In both cases the starch content was highest in the untreated control, gradually declining as the N rates increased. Among the parameters recorded in the crop rotation, the values of the dry grain yield, the 1000-kernel mass, the protein yield and the starch yield were greatest at the 160 kg/ha N fertiliser rate, exhibiting a decrease at 240 kg/ha. Maximum values for the protein content and SPAD index were recorded at the highest N rate. It is important to note, however, that although the N treatments caused significant differences compared to the untreated control, the differences between the N treatments were not significant.
In the given experimental year the values achieved for the untreated control in the crop rotation could only be achieved in the monoculture experiment at a fertiliser rate of 160 kg/ha N, indicating that N fertiliser rates could be reduced using a satisfactory crop sequence, which could be beneficial from the point of view of environmental pollution, crop protection and cost reduction.
The weather in 2006 was favourable for maize production, allowing comparative analysis to be made of the genetically determined traits of the hybrids. Among the three hybrids grown in the monoculture experiment, Maraton produced the best yield, giving maximum values of the parameters tested at a fertiliser rate of 240 kg/ha N. The poorest results were recorded for Mv 277, which could be attributed to the fact that the hybrid belongs to the FAO 200 maturity group, while the other hybrids had higher FAO numbers. Maraton also gave the highest yields in the crop rotation experiment at the 160 kg/ha N level. All three hybrids were found to make excellent use of the natural nutrient content of the soil.
It was proved that the protein content of maize hybrids can only be slightly improved by N fertilisation, as this trait is genetically coded, while the starch content depends to the greatest extent on the ecological factors experienced during the growing season.

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Nutrient and water utilisation analyses of maize on chernozem soil in a long-term field experiment
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We have conducted our research at the Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen RISF Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences during the cropyears of 2007, 2008 and 2009, on chernozem soil. In the case of crop rotation three models were set (mono-,bi- [wheat, maize] and triculture [pea, wheat, maize]). The five nutrient levels applied during the treatments were as follows: control [untreated], N60P45K45, N120P90K90, N180P135K135, N240P180K180. The conclusion of our results was the following: the crop rotation, the nutrient supply and the amount of precipitation all influenced the quantity of maize yield. As an effect of the increasing nutrient doses yield increase was experienced compared with the control treatments. In the average of the years the highest increase in yield excess/1 kg of NPK fertilizer was measured in the case of the monoculture (13 kg ha-1). As a consequence of is soil extorting effect the monoculture responded more intensively to the nutrient supplementation than the biculture or the triculture in the studied cropyears. In addition, we have observed that the three-year average yield amount per 1 mm precipitation was significantly influenced by the nutrient reserve of the soil. In the monoculture during the control treatment this value was 25 kg mm-1, the value measured in the case of the biculture turned out to be more favourable (42 kg mm-1).

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Changes of some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics in a long-term fertilization experiment in Hungary
Published September 5, 2018

Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.

Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).

The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.

With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds

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Optimizing fish structure in angling ponds focusing on white fish
Published May 23, 2019

According to new amendments of laws, commercial fishing licenses of natural waters shall not be issued from the calendar year 2016 in Hungary. However, the most settlement of white fish to angler ponds originated from natural waters. Currently, there is no sufficient quantity of fish species belonging to this group available to fulfil the settl...ement commitments of fish farmers. The aim of this recent study is to develop a breeding and production technology that is suitable for settlement of large quantities of this fish species of appropriate length of (4–5 cm). The following methods are investigated: aquaculture cage system (pond-in-pond system), monoculture and mixed population with different ratio of white fish in fish structure. Due to the different environmental needs of different fish species, many parameters need to be investigated, for example: stocking density, feeding, oxygen level, monoculture or mixed populations, growth potential and mortality. A preliminary experiment was carried out following the artificial propagation of ide (Leuciscus idus) following a 21-day larval rearing experiment in which the effect of different stoking density was investigated for mortality and growth. On the basis of the expected results, the optimal conditions for the aquaculture cage system will be described, regarding to the white fish stock.

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Researches regarding the influence of the some technological elements on water use efficiency in maize from Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Plain and the influence of the hybrid, plant density, crop rotation, nutrient supply, weeds and irrigation on water use efficiency were studied.

Choosing of the hybrid with the best water use efficiency is very important because a hybrid from 500–600 FAO group (Fundulea 376) in unirrigated conditions and a hybrid from FAO group over 600 (Fundulea 365) obtained the biggest water use efficiency; the hybrid Fundulea 365 obtained the highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.1 kg yield gain 1 mm-1 irrigation water.

One of the most known hybrid in the area is Turda super and the highest water use efficiency was obtained using the plant density of 55 000 plants/ha in unirrigated variant and 70 000 plants/ha in irrigated variant. The highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.7 kg yield gain 1 mm-1, was obtained at 70 000 plants ha-1.

In maize monoculture was obtained the lowest values of the water use efficiency in unirrigated and irrigated variant: in the wheat-maize crop rotation the values were higher than in maize monoculture and in the wheat-maize-soybean were registered the highest values. The same situation was registered regarding the irrigation water use efficiency.

Farm manure (30 t ha-1) and especially manure (30 t ha-1) +chemical fertilizers (N90P45) determined a higher values of the water use efficiency in comparison with the control. In the variant with organic + mineral fertilization was registered the higher value (19.4 kg yield gain mm-1) of the irrigation water use efficiency.

Water use efficiency was much lower in the variant with weeds in comparison with the variant without the weeds; the differences were of 69% in unirrigated variant and of 64% in irrigated variant, very significant statistically. Irrigation water use efficiency from variant with weeds was lower than the value registered in the variant without weeds; the difference (68%) was very significant statistically.

In average in period 1976–2012, the irrigation determined the increasing in water use efficiency with 22%, 19.4 kg mm-1 vs. 15.8 kg mm-1, but not in all the years caused the irrigation increasing in water use efficiency in comparison with unirrigated maize.

The results research emphasized the need of the optimization for technology elements studied and a better water use efficiency will be obtained.

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Evaluation of reaction to plant density of sunflower hybrids by regression and Kang’s stability analysis
Published December 21, 2008

The world production area and the total production of sunflower has significantly been growing. The harvested yield was 23.4 and 21.1 million ha in 2005 and 2001, respectively. The total sunflower seed production has also unexpectedly increased.
Although sunflower is produced on lower quality soils in Hungary, in 2005 the average harvested y...ield was 2.43 t ha-1, which was the highest in the world. 
Sunflower is a typical commercial plant and fits well in the crop structure. Since in terms of acreage the most significant crops are corn and cereals, the partial monoculture cultivation cannot be avoided. Sunflower production is a way to eliminate this problem, therefore it has an important role both in cultivation and ecological points of view.
Accordingly, sunflower has an important role in reducing the monoculture cultivation of some plants, as well as increasing biodiversity. Sunflower well adapts to Hungary’s climatic conditions and its production is easily practicable in our country.
The reaction of sunflower hybrids on crop density change is different. Some hybrids are more some are less sensitive to this parameter. In different crop years, the crop density optimums of the different genotypes are also different. In Hungary, the yield and quality is primarily determined by fungal infections, while viruses and bacteria are less important.
The research was conducted at the Látókép farm and Regional Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. The research institute is situated by Road 33,15 km from Debrecen in the Hajdúság. The duration of the experiment was seven years, 10 hybrids were examined in each year.
Two hybrids used every year, Aréna/PR and Alexandra/PR hybrids were tested by Kang’s stability analysis. We found that Alexandra/PR was most balanced at every levels of crop density. Both hybrids performed most stable yield at 65000 ha-1 crop density level and less balanced at 35000 ha-1 crop density level. As a result of improved environmental conditions, the yield increase of Aréna/PR was higher than that of Alexandra/PR.
Our regression analysis found that the maximum yield of Lympil, Louidor, Hysun 321, PR63A82 and PR64A63 hybrids were harvested at 47000-60000 plant ha-1 crop density level. The statistical analysis showed that the highest yield was harvested from Lympil and Hysun 321. As regards the crop yield, the most stable hybrids were Louidor and Lympil. The optimum crop density interval of Rigasol/PR and Larisol (58000 plant ha-1) was wider than that of Diabolo (46000 plant ha-1). The maximum yield of Larisol was higher at the optimal crop density level. As regards yield, Diabol was the most stable hybrid.
The statistical analysis on the stability of the yield of Alexandra/PR and Aréna/PR showed that Aréna/PR is more stable, and its optimal crop density level is lower than that of Alexandra/PR.

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Determining elements of variety-specific maize production technology
Published October 5, 2010

Our aim was to work out such new maize fertilizer methods and models which can reduce the harmful effects of fertilization, can
maintain the soil fertility and can moderate the yield fluctuation (nowadays 50-60 %).
The soil of our experimental projects was meadow soil. The soil could be characterized by high clay content and pour and
medium potassium contents. In the last decade, out of ten years six years were dry and hot in our region. So the importance of crop-rotation
is increasing and we have to strive for using the appropriate crop rotation.
The yields of maize in monoculture crop rotation decreased by 1-3 t ha-1 in each dry year during the experiment (1983, 1990, 1992,
1993, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2000, 2003, and 2007). The most favourable forecrop of maize was wheat, medium was the biculture crop rotation
and the worst crop rotation was the monoculture.
There is a strong correlation between the sowing time and the yield of maize hybrids, but this interactive effect can be modified by the
amount and distribution of precipitation in the vegetation period. At the early sowing time, the grain moistures were 5-12 % lower compared
to the late sowing time and 4-5 % lower compared to the optimum sowing treatment.
There are great differences among the plant density of different maize hybrids. There are hybrids sensitive to higher plant density and
there are hybrids with wide and narrow optimum plant densities.
The agro-ecological optimum fertilizer dosage of hybrids with a longer season (FAO 400-500) was N 30-40 kg ha-1 higher in favourable
years as compared to early hybrids.
We can summarize our results by saying that we have to use hybrid-specific technologies in maize production. In the future, we have to
increase the level of inputs and have to apply the best appropriate hybrids and with respect to the agroecologial conditions, we can better
utilize the genetic yield potential.

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The effect of crop rotation and fertilization on wheat and maize in the pedoclimatic conditions of the Banat Plain
Published October 5, 2010

The simplification of the plant cultures range and the yields in the last 10-15 years brings into the actuality the role of crop rotation and
of fertilization on the yield level and stability for wheat and maize even on the soils with a high natural fertility. The results of the researches
performed between the years 2006 – 2009 on a ca...mbic low gleyed chernozem from the Banat Plain showed that the wheat cultivated in
monoculture gives productions with 59-81% lower than that cultivated in crop rotation with other plants during 2-4 years. In maize, the yield
obtained in monoculture is situated behind that obtained in crop rotation with 11-21%. The most favorable crop rotations for wheat were
rape-wheat in a 4 years rotation and soybean-wheat in simple rotation of 2 years. In maize, the most favorable was the 2 years rotation
(wheat-maize). The mineral fertilization was very efficient both in wheat (11-36%) and maize (9-31%). The organic fertilization with manure
was very efficient for maize, the yields being superior with a mean value by 34% for a 60 t/ha dose and with 16% for 30t/ha. The fertilization
compensates the negative effect expressed by the monocultivation only in a small measure

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Evaluation of nutrient conditions in open hydroponic system based on tomato production
Published November 15, 2007

Monoculture caused a gradual decline of soil conditions, while nematodes and salt accumulation stimulated the growers to choose alternative practices, such as soilless cultures, which proved their value in Western Europe. Exact statistics are lacking, but estimates deal with approximately 300-400 hectares of vegetable on rock wool, whereas othe...r substrates of soilless culture may multiply this number. Real perspectives are attributed to the forced production of pepper, tomato and cucumber.
Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied with increasing costs of the production.
In Hungary, the quantity of nutrient elements in drainage water is unknown, et all. Connecting the production results with chemical analysis, we gain more information about it.
You can see a mathematical method for evaluation of nutrient and water conditions in tomato hydroponics production.

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Relationship between the change of soil moisture content of different soil layers and maize yield
Published April 23, 2014

The development of chernozem soil water management and its relationship with maize yields was studied in a 30-years long-term field experiment with different crop-rotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture), in three crop years with different natural precipitation: a drought (2007), a wet (2008) and a dry (2009 one. The relevant soil layer was... divided to three sub-layers: (0–60 cm, 61–120 cm, 121–200 cm) in which the development of soil moisture content was investigated during the whole vegetation. From the results it can be stated that change of the water stock of the upper soil layer (0–60 cm) was the most intensive. Both the direct effect of natural precipitation and irrigation could be observed in the most obvious way in it. Yield result of maize and the highest water supply deficit values in the vegetation were compared in our work too. According to the results it was revealed that among the three studied crop rotation systems it was the monoculture, the success of production of which depends the most of water supply. The most favourable crop rotation system was the triculture from both the aspect of the yield of produced crops and the favourable soil properties too.

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The Examination of Some Determining Elements of Efficient Practical Sweet Corn Growing
Published November 2, 2009

We did the detailed agronomy examination and assessment of sweet corn cropping technology by analysing the data of TONAVAR Ltd. The Ltd. developed a special sowing construction which is based on band application of main sowing and double growing. In main sowing they use super sweet hybrids, and in double growing they use normal sweet varieties.... In double growing sugar peas and the sweet corn can be cultivated together successfully. In every two years appearing sugar peas has a good effect on the sweet corn growing in monoculture. At the same time
the long-term successfulness of this questionable onto the illnesses of the peas because of the considerable sensitivity.
According to our examinations in main sowing the optimal period is between May 1. and 30., and in double growing the optimal period of sowing is between June 1. and 20. The optimal plant density is different too for the two sowing time. For super sweet hybrids the optimal plant number is 60-63 thousand/ha and for the normal sweet that is 65 thousand/ha.
Our examinations show that soil pest (defence with soil sterilisation in sowing time), Diabrotica virgifera, Helivoverpa armigera, Ostrinia nubialis are the greatest danger for the sweet corn quantity and quality.
The use of herbicides is the most efficient in the postemergens in main sowing and preemergens in second crop.
Our examination shows that the efficient sweet corn growing cannot be imagined without irrigation. The most efficient irrigation is in main sowing in the critical fenophase of crop time. In double growing the initial irrigation, and the crop irrigation are the most efficient. Based on the production data verifiable that beside the application of the discribed growing technology in the 2005-2007 years the average yield was 20,9t/ha of main sowing, and 17,8t/ha of second crop on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság. 

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Long-term experiments on chernozem soil in the University of Debrecen
Published September 5, 2018

The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fert...ilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.

Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.

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Environmental friendly maize (Zea mays L.) production on chernozem soil in Hungary
Published November 3, 2010

We have been studied the effects of crop-rotation, fertilization and irrigation on the yields of maize in different cropyears characterized
by different water supply (2007 year=dry; 2008 year=optimum) on chernozem soil. Our scientific results proved that in water stress
cropyear (2007) the maximum yields of maize were 4316 kg ha-1...up> (monoculture), 7706 kg ha-1 (biculture), 7998 kg ha-1 (triculture) in non
irrigated circumstances and 8586 kg ha-1, 10 970 kg ha-1, 10 679 kg ha-1 in irrigated treatment, respectively. In dry cropyear (2007) the
yield-surpluses of irrigation were 4270 kg ha-1 (mono), 3264 kg ha-1 (bi), 2681 kg ha-1 (tri), respectively. In optimum water supply cropyear
(2008) the maximum yields of maize were 13 729-13 787 (mono), 14 137-14 152 kg ha-1 (bi), 13 987-14 180 kg ha-1 (tri) so there was no
crop-rotation effect. In water stress cropyear (2007) fertilization caused yield depression in non irrigated treatment (control=2685 kg ha-1;
N240+PK=2487 kg ha-1). Our scientific results proved that the effects of abiotic stress could be strongly reduced by using the optimum crop
models in maize production. We obtained 8,6-11,0 t ha-1 maximum yields of maize in water stress cropyear and 13,7-14,2 t ha-1 in optimum
cropyear on chernozem soil with using appropriate agrotechnical elements.

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Effect of extreme crop year on soil moisture in maize
Published December 15, 2010

We examined the change of the time of water balance of soil in 25 years old experiment, on chernozem soil, in different croprotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture) in two extreme cropyear in 2007 and 2009 in maizestock.
According to our findings the values of waterdeficit of soil of maizestock were about 100 mm before the sowing time grew because of considerable deficit of precipitation and high average temperature in months of summer. Values of waterdeficit achieved at the end of August the maximum and lessed a little bit to end of crop time. Decrease of waterstock stopped because of irrigation treatments in irrigated plots but the difference between two irrigation treatments (Ö1-Ö3) vanishedat the end of summer, waterdeficit were higher with 17 mm in monoculture in irrigated plot than value of not-irrigated plot. Considerabler precipitation in Jun effected on waterbalance of soils of three of crop-rotation systems favourable, rapid waterloss starting to april began to lessenat the end of May and started to increase from early in July. Precipitation in Jun had positiv effect on yield also.

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The effect of drought and cropping system on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published December 28, 2018

Different Cropping Systems have many advantages and ensure better crop growth and yielding. Its combination with other agronomic measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximum crop growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems on monoculture and biculture rotatio...ns [maize- wheat]. The study found that crop rotation does not have a significant effect on the grain nutrition quality, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) but has a significant effect on the Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD). Yield and yield components were significantly influenced by crop rotation in this study as yield, plant height, cob weight and number of grains per row all recorded lower mean at 5% probability levels.

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