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The Effect of Utilization Systems on the Sward Composition, Yield and Sheep Carrying Capacity of Extensive Grasslands
Published May 11, 2003
16-18

We analysed the effect of the sheep grazing, the grass cutting and mixed utilization methods on plant composition, yield and live-stock keeping capacity of extensive Achilleo-Festucetum pseudovinae grassland in the 1996-2000 research period. Analysing the extensive utilizations effects on chanching of the plant composition of extensive grasslan...d established that due to the cutting utilization method the area covering rates of gramineous and usefull weeds were the highest while the grazing utilization-method caused the briggest area covering rate for legumes and unusefull weeds. Analysing the utilized fibrin-fodder yield established that the single utilization methods could not produce the maximum yield and live-stock keeping capacity on the treathea grassland type. Because of things mentioned above we must use the mixed utilization methods to save the maximum phytomass.

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Evaluation of automated anaerobic fermentation processes as in the case of mould infected maize
Published February 10, 2013
81-86

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In Hungary the renewable energy utilization is planned to achieve 13% by 2020. Biogas production is one of the fields with the largest energy potential. Achieving high efficiency during continuous production despite the mixed and variable composition of input materials is the most common problem which the newly built biogas plants using agricultural raw materials have to deal with. The first experimental reactors at the Department of Water and Environmental Management were built 12 years ago. Control and automation of the four separated bioreactors were executed with ADVANTECH GENIE 3.0 software which granted pre-programmed measurement and points of intervention for pH, temperature, CH4, CO2, H2S, and NH3. The system became out-of-data, therefore in 2010 it has been redesigned and tested. The system is controlled by Compair Proview SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) software running on Linux platforms. The Fusarium infection caused serious yield-losses in cereal production in 2010. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material. The raw material was based on the Fusarium infected maize. In the recent publication infotechnological and technological experiences of the pilot test period are evaluated as well as direction of future development is defined.

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The effect of grazing of various cattle breeds on botanical composition of low-lying pasture in Hortobágy
Published August 29, 2017
57-63

Coenological surveys were conducted in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám-puszta) in May 2015 and 2016. During the tests,a total of 40 permanent plots were analyzed on grasslands grazed by extensive cattle (Hungarian Grey) and mixed genotype intensive cattle. The presence of plant species, percentages of... total coverage of species and vegetation cover were recorded. Two habitat types were chosen according to their moisture content: wet salt marsh meadow (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier salt meadows (Beckmannion eruciformis).

We compared the impact of increased number of animals (2016 years) and the low number of animals (2015 years, initial state) and the grazing exclusion on vegetations.
We tested: (i) what is the impact of grazing on the vegetation, (ii) how do species composition and vegetation charachteristics differ in the two habitat types (iii) and is there a difference in the impact of different cattle breeds (Hungarian gray, intensive beef cattle) grazing on the grasslands species composition? During the investigation we found, (i) that the greatest number of species was recorded in 2015, on the area that received moderate to intensive grazing (14.3 species per m2). Somewhat the number of species was reduced in 2016 due to more intensive grazing. The control group had the lowest number of species (11.7 species per m2). The undergrass and legumes cover significantly increased on intensive grazed lands. (ii) Our results indicate that the effects of different grazing differ in the two studied habitat types. On the drier grasslands greater number of species were found (16.2 species per m2), oppositely to the wet grassland (11.2 species per m2). The cover of the undergrasses was higher in the drier habitat than in the wet. (iii) The extensive beef cattle left a bigger number of species (16 species per m2) than the intensive beef cattle (11.4 species per m2). The grass cover was more intense on areas grazed by intensive cattle. The absolute and potential weeds cover showed a higher value on areas grazed by Hungarian Grey. Our two-year results suggest that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds can be a proper tool for the conservation management of alkali grasslands.

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Possibility of oil seeds in feeding dairy cows
Published March 20, 2014
67-73

The efforts to modify the fatty acid composition of milk have intensified with health conscious nutrition coming to the forefront.This experiment of ours was designed to investigate to what extent the natural-based feed additives, such as oilseeds, can influence the fatty acid composition of cow’s milk.Further information was gained about fee...ding of oilseeds in specific amounts to be fitted into the technology of a large-scale dairy farm in practice. The feed supplements were whole, untreated rapeseed and whole, untreated linseed, as part of a total mixed ration. In case of saturated fatty acids when supplementing with whole rapeseed the most significant change was observable in the concentration of the caprylic acid, capric acid, undecylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, stearic acid. In case of unsaturated fatty acids the quantity of oleic acid enhanced considerably. When observating the feeding with whole linseed the concentration of many saturated fatty acids lowered (caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid). The quantity of some unsaturated fatty acids was showing a distinct rise after feeding with linseed, this way the oleic acid, α-linolenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, eicosadienoic acid. The aim of the study was to produce food which meets the changed demands of customers, as well.

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Impact of chronic heat stress on digestibility of nutrients and performance of meat type ducks
Published August 29, 2017
51-55

The aim of the study is to determine the effect of vitamin and mineral supplement under permanently high environmental temperature (30±1 °C) on the digestibility of nutrients, performance and furthermore the composition of duck meat in the growing period. A total of four hundred mixed sex 14 days old Cherry Valley type hybrid ducks were used ...for the study. Two experimental diets were formulated in the study (control and vitamin E, C and zinc supplemented diet). Based on the results the following conclusions were drown: the antioxidant defence system plays an important role in the reduction of heat stress generated lipid peroxidation process. Feed additives which have direct or indirect antioxidant effects can reduce the negative effects of heat stress on the ducks performance and meat composition. Digestibility of nutrients (Dry Matter, Crude Protein, Crude Fat) was not affected by antioxidant supplementation under chronic heat stress (30±1 °C). The performance was affected significantly by Vitamin C and E and zinc supplementation under heat stress (P<0.05). In the treated group the daily weight gain (dWG) increased and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved significantly (P<0.05). The energy and protein conversion was decreased also significantly (P<0.05).

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The examination of relation between the C/N ratio and the biogas yields in the Regional Biogas Plant of Nyírbátor
Published October 20, 2009
63-68

The Regional Biogas Plant of Nyírbátor was built by the Bátortrade Ltd. The biogas plant contains 6 mezophil and 6 thermophil fermentation tanks, because the biogas production is based on mixed compositions. The regional plant is a multifunctional system. It produces agricultural products and biogas with high methane content. The utilization... of biogas is also accomplished here; gas-engines transform it to electricity and
heat-energy. The product electricity is used by the local plants, the surplus is sold. 
The aim of the research is the examination of the quality and quantity of the input materials that put into the mixers and follow the seasonal, periodical and optional changes of the input materials. The analyzation of the quality and quantity data can give an answer to the optional changes of biogas production because the input materials determine the composition of the examined recipe. The C/N ratio was between 11-13, the maximal value of the biogas yield was observed by 12.35 C/N ratio.

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