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Applied EDI technologies in food traceability
Published July 28, 2008
69-74

Due to globalisation, the new technological developments and the complexity of food supply processes, the European food sector is increasingly becoming more complex. The consumers’ trust in food, triggered and affected by a number of food crises, is low. Today, consumers increasingly expect safe and high quality food and demand information ab...out the origin of their food. Also, economic health of food industry can be greatly affected by food crises; therefore efficient and effective mechanisms are required to assist food industry in tracking and tracing products along the food chain. In this paper we discuss the criteria for efficient and effective traceability system from an IT perspective (mainly data exchange) and we identify key requirements for ICT enabled traceability.

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Quality management and traceability in crop production
Published July 16, 2007
273-277

Today, food safety and quality is an everyday issue. Scandals in the food industry drew attention to the role and responsibility of food producers in the food chain. The European Union has set up a new integrated approach towards food safety, to which Hungary as an EU member and export-oriented country has also joined. The new “from farm to f...ork” principle states that food and feed production cannot be handled separately, as only feed produced from good quality raw materials can ensure safe food products. Another important issue is the traceability of products, allowing for the localization and recall of the defected item. In Hungary, there have been different documentation systems for tracking and tracing products, such as the land register in crop production, animal register in the livestock sector and hygiene registers in the food industry. In order to meet EU requirements, there is a growing number of initiatives to include primary production in the scope of food safety standards. The study introduces and compares the various management systems used in crop production.

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Microbial assessment of potential functional dairy products with added dried herbs
Published May 20, 2020
59-63

The market of dairy products is a dynamically developing sector of the food industry. Potential, functional dairy products, made by adding herbs or spices, will have antimicrobial and antioxidant effect due to the active biochemical agents of the plant additives. Furthermore, these active components will widen the storage life of food produ...cts and enhance their organoleptic properties too. We worked out a technology for creating fresh cheeses using a gentle pasteurizing method by treating the mixture of raw milk and 1.5% fat contained in commercial milk. As herb additives, we used citronella (Melissa officinalis), and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) harvested by us and dried them via Tyndall-method in convective dryer on 40 °C for 5.5 hours per day. The drying period took three days. We bought dried citronella and mint from the supermarket, which were dried by ionizing radiation, to compare the microbiological pollution with the herbs dried by us.

The main target of this research was to create a microbiologically stable, potential functional dairy product. However, because of the bad quality of the raw milk and the gentle heat treatment we used for sterilizing bulk milk, or else, cheeses were not safe for human consumption. As a consequence, we need further studies to modify our technology and get a microbiologically stable product.

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Food Safety in EU Higher Education
Published November 15, 2007
188-197

Under the aegis of the Lisbon Strategy, special attention is paid to education and areas left untouched by the European integration process. Human capital and research inputs were identified as major driving forces for long-term development. The European Union is keen on meeting its target of boosting research spending to 3% of GDP by 2010. In ...order to contribute towards his goal, the European Commission has set aside an amount
which is double the budget of the 7th Framework Programme. Accordingly, preferences were given to research and development projects encouraging competitiveness in the food industry and other initiatives, such as the European Technology Platforms. Major obstacles to innovation in Hungary are: lack of funds, weakness of research network, poor structural relations. Better utilization of our comparative advantages should be targeted in order to have the Hungarian food industry become a driving force sector. This is to be promoted by the newly transformed food
engineer training (as a result of the Bologna Declaration) which can adapt better to the changing requirements of the labour market. Food science and related research could become determining factors for the food economy by setting up accredited training systems and enhancing food safety education and training in Hungary. 

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Comparison of chemical parameters of enzyme active and inactive malt types
Published June 1, 2021
161-166

Nowadays there is an increasing emphasis on the use of raw materials. Typically, raw materials – in this study malt – are used in animal feeds and used in the brewing industry. However, in terms of quality (eg. high fibre content), these can be included in human nutrition, we have limited information on this possibility. The aim of our ...work was to compare different malt flours and examine the possibility of using malt in the baking industry. We were to investigate some of the most relevant parameters, such as dietary fibre content, crude protein content, fat content, carbohydrate content, dry matter content, moisture content, salt and energy content. In the future, we aim to conduct a research on some of these parameters with different malt types as the brewing industry uses novel ingredients different cereals, pseudocereals such as amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), oat (Avena sativa L.), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in addition to the spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on brewing studies, malt has a high fibre and protein content. Having these advantageous qualities, malt should be part of humans’ healthy diet. Using malt flour in the baking industry can be a new direction which can lead to creating a healthier lifestyle and healthier eating habits than suggested by the WHO (World Health Organization).

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Modern Food Safety and Product Identification
Published December 6, 2005
339-345

In the beginning of the 21st century the matter of food safety plays an accentuated role in the food industry. Important issues in this topic are the risk of bioterrorism, impurities in the food chain and the ascendancy of customer needs. The solutions of these problems are the introduction of modern quality assurance systems, traceability and ...identification of products. I review in this paper the possibilities of these systems, the potential advantages and incidental costs. In the tight frame of this paper – omitting the descriptions of technologies – I discuss the most important criterions of systems, which may be able to solve today’s quality food industry problems.

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Essential oil extraction from herbs and their use in the food industry
Published September 5, 2018
59-74

Essential oil extraction of wild caraway and thyme was performed using a classical (HD) and microwave hydro-distillation (MWHD) and a laboratory supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with a carbon dioxide as solvent. Our experiments demonstrated that the extraction yield of the essential oil performed in same conditions was influenced by the loc...ation of growth area; the maximum extraction yield of 10 ml 100 g-1 caraway was obtained from dried seeds collected from Csíkmadaras. This quantity far exceeded the yield of the Újtusnád samples. In the case of wild caraway (Carum carvi L.), the extraction method influenced thecomposition of the essential oil (carvone/limonene ratio), the highest limonene content being achieved by classical hydro-distillation. In the case of thyme, this effect was not detected, the thymol/carvacrol ratio was independent from the given extraction method. The obtained thyme essential oil possesses high antimicrobial activity demonstrated by agar diffusion test. The thyme extract provides a good protection against microorganisms collected on the surface of fresh vegetables following bacterial stains: Citrobacter portucalensis, Pseudomonas hunanensis, Pseudomonas baetica, Pseudomonas parafulva, Bacillus mojavensis and Enterobacter cloacae. Protective effect was also detected on the vegetable surface of by chitosan-based edible film coating during a 6-day-long storage period at a temperature of 4 °C. The caraway essential oil used as soft cheese seasoning with a direct, dilution-free method, proved to be unsuitable because the uneven distribution and confer a strong, unpleasant taste to the product in comparison with the ground wild caraway seed-dressed cheese.

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Novel Applications of Microwave Techniques in the Food and Environmental Industries
Published March 4, 2005
29-34

During the microwave processing, despite the conventional heating, the material heats consistently inside. This property of microwave is utilized by drying and dehydration processes. The thermal sensitivity of raw materials of food industry requires development of gentle, fast and controllable technologies, which is realizable by means of combi...nation of conventional and microwave techniques. The other important application area of the microwave technique is food industrial practice is enhancing the microbial safety of products, mainly by pasteurization processes. In recent time the strict environmental regulation necessitate developing more effective treatment of wastes, waste waters and sewage sludge. Because a part of these techniques are heat and power demanded, the microwave technique may be an alternative process in execution of sludge conditioning, drying or gasification and pyrolysis.

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Food problem and its solution
Published September 18, 2014
19-23
...255); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The Globalization processes substantially changed relations between countries. One of main factors of these processes is forming in ХХ century of Worldwide auction organization, which activity provided with swift growth of volumes in trade of food commodities. Thus, the solution for global food problem was found. At the end of the second half of ХХ century the production volumes of agrarian goods in countries with a different level of economic development grew considerably. However, a food crisis 2007–2008 led to the necessity to define factors, which would allow to grow production, converting an agrarian sector into sustainable growing industry, passing ahead the increase of quantity of population.
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Formation of Food Clusters in Europe
Published November 20, 2011
55-59

In the dictionary of foreign words and phrases we can find the word “cluster” with the following sense: aggregation, group and in a wider meaning: association, integration.
By explaining the geographical concentration of economical and innovation processes in the food processing sector, clusters, and especially
business clusters, play... an important role. This essay deals exclusively with business clusters, so the term cluster is used also for business cluster.
I tried to collect the most relevant indicators determining the formation of clusters in the Food Processing Sectors and to analyze whether a
correlation can be found among the analyzed indicators.

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Rheological evaluation of industrial tomato
Published December 15, 2019
137-140

Today, tomato has the second largest harvesting area globally, and the fourth largest in Hungary. The importance of industrial tomato is growing year by year, and one of the most important tasks is to satisfy the needs of the industry. To meet these needs, the producer has to find the proper genotype, which can achieve up to 100 t ha-1...p> crop yield. This quality has high importance to be researched.

The experiment was carried out in the Botanical and Exhibition Garden of the University of Debrecen, with 3 examined genotypes. The planting date was 3 of May 2018. The harvesting was two-threaded. On 27 of July the physical parameters – fruit shape index (length/diameter), firmness (kg cm-2), water-soluble dry matter content (Brix%) and weight of the berries (g) – were evaluated. On 15 of August the rheological parameters were examined – the force needed to tear the skin – bioyield point (g) and flesh firmness (g).

The fruit shape index was oval (between 1.19 and 1.24) for all the examined genotypes. The firmness was between 0.92 (UG1122713 F1) and 1.05(Prestomech F1) kg cm-2, which compliance the needs of the industry. The water-soluble dry matter content was suitable, with a value between 4.49 (Prestomech F1) and 4.65 (UG1122713 F1) Brix%. The weight of the berries was between 45.94 (UG989 F1) and 49.37 (Prestomech F1) g per piece.

The bioyield point was between 76.00 (UG1122713 F1) and 85.16 (UG989 F1) g. The flesh firmness was between 33.68 (UG1122713 F1) and 42.81 (UG989 F1) g.

Finally, we can conclude based on the obtained data that the UG989 F1 hybrid was the most proper for the applied cultivation conditions. This genotype can be recommended for the farmers even in extreme weather conditions.

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Perspectives of the livestock sector in the Philippines: A review
Published June 1, 2021
175-188

The Philippine livestock industry is a vital component in the country's agricultural sector. It contributes around 18.23 percent of the gross output value in agriculture and provides livelihood to many people living in rural areas, signifying its importance with regard to the country’s economy. The constantly increasing demand for animal ...protein associated with the increase of the world’s population led to the intensification of livestock production, realized through the various initiatives implemented by the government, such as the import of high producing purebreds of various species. This strategy greatly influenced the country's animal genetic resource's diversity and increased food animals' population; however, it impacted the native breeds of food animals. Understanding the characteristics, performance and value of native and exotic breeds is essential to prioritize their livestock industry existence. Thus, this paper aims to characterize various native and exotic breeds of livestock in the Philippines and assess the current conservation of native animals.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth kinetics study dairy byproduct
Published February 10, 2013
169-172

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">By guess, annual volume of milk whey is 185–190 million tons and this volume probably will increase next years. Whey has significant biochemical oxygen demand due to its high organic matter content so whey as sewage is one of the most pollutant by-products in the food industry. Apart from environmental pollution, benefit of several whey constituents for human health is another reason to utilize whey. Corn and potato, as well as the processing of milk in the food industry in large quantities of by-products generated by low cost, substantial quantities of starch and lactic acid, which are due to high biological oxygen demand are considered as hazardous waste. Some of them are destroyed sewage storage tanks, and those products are excellent substrates for the growth of microorganisms could be. The traditional nutrient solution optimization methods are solution and time-consuming and are not able to determine the real optimum because of the interaction of factors involved.

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Assessment of energy generated by biogas production in the educational industrial unit of the University of Szeged, Faculty of Agriculture, with special regard to biomass originating from agriculture and the food industry
Published July 16, 2007
137-140

The importance of waste treatment is increasing. Environmental aims are the main driving force. Stricter regulations for landfills lead to the development of alternative treatment methods for waste. For agro-mechanical research, wastes from animal rearing and the food industry, secondary-tertiary biomass, is of deep concern. Available technolog...y is versatile and relatively simple to use as a reliable and effective means of producing a gaseous fuel from various organic waste. The most common application has been the digestion of animal dung, agricultural, and food-industrial waste. This was studied by our department in our pilot farm of our Faculty. The 50-dairy cow, family sized model farm was built in the summer of 1991, as a result of a Dutch – Hungarian cooperation, on the property of the Faculty. The new pig farm, with 30 sows, and the new goat farm, with 100 nannies, was given to the Faculty on 25 April 2001. On the basis of livestock data, the annual dung production and the producible energy were determinate. The energy was calculated by biogas production coefficients in literature.

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Studies on Ostrich (Struthio Camelus) - Review
Published May 20, 2020
15-22

Ostrich has been reared in Hungary for decades, but we have limited information on this species. The aim of this review was to provide a concise description of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) based on international studies. We were to investigate some of the most relevant parameters, such as egg, meat and skin production. In this critical re...view we managed to sum up the most significant features and productivity parameters of ostrich and effecting factors. So as to make an accurate description of the species we have to know its morphological, behavioural and physiological characteristics. Ostrich is a very special bird with special nutritional and environmental requirements. Ostrich products, regarding egg, meat and skin are considered luxury products not only in Hungary but also abroad. Though egg has a significant nutritional value, it is mainly used for hatching chicks. In Europe we can expect roughly 40–50 eggs from a hen yearly. Ostrich has a lean meat with high protein and low fat and sodium content, moreover it is rich in minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Having these advantageous qualities, ostrich meat should be part of our healthy diet. Skin production is not important in our country, but there is a special demand for high quality ostrich leather globally. In the future our aim is to conduct a research on some of the parameters. As low production rate and embryo mortality is a great deal of problem in ostrich industry, we need to investigate the incubation environment. There is an apparent disagreement among researchers on optimal slaughter age. This is also an area for further investigation. The value of skin and effecting factors on our climate as well as adaptability of the species are also worth for further investigation together with the nutrition what differs from other ostrich breeding countries. Nowadays, there is a great emphasis placed on animal welfare too.

 

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Development of an InDel marker set to establish hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig (Sus scrofa) breeds
Published May 23, 2019
21-25

Wild boar and domestic pig breeds belong to the same species (Sus scrofa), so they can easily have viable offspring. This could be a problem in preserving the genetic lines of wild boars, keeping clean the food industry from lower-grade hybrid boar meat, and „producing” ethically questionable trophies, too. The aim of our study was to devel...op a cost-efficient, fast, easy and accurate marker set which can separate the wild boars from hybrids and domestic pig breeds.

The InDel markers were developed using 59 full pig genomes of 17 different breeds (e.g. Duroc, Large White, Landrace, Mangalica, wild boar). Sequence differences between the genomes of wild boars and domestic breeds were identified in variant call files, and verified using the IGV software. Wild boar, mangalica and duroc specific primers to amplify the chosen InDel regions were designed using Primer3.

After preliminary tests five markers were chosen, three wild boar specific, one Mangalica specific and one Duroc specific one. Fluorescently labelled primers were used to make the valuation easier and more accurate with capillary electrophoresis instead of gel-electrophoresis. The markers were optimised individually and in multiplex conditions and tested in samples of 11 breeds.

In conclusion, a new, faster and cheaper set was developed to separate the wild boars from the hybrids and domestic breeds. Based on the preliminary testing on wild boars, duroc and mangalica breeds zero samples resulted false negative, so it is 100% accurate. In addition, it is a much more cost- and time-effective way than testing every single sample with STR sets.

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Chestnut tree: an appropriate choich for rural developement in Europe (review)
Published February 18, 2016
55-59

In chestnut plantations or in associations many pathogens and pests can be found. They are causing more than a hundred year problem in chestnut protection, for example the blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Lot of breeders hybridized the Castanea sativa and Castanea dentata with the tolerant asian species. Nowadays the presence of Dryocosm...us kuriphilus seems to be the main risk. However, there are more and more chestnut plantations in Europe because of the extensive growth of needs. The food industry produces many products from chestnut, but the wood industry also use it more and more. In most of European countries the chestnut stands represent landscape aesthetics and touristic value, but probably the number of farmers inquiring the plantation will be increase in Hungary.

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Realisation of customer focus from quality and forage safety aspects in the Hungarian mixed feed production
Published March 11, 2014
35-38

Customer focus is one of the main principles of Total Quality Management, and it is inevitable for long term, mutually successful vendorcustomer partnerships. The strictly controlled quality management systems of animal feed industry ensure that product quality meets the expectations of all parties involved and, indirectly the reliability of hu...man food raw materials. Meanwhile, the participants of agricultural production are variably quality conscious, so feed manufacturers support their supply chain and also their customers with professional background and they play a key role in safe food chains from farm to fork.

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Heat-No-Service: Reproductive lifetime performance of gilts inseminated on first versus second observed estrus in commercial piglet producing herds
Published May 20, 2020
77-80

Heat No Service (HNS) is an increasing managerial decision made in commercial piglet producing herds. Performance of gilts has been shown to be influenced by initial decisions made on them at their introduction in the breeding herds. Lifetime Reproductive performance comprising of parity total born piglets and lifetime total born piglets of... gilts initially bred on first observed estrus (0HNS) was compared with that of gilts bred on second observed estrus (1HNS). Stored data from Porcitec database consisted of 2.072 gilts bred on first observed estrus (0HNS) and 2.453 gilts bred on second observed estrus (1HNS) totaling to 4.525 gilts. Data was statistically analyzed using the GLM procedure of IBM SPSS version 25. The results showed a significance difference (p<0.001) in lifetime total born performance of gilts bred at 0HNS (mean 93.9) and 1HNS (mean 95.7). There was also a significant difference (p<0.001) of total born piglets in parity 1, 5 and 6 in the 2 groups. There was an observed increased parity total born and lifetime total born when first time insemination of gilts was delayed to second estrus. The findings in this study favor the 1HNS breeding with an overall increased lifetime total born. Gilts inseminated at 1HNS produce 1.57 more pigs for lifetime as compared with those inseminated at 0HNS when observation is made up to P6. Producers in piglet producing herds could re examine their decisions for increased productivity by promoting many gilts into 1HNS but still maintaining the balance between breed targets and production schedules to remain competitive and profitable in the current global swine industry.

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The examination of flesh firmness in different apple varieties
Published December 15, 2019
103-107

Of the different physical features of fruits, one important quality feature is flesh hardness. This is an important parameter to be considered when selling fresh apples, for the manufacturing industry and when entering into storage. In our research, we examined 7 apple varieties, in 2016 and 2017, from the establishment of KITE Zrt. in Derecske... and the Horticultural Experimentation Site of Pallag (Pallagi Kertészeti Kísérleti Telep). The plantations took place in accordance with intensive apple production. In both years, samples were collected at the time ripening of the given apple variety. Of the examined apple varieties, 5 of them are resistant to scab (Gaia, Isaaq, Modí, Smeralda, Fujion), 1 is not resistant (Golden Reinders) and 1 (Pinova) is moderately susceptible to scab. The scab resistant apple varieties were correlated to the non-resistant Golden Reinders. Flesh firmness was measured with a fruit penetrometer in each of the seven apple varieties. In the first year a two-month storage experiment was carried out, where the flash firmness after harvest, and after one-month and two-month storage was measured. The results were assessed with the help of the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 program. The goal is to compare the apple varieties based on their flesh firmness, in particular with regard to the resistant varieties.

The Isaaq 8.81–8.82 N/cm2 , the Modí 9.18–9.59 N/cm2 and the Fujion 8.66–9.13 N/cm2 , all of which are scab resistant apple varieties, showed a significant initial flesh firmness. During storage, the Pinova apple variety flesh firmness changed the most favourably.

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Some basic problems concerning world animal production at the beginning of the XXI century
Published November 13, 2012
77-80

The author summarizes the main new challenges facing animal agriculture: growing GDP in many countries increasing animal protein demand, bioenergy industry as a new player using potential food or feedstuffs, increasing demand, Growing water and land scarcity, weaking the position of plant agriculture, feed production. Forecasts are summarized r...egarding the magnitude of meat consumption increases, and the possible plant biomass quantities required additionally in the next 20 years to cover the needs of food, feed and biofuel on a global scale.
Efficiencies of various animal production sectors, poultry, pork, beef, mutton meat, milk and eggs and their environmental footprints are compared, summarizing the most important research  results concerning UK, USA, OECD evaluations. Intensive systems using highly productive plant and animal population will play an even more important role in the future especially in poultry, pig, milk and aquaculture production system being efficient users of resources (feed, water, land) and the environmental foot print is smaller per unit product.

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Doing sport is good – Responsible for popularization of sport
Published February 3, 2016
71-75

Responsible leaders of more and more companies build legal, ethic, moral, environmental and social aspects in their goals and values beyond profit maximization. The number of companies whose activities in terms of social responsibility (CSR) has clear connections with promoting and putting forward sports shows an increasing tendency.

Th...e aim of this study is the conceptual clarification of corporate social responsibility, and emphasize the CSR’s significance in sport management, next the analysis of 3 top food and beverage companies’ (Coca-Cola, Nestle, Danone) CSR activity in special regard to sport management in Hungary and abroad.

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Examination of wheat rheological characteristics by near-infrared spectroscopy
Published December 16, 2012
99-104

Near-infrared spectroscopy has many advantages that make it a widely used analitical method in the different areas, like agricultural and food industry as well. In wheat quality control rheological characteristics of dough made from wheat flour are as important as physical and chemical properties too. In this work we examined rheological proper...ties of wheat flour samples by alveograph, and spectral data of the same samples were collected by FOSS Infratec 1241 instrument. Modified partial least squares analyses on NIR spectra were developed for two alveograph parameter (P/L és W) to get calibration equations.

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Leaf protein analyses in order to utilise the leaf shoot of artichoke
Published February 3, 2016
43-47

The constat growth of the Earth’s population brings with itself a higher demand for food and protein not only in human nutrition but also for the feeding of livestock. Currently, the feed industry is mainly built onseed-based protein, wherethebaseplant is soybean, which is large lycovered by imports in Hungary, similar toother European countr...ies. However, the long-term economically sustainable lifestock breeding demandschanges which has also worked out strategies. An alternative protein sources could be green leafy plants.

In current work the Jerusalem artichokes as an alternative source of protein was studied, compared to alfalfa as a valuable protein plant. Our results indicate that fiber fraction ofJerusalem artichoke shootswas 34 to 37% after pressing in the autumn period while alfalfa slightly lower values were obtained (30%). On the other hand extracted green leaf protein concentration was higher in alfalfa than in Jerusalem artichoke. Along with this higher protein content could be measured from the leaf protein concentration of alfalfa and almost each amino acids were more, as well comparing to Jerusalem artichoke.

Overall, the alfalfa proved to be advantageous as expected both in leaf protein extraction efficiency, both regarding the content of the protein in the Jerusalem artichoke. However, considering aminoacid composition and green biomass production, Jerusalem artichokecould be a promisingplant species asplant protein sourceinthefuture.

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Relationships of Fruit Production and Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
181-187

The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.

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