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The possibilities of biomass utilization in the field of spatial development
Published July 16, 2007
59-63

By joining the European Union, Hungary made a commitment to increasingly utilize renewable energy sources. Keeping in view the agricultural circumstances of Hungary, we can state that biomass utilization has, overall, the greatest range of possibilities to use its products as ‘energy sources’. Biomass raw materials are useful in meeting emi...ssion control regulations for environment protection and to reduce climate change. The role of biomass production in spatial and rural development and in rural employment, and also in the decrease of Hungary’s energy dependence, supports development in biomass energy use. My aim in studying biomass utilization is the creation of a micro-regional level, decentralised, agro-energetic system-model for the use of plant and animal biomass for energy purposes, whether naturally or by anthropogenic activity, on agro- and sylvicultural areas, and on animal breeding farms. This model simulation method serves as a planning base for policy-makers during the spatial planning processes. The examination is presently in the stage of data collection. The collection of the basic data of the examination area and the purchase of the necessary equipment, materials and maps has already started. Contact has been made with local stakeholders, municipalities, municipality associations and micro-region managers.

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Harvesting system established for the utilisation of Miscanthus sinensis ‘tatai’ “energy cane” in biomass power plants
Published March 23, 2016
143-150

The increasing demand for energy worldwide and the resulting environmental impacts of fossil fuels forced many countries to turn to renewable energy resources as a clean and sustainable alternative. More than a third of Europe’s binding renewable energy source target of 20% by 2020 will come from solid biomass for electricity and heating acco...rding to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans submitted by member states of the European Union (EU) to the European Commission. To achieve this goal long-term yield studies in renewable energy plants are important to determine mean annual biomass and energy yield, and CO2 emission. Field experiments worldwide and also in Europe have demonstrated that Miscanthus, a fast-growing C4 rhizomatous grass can produce some of the highest biomass and energy yield per hectare of all potential energy plants. Miscanthus is a plant that originates from the southern slopes of the Himalayas. It was bred for the Hungarian climatic conditions in 2006 under the name of Miscanthus sinensis ‘Tatai’ (MsT). The species has high frost and drought tolerance and high energy value. This is why there is growing demand for the biomass (lignocellulose) produced by growing this plant. The biomass, produced from the high yield energy reed, can be transported to power plants in large quantities, in forms of bales. Its household consumption is not yet significant. This study presents the external features, characteristics, propagation and plantation process of MsT energy reed. The study also demonstrates the harvest technology of the species worked out between 2009–2012 in Tata, Hungary and the options of supplying to biomass

power stations.

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Energy Use of Biomass
Published December 6, 2005
264-272

In this study, energy utilization of biomass is introduced with a short description of renewable energy sources and utilization possibilities of biomass.
Presently, the necessity of renewable energy sources is increasingly obvious. Among renewables, energy from biomass is to be highlighted, since this allows versatile, cheap utilization of t...he sun’s energy. In this respect, Hungary has advantages. Direct heat utilization and biogas production are available procedures today, whereas biodiesel and bioethanol are expected to spread in the near future. Biogas production is possibly the most versatile method for biomass conversion: it can produce energy from materials inapplicable for other utilization; at the same time, it is capable of neutralizing harmful wastes; in the end, it produces also valuable fermentative products, from bio-manure useful in agriculture, to pharmaceutical raw materials.

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Comparative examination of a bacterium preparation (BACTOFIL® A10) and an artificial fertilizer [CA(NO3)2] on calcareous chernozem soil
Published November 3, 2010
75-80

In a small-pot experiment a bacterium preparation, Bactofil® A10 and an artificial fertilizer containing Ca(NO3)2 in different dosages were studied on calcareous chernozem soil, concerning the readily available nutrient content of soil (nitrate-nitrogen, AL-phosphorus, ALpotassium content of soil, some soil microbial char...acteristics (total number of bacteria and fungi, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, CO2-production of soil), and the amount of the plant biomass.
The readily available nutrient content of the calcareous chernozem soil increased due to the treatments, except for the change in the soil nitrate-nitrogen content, which did not measure up to the control due to the effect of high-dosage Bactofil.
The treatments also influenced the examined microbial characteristics of the soil positively. The artificial treatments significantly increased the total number of bacteria and the number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria. The low-dosage Bactofil significantly increased the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria and both Bactofil dosage significantly increased the number of nitrifying bacteria. The measure of the soil respiration grew in all treatments, but significantly only in Ca(NO3)2 fertiliser treatments.
The quantity of the plant biomass was grew in a low-dosage Bactofil and significantly in the artificial fertiliser treatments. The highest plant biomass quantity was measured in the high-dosage artificial fertiliser treatment.
In the correlation analyses we found some medium positive correlation between the soil chemical, microbiological parameters examined, and the plant biomass in the case of both treatment-forms. 
Based on our results Ca(NO3)2 artificial fertiliser treatments on calcareous chernozem soil proved to be more stimulating regarding the
examined soil characteristics and the amount of the plant biomass, but the low-dosage Bactofil also positively influenced the majority of the
soil characteristics examined in terms of nutrient supply.

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The application of bentonite and zeolite for soil amelioration in acidic sandy soil
Published November 2, 2009
131-137

In a pot experiment, we have studied the effect of bentonite and zeolite in different dosages [control; 5; 10; 15; 20 g kg-1] on acidic (pHH2O=5.65) humus sandy soil. The experiment was set up in 2007 and 2008 in the greenhouse of the UD CASE Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science. As a test plant, perennial ryegrass... (Lolium perenne L.) was used. 
In laboratory examinations, pH(H2O), pH(KCl), hidrolytic acidity, nitrate-N content, readily available phosphorus and potassium content were determined. Among soil microbial parameters, the total number of bacteria, the cellulose-decomposing bacteria, the carbon-dioxide production, the microbial biomass-C content of soil, and the saccharase enzyme activity were measured. In the experiment the biomass of the test plant was determined.
The effect of bentonite and zeolite in different dosages can be summarized as follows:
− The pH increased under the effect of low dosages. With the increasing of the pH the hydrolytic acidity - at the bentonite treatments significantly – decreased. 
− Regarding the readily available nutrient content of the soil, low and medium dosages proved to be effective. High dosages of bentonite treatments reduced the nitrate-N content, the readily available phosphorus, and potassium content of soil, by zeolite treatments the high dosages reduced the nitrate-N content of soil. 
− Regarding the measured soil microbial parameters in both treatments low and medium dosages proved to be also effective, but the high dosages didn’t cause decreasing at the total number of bacteria, and by zeolite treatments the biomass-C content of soil.
− Also the bentonite and zeolite treatments enlarged the biomass of the test plant. We experienced significant increasing by bentonite treatments by the effect of medium and high dosages, while in zeolite treatments only the high dosage caused significantly increasing in plant biomass. The largest dosages decrease the plant biomass. 
− Under the statistical analysis we found many medium and tight correlation between the studied parameters. 

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Biomass production estimation of processing tomato using AquaCrop under different irrigation treatments
Published December 15, 2019
131-136

The wiser usage of irrigation water is inevitable in the future. Irrigation has very high input cost; therefore, farmers must carry out irrigation with care. Also, the effect of irrigation on crops has a big role in decision making. Modeling provides a possibility to evaluate this effect. AquaCrop, as a crop production simulation model has grea...t potential in this field. The accuracy of tomato biomass yield prediction of the model was tested in this research. For collecting the necessary data, a field experiment was conducted at Szarvas on processing tomato with different water supplies, such as 100% (I100), 75% (I75), 50% (I50) of potential evapotranspiration and a control with basic water supply (C). The relation of the simulation and actual biomass yields was evaluated during the season. Very good correlation was found between the modelled and the actually harvested data. The data for the control and I100 treatments showed higher correlation than the I75 and I50. The relationship for all of the data was moderately strong. Miscalculations occur mostly when the dry biomass yield reaches
7 t ha-1. The accuracy of the model was evaluated with the use of mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) values. The least error was found in the C treatment, which means 0.34 MAE and 0.45 t ha-1 RMSE. The simulation resulted in higher errors in the I75 and I50 treatments.

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The effect of different bacterial fertilizers on the AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, and the biomass of the rye-grass (Lolium perenne, L)
Published December 16, 2012
93-98

In pot experiment the effect of different bacterial fertilizers on some soil properties, and the amount of plant biomass were studied. The
experiment was set up in 2010 at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, in a three replications in a random block design. The ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) was used as a test plan...t. The studied soil type was calcareous chernosem soil from Látókép. In our laboratory AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, the phosphatase enzyme activityof soil, the dry weight of rye-grass, and the phosphorus content of rye-grass were determined.
The results of the study were the following:
– The bacterial fertilizers - by basic treatments NPK - had significant positive effect on the AL- soluble phosphorus content of the soil.
– The soil phosphatase enzyme activity was increased in all cases strongly by the microbial preparations used, the greatest impact was the Bactofil A bacterial fertilizer.
– The plant educed P values significantly increased by the effect of microbial products, in addition to the fund NPK. In this case, the EM-1 and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer were the effective.
– In case of the rye-grass biomass none of the bacterial preparations used caused any significant changes, either alone or when used them with straw treatment.

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Microbiological preparations affecting the soil nutrient availability and growth of ryegrass in a pot experiment
Published March 11, 2014
49-53

The effects of different bacterial fertilizers and their combinations with NPK fertilizer and wheat straw were investigated on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass production of testplant. The applied quantities of the bacterial fertilizers were the double of the recommended dose. The experiment was set up in 2013 at th...e Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block design. Calcareous chernozem soil; originating from Debrecen (Látókép) was used with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 8 week) the samples of soil and plants were determined for nitrate-nitrogen, ALsoluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green biomass of ryegrass per pot, the dry matter and moisture content of ryegrass. Straw treatment resulted better water and available nutrient content of soil in general. Inoculation however was not improving the biomass production over the fertilizer treatment. Interrelation with the recommended dose could be further studied.

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The effect of biopreparations in pot experiment
Published March 20, 2013
45-49

In pot experiment the effect of Amykor and Organic Green Gold bioproducts and their combinations with NPK fertilizer on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass of testplant were studied. The experiment was set up in 2012 at the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block... design. The studied soil typein the pot experiment was humus sandy soil from Debrecen-Pallag with onion (Allium cepa) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 4 week) in our laboratory the samples of soil and plant were determined. The nitrate-nitrogen, AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green onion leaves, the wet weight of bulb and root of onion and biomass of onion. The results of the study were the following: – The treatments influenced positively the nitrate-nitrogen, the AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil. – The most effective treatments were the artificial fertilization (NO3-N) and the NPK+ simple dose of Amykor (AL-P2O5 and Al-K2O). – The NPK fertilization and the NPK+OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) combinations had significant positive effect on the weight of green onion leaves. – The biofertilization and the straw+biofertilizer combinations stimulated the AL-soluble potassium content of soil occasionally. – The OGG treatment (sprinkle in every 10 days) had significant effective impact on the wet weight of bulb and root of onion. – The biomass of onion was increased by the artificial fertilization and OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) treatment.

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Caliometric characterisation of crop production byproducts
Published February 25, 2014
55-58

By the decreasing tendency of the fossil energy resources more emphasis put on the usage of renewable energy resources. The consideration of environmental protection and the efforts of the European Union make current the widespread usage of renewable energy within biomass energy. One of the determinative trends of biomass energy is the direct c...ombustion of biomass. Characteristically woody stocks are produced for this aim, but there is a considerable potential in several byproducts of growing herbaceous plants or of other processes.

In our study three byproducts of plant production have been investigated which appeared at the harvest. The Higher Heating Values of wheat, maize and sunflower byproducts have been determined by an IKA C2000 Basic adiabatic calorimeter. According to the statistical analysis of the measured data the HHV of the byproducts are different, and these values are in a negative correlation with the amount of ash in % (R2=0.873) appeared by the combustion.

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Alternatives of the multiple use of Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby) as a shrub-replacing mallow in the temperate climate zone
Published May 16, 2012
51-56

In the seventies of the previous century, Dr. Zoltán Kováts set two directions in the research of mallows. One of the directions was the biotechnology of the mallow species and the other direction is using the mallow species as biomass material. In order to do this he brought mallow mother spawns of ornamental and biomass sorts from botanical... gardens abroad and tested many of them, including the a Sida hermaphrodita kind. Fourty years later, for the second time this plant, known as the „energy mallow” got back to Hungary again, right into the sight of hungarian biomass business with the help of László Balogh and his associates using help from Poland. This genus got into the center of our research, because of it’s valuable attributes. The latest experiments are about using it as an energy plant, without examining genetic details. The plant grows up to more
than 3 meters, has high growing rate and produces big amount of green mass. We don’t have any hungarian data about whether the plant continues the sufficient growing rate or not, after cutting it back.
We have to explore the potentials in the Sida’s sublimation. The plant is mostly suitable for ornamental and energy utilization, so further sublimation should be aiming for these aspects. During my research period, we are willing to get to know these potentials and the best possible use of them.

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Assessment of energy generated by biogas production in the educational industrial unit of the University of Szeged, Faculty of Agriculture, with special regard to biomass originating from agriculture and the food industry
Published July 16, 2007
137-140

The importance of waste treatment is increasing. Environmental aims are the main driving force. Stricter regulations for landfills lead to the development of alternative treatment methods for waste. For agro-mechanical research, wastes from animal rearing and the food industry, secondary-tertiary biomass, is of deep concern. Available technolog...y is versatile and relatively simple to use as a reliable and effective means of producing a gaseous fuel from various organic waste. The most common application has been the digestion of animal dung, agricultural, and food-industrial waste. This was studied by our department in our pilot farm of our Faculty. The 50-dairy cow, family sized model farm was built in the summer of 1991, as a result of a Dutch – Hungarian cooperation, on the property of the Faculty. The new pig farm, with 30 sows, and the new goat farm, with 100 nannies, was given to the Faculty on 25 April 2001. On the basis of livestock data, the annual dung production and the producible energy were determinate. The energy was calculated by biogas production coefficients in literature.

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The impact of different fertilization methods on some microbiological soil characteristics
Published December 21, 2008
119-126

In our experiment, we studied the impact of an organic fertilizer, Bactofil® A10 (half- and full dosage applied in field practice) and an artificial fertilizer of Ca(NO3)2 content in different dosages (20-40 mg kg-1) – in addition to control treatments – on two different soils (calcareous chernozem, humus sandy soil) in 2005-2006, the expe...riment was complemented with treatments applying 250% dosage (100 mg kg-1 N, Bactofil® A10 2.5 times the field dosage) and a compost from urban sewage (25 g kg-1 compost) was also tested on these two soil types. In the
experiment, several soil microbial parameters were studied. The experiment was set up at the Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science using 1-kg pots.
Our laboratory experiments were performed at the soil microbiology laboratory of UD CAS Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science, the total number of bacteria, microscopic fungi, nitrifying and aerob cellulose-decomposing bacteria were determined together with the CO2-production of soil, N content of the biomass and urease enzyme activity.
Statistical analysis of the data was done using the program SPSS 13.0, means of the measurements, deviation and significance values were calculated. 
In 2005-2006, the effect of the different dosages of Bactofil® A10, and the Ca(NO3)2 fertilizer on the examined microbial parameters of calcareous chernozem and humus sandy soils can be summarized as follows:
• Concerning the total number of bacteria, both treatments were effective on calcareous chernozem soil, the higher (significant) increment in bacteria number was observed in the artificial fertilizer treatments, while in the humus sandy soil Bactofil treatments had a beneficial effect. The number of microscopic fungi also increased in both treatments, higher numbers were observed in the average of two years in the Bactofil treatments.
• The number of nitrifying bacteria was 2.5 times higher in both high-dosage treatments on calcareous chernozem soil, while on humus sandy soil a slight (not significant) increment was observed only int he high-dosage Bactofil treatment. The amount of aerob cellulose-decomposing bacteria significantly increased on calcareous chernozem soil in both the highdosage artificial fertilizer and the small-dosage Bactofil treatment, however, on humus sandy soil no significant increase was observed in either treatment.
• The CO2-production increased in both soil types, although it was not significant in either treatment. A higher (though not significant) soil respiration was observed in the Bactofil treatments in both soil types.
• The microbial biomass N values were significantly higher in the high-dosage Bactofil treatments, however, the high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatment also increased these values significantly on calcareous chernozem soil.
• On calcareous chernozem soil, urease activity was significantly increased and reduced by high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatments and Bactofil treatments, respectively. On humus sandy soil, urease activity was also reduced except for the high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatment. In 2007, the pot experiment with 250% dosages was complemented with the application of compost rich in organic matter, the results of these treatments are sumnmarized as follows:
• In the case of the total number of bacteria, all three treatments resulted in a significant increase on calcareous chernozem soil with the highest values in the Bactofil treatment. The Bactofil treatment was the most effective on the humus sandy soil, but the artificial fertilizer treatment also
resulted in a significant increment. In the case of the total number of fungi, Bactofil treatments resulted in the highest values on both soils, but the compost treatment also increased the number of fungi in calcareous chernozem significantly. 
• The number of nitrifying bacteria was increased most (significantly) by the Bactofil and compost treatments on both soil types. The amount of cellulose-decomposing bacteria was significantly increased by he compost treatment on calcareous chernozem soil, while its effect was not significant on humus sandy soil. The number of these bacteria was increased significantly by the Bactofil treatment on humus sandy soil.
• On calcareous chernozem soil, all three treatments significantly increased CO2-production, while the compost treatments had the resulted in the largest increment in soil respiration on both soil types.
• The soil biomass N content was significantly increased in both soils by the compost treatment, while in the case of the humus sandy soil, the Bactofil treatment also resulted in a significant increment.
• Urease enzyme activity was significantly increased by the artificial fertilizer treatment on both soils. In calcareous chernozem soil, the Bactofil treatment resulted in a slight (not significant) reduction in enzyme activity. In humus sandy soil, the Bactoful treatment also resulted in a slight reduction, while the compost treatment increased (though not significantly) the urease activity.
Based on our results, it can be stated that all three treatments were effective with respect to the studied soil microbial parameters. For both the calcareous chernozem and the humus sandy soil, the organic fertilizer Bactofil and the compost with high organic matter content had a stronger effect on some soil microbial parameters than the artificial fertilizer.

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Comparative analysis of certain soil microbiological characteristics of the carbon cycle
Published March 23, 2016
137-141

In our researches, we examine the soil microbial parameters related to the carbon cycle. In this study, we compare the changes of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil CO2 production in soil samples which were taken in spring and autumn. The 30 years old long-term experiment of Debrecen-Látókép is continued in our experiment...s. The long-term fertilization experiment was set in 1983, and our sample was taken in spring 2014. The examinations of soil respiration processes and factors that influence soil respiration are required in optimal management. In our study, we interested to know how the growing levels of fertilization influence the soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions in maize mono, bi, and triculture.

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Study of The Amount of Produced Animal Manure and Biogas Potential in a 5, 20 and 40 km Zone around Debrecen
Published May 23, 2006
64-68

The guiding principle for our research is that decentralized energy supply systems should be located near local consumers. One big, local market for energy from biogas plants in Hajdú-Bihar county is Debrecen. In the course of the investigation of biomass suitable for biogas production in the area of Debrecen, this study determines the quantit...y of biogas producible from animal manure. Municipalities around Debrecen were examined in circles with 40, 20 and 5 km radius. Livestock data of these settlements stem from the Agricultural Census in year 2000, actualized by the county trend of livestock changes. Manure quantity and biogas potential in these places are estimated with coefficients from the literature and our calculations. In the largest circle, about 1.4 million tons of manure is produced, from which round 94 million m3 biogas can be produced. Biomass produced in the settlements and producible biogas shows a remarkable trend of concentration, which supports our recommendation on the system of energy supply.

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Examination of renewable energy sources and their endowments
Published May 16, 2012
67-70

Due to the exhaustion of fossile fuel reserves, the increase of their prices on the world market and the environmental pollution resulting from their use make alternative energy sources increasingly important. In my study, I am going to present the currently known and researched renewable energy sources. Based on the results achieved from the S...WOT analysis, I provide an overview on the future opportunities of their use. After the comprehensive examination of alternative energy sources, I give insight into the factors which influence the energetic use and utilisation of biomass, as well as the theoretical background of bioenergy. In my work, I pay particular attention to the analysis of the use of biomass as an energy source, as well as the difficulties related to its utilisation.

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Effect of arsenic treatments on the element content of green peas
Published May 16, 2017
203-208

The agricultural environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic elements, which means more and more threats. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic (As).
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of As-treatments on the element content of the different parts of the green peas (root,stem, leaf, po...d, pea) in the 4. phase of the plant development. Plants were grown in green house. Arsenic was applied in a form of arsenate (As[V]) and the plants were treated with 0, 3, 10, 30, 90 and 270 mg kg-1 arsenic.
According to the results the Ca content of root and pod was increased in the case of the 3 mg kg-1 As-treatment, after that decreasing tendency was observed. In the case of the 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment, the Ca content in the root was increased, because some element is able to concentrate in the lower biomass. The Ca-content of stem and leaves was reduced when the plants were treated with more than 30 mg kg-1 As. The lowest As-treatment (3 mg kg-1) increased the Na content in the root, stem and leaves, however in the case of the higher As-dose, decreasing tendency was observed. In the case of the generative plant parts the 3 mg kg-1 As-treatment also increased the Na content, nevertheless in the case of the higher As-treatments lower Na content was measured, however in the case of the highest As-treatment (270 mg kg-1) the Na content was increased in the generative plant parts, probably the Na was concentrated in the lower biomass. In the case of the 90 and 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment the Mo-content also was increased in the generative plant parts. The 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment caused a similar tendency in the case of the generative plant parts as a result of the lower biomass. In the case of the pod and leaves, the lower As-doses did not cause significant changes.
The Mo content was increased in the root and pea when the plants were treated with 3 mg kg-1 As, but in the case of the higher treatments it was decreased. In the case of the stem it was reverse, the lowest As-tretament (3 mg kg-1) decreased, nevertheless the further As-doses increased the Mo content.

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Changes of some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics in a long-term fertilization experiment in Hungary
Published September 5, 2018
253-265

Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.

Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).

The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.

With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds

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Meat meal and industrial fat as alternative fuels in agriculture
Published November 15, 2007
220-222

I study new energy sources which can replace fossil fuels. As I deal with the burning processes, I have analyzed several kinds of wastes. I think one solution for replacing fossil fuels would be to burn regenerated energy sources in agriculture. For example, oil, industrial fat and meat meal from processing plants are treated as hazardous waste...s. There exist non-hazardous wastes for energy recovery, as by-products e.g. sawdust, wood shavings, vegetable oils, stems of plants or poultry manure.
We should produce energy from the outsides of vegetables and juices, and should produce bioethanol by fermenting vegetable wastes. We could treat the used vegetable oil to make bio-diesel fuel. Meat meal and fat are good alternative energy forms, if burnt in incineration plants. These materials are new renewable sources of energy.
There are some problems in the use of biomass for energy sources. We have to look for the best loading device and burning processes.

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The effect of dissolved oxygen on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the aquaponics system
Published June 1, 2021
89-96

Aquaponics is an integrated system that combines fish farming (aquaculture) and hydroponic plant production. The objective of this study was to examine how the level of dissolved oxygen with or without an air pump affects water quality, fish output and plant growth parameters for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum... basilicum).

Ebb – and flood aquaponics systems (with automatic syphon) was used. Two treatments were set in this experiment, one of which was the aquaponics system without air pump (unit I), where water of the plant bed was pumped two directions, one falling back to the fish tank oxygenating the water the other was pumped to the hydroponics unit. The other system (unit II) was designed with an air pump.

In the course of the study, water quality parameters, such as oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and nitrite were significantly different (p<0.05). Total basil biomass was higher in unit II. (5367.41 g). The final biomass of common carp were
2829.45 g ± 79.24 and 2980.6 g ± 64.13 g in unit I and unit II respectively. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the treatments. 

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Evaluation some important microbiological parameters of the carbon cycle in chernozem soils profiles
Published October 24, 2016
33-39

Some chemical and microbiological properties of the carbon cycle were investigated in three chernozem soil profiles. The soil profiles originated from a long term fertilization experiment (potato) of the University of Debrecen, Látókép, Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden (grassland) and a large-scale farm (sunflower) of Ukraine. The results of the or...ganic C-content, total number of bacteria, microscopical fungi, cellulose decomposing bacteria, CO2-production, microbial biomass carbon and saccharase and dehydrogenase activities were compared and evaluated with the help of correlation analyses. Close correlation was found between the organic carbon content and the number of microscopical fungi,, saccharase and dehydrogenase enzymes’ activities, as well as close correlation was found between the dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass-C and saccharase activity.

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Influences of different organic fertilizers on nutrients of humic sandy soil and on the growth of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
Published October 24, 2016
23-28

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of manure with different origin (horse, cattle), various bedding materials (straw, sawdust) and diverse doses (30 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1) and the impact of food waste compost on the plant growth and the available plant nutrient content of soil. The study was condu...cted on humic sandy soil and consisted of 9 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown as the test crop. The treatments were: 1. unfertilized control; 2. horse manure with straw (30 t ha-1); 3. horse manure with sawdust (30 t ha-1); 4. cattle manure (30 t ha-1); 5 food waste compost (30 t ha-1); 6. horse manure with straw (60 t ha-1); 7. horse manure with sawdust (60 t ha-1); 8. cattle manure (60 t ha-1); 9. food waste compost (60 t ha-1). Plant growth was monitored for 4 weeks. Shoot and root weights per pot were measured, total biomass weight per pot were counted.

On the basis of the results it can be concluded, that among treatments the application of horse manure with straw enhanced spinach growth most significantly compared to other treatments and to the non-treated control, resulted the highest weights of leaves and roots of spinach. At the same time even small dose (30 t ha-1) of this fertilizer caused increased plant available nitrogen and phosphorus of soil and the higher dosage further increased these values. The horse manure with sawdust applied in lower dose did not alter the leaves and roots weights, but higher portion (60 t ha-1) caused significantly decreased plant biomass. The results proved that the bedding material may significantly alter the composition of manure and may change the plant nutrition effect of organic fertilizer. Cattle manure and food waste compost in both applied doses enhanced plant growth. Both fertilizers increased the plant available nitrogen forms and phosphorus content of soil, but cattle manure caused higher increase.

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102
86
Soil Biological Activity within Integrated and Ecological Management of Soil
Published May 12, 2002
47-52

The effects of the integrated (IS) and ecological (ES) management of soil on chosen parameters of soil biological activity were investigated in the period 1999-2000. The following characteristics were determined: biomass of microorganisms (Cmic), dehydrogenase activity (DHA), an amount of potentially mineralizable nitrogen (Nbiol), and nitrific...ation intensity. Soil samples were collected from a stationary field experiment established in 1990 on gley brown soil at the Experimental Station of Slovak Agricultural University, Nitra. For each field with a different crop rotations two fertilization treatments were selected: (a) no fertilization and (b) use of manure for silage maize and, within IS, also mineral fertilizers. There was a statistically significant difference at α = 0.05 in the amount of biologically released nitrogen (Nbiol) between both systems and in the nitrification intensity in favour of ES. A higher amount of microbial biomass (Cmic) was noted for ES but without statistical significance. Cultivated crops and the timing of soil sampling were found to have the greatest effect on all the parameters observed in individual experimental years and within the two systems of soil management.

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40
32
Energy forests or vineyards?
Published October 5, 2010
237-240

This paper primarily aims at giving an introduction to an alternative opportunity for vineyards owners many of whom have come to a
decision about elimination of their vineyards. The paper is focusing on the Mátra wine-region as a study area, which is the largest mountain
wine region in Hungary where more than one third of supported clear...ing of vineyards have been implemented in the last few years. The
abandoning of vineyards is explicable in more than one way such as very small average size of land or the increasing mean age of owners
etc. The fundamental reason is the chronic doubtfulness of the grape and wine market and the low level of overall profitability of production.
Grape production has a long tradition in this region, thus the disappearance of vineyards caused serious problems in land use through the
absolute lack of plans for the future. The popularity of biomass production in the press and the biofuel resultant from vine stocks raise
interest for short rotation forestry within a group of farmers. Short rotation forestry offers a new chance for some farmers to cut oneself adrift
from the harmful effects of the market of agricultural products.

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27
19
Survey on energetic short rotation forestry systems – Possibilities of spatial development and job creation
Published December 22, 2010
7-11

Both the European and the Hungarian rural areas suffer multi dimensional problems. Beside infrastructural under development the most important difficulty is employment. Unemployment is significant in the rural areas, while other structural characteristics like education, profession, work circumstances and seasonality worsen this unfavourable si...tuation. It can be stated that the challenge with the highest priority in rural and spatial
development is to create jobs and to strengthen local employment. The authors examine the job generating possibilities of energetic biomass of agricultural origin in a structural point of view. The aim is to develop spatial biomass product line models that permanently support the raise of employment by utilizing the possibilities of the European Union support policy and the popularity of this branch.

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