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  • Tending operation model for red oak stands
    133-136
    Views:
    156

    Red oak (Quercus rubra L.) is our most important exotic oak species, that possesses growing culture with almost one hundred years in our country. Plantation character of red oak growing predominates principally by applied regeneration method (mostly artificial), regular planting space, applying defined method and planting space regulation system. Forest tending model for red oak, that considered stopgap in the native literature is intended to serving the latter. Especially important equation in the viewpoint of stand growing, that describes relationship of stem number (N, in hectare) and diameter at breast height (D1.3 in cm) is: N=e9.80220-1.12607lnD1.3.

  • Black walnut as a valuable stand-forming tree species in Hungary – a growing technology review
    129-132
    Views:
    147

    In Hungary black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is one of the most valuable exotic tree species, mainly because of its excessively liked wood for furniture industry, that has fine tissue and singular colour. Generally it is established by seeding, it can be regenerated by coopice shoot well, but not by seeding in natural way. Black walnut crops regurarly from the age of 25–30 years and its rotation age is 75–85 years. Prosperous decorative shape of stem allows its using in tree plantings out of forests, too. In the future its role can increase mainly on good.

  • Analysis of the situation of domestic game damage and forage ground management
    5-8
    Views:
    133

    Game damage is an important problem in home wildlife management, because game managers pay more and more money for game damage year by year. Crop fields can do an appreciable part in reduction of game damages. The aim of the research is to survey the situation of domestic game damage and wildlife forage ground management. (Which are the most used plants on crop fields, how current are the using of seed mixtures, which are the most typical game damages, as well as which are the most applied game control methods?)

    It can be stated that the number of plant species sown on crop fields is quite low. Mostly corn and alfalfa are raised, though besides those many other plants are suitable to grow on crop fields. Rising value of game damage and big proportion of the agricultural game damage are well traceable from the questionnaires, too.

  • Investigation of new seed mixtures in wildlife forage ground managem
    9-13
    Views:
    168

    One of the most important method of habitat development is wildlife forage ground management. Many plant species can be grown on the crop fields, as mixture, too. Use of seed mixtures has not been spread on the native wildlife forage ground, however there are many advantages of them.

    The aim of the research is to examine the role of the different plant species, seed mixtures in the game feeding, the savouriness of the plants of crop fields, as well as ascertain which seed mixtures are more suitable for wildlife forage ground management. On the basis of the investigation it can be find out that big amount of forage can be produced on mixed crop fields. Buckwheat, corn, rape, millet and white lupine proved to be the most beloved plants. It is suitable to make such mixed forages and use widely in the native wildlife forage ground management,

    – which assures better feed conditions for the game,

    – which are more attractive for the game and can draw away from other areas, so prevent, reduce game damage in forestry sector and in

    agriculture that is in the forest manager’s, agricultural and game manager’s interests, too.

  • Micropropagation of Leuce-poplar clones and its role in selection breeding
    43-48
    Views:
    144
    Leuce-poplars (mostly white poplar and its natural hybrid grey poplar) are native tree species trough Hungary. They are covering more than 4.0 per cent of the Hungarian forested area (77 000 ha). The white (grey) poplars play a significant role in the forestation under sandy soil site conditions as well as they are of importance from nature conservation point of view as well.
    Long-term selection breeding work is going on at the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre Forest Research Institute (NARIC FRI), involving selection of fast-growing Leuce-poplar clones under dry site conditions.
    Micropropagation technology is relatively quickly spreading in forestry. In vitro multiplication of trees is applied mainly in fruit growing in Hungary, in case of forestry it is used mainly for selection breeding.
    This paper presents a short overview on the micropropagation trials with different Leuce-poplar clones and the early evaluation of the seedlings growing of the micropropagated clones/varieties.
  • Improvement of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) growing under marginal site conditions in Hungary: case studies
    129-133
    Views:
    317

    In Hungary, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is considered as an important exotic stand-forming tree species growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions for forest management. Due to climate change effects, its importance is increasing in many other countries, too. As a result of a selection programme, new black locust clones were tested in clone trials. Juvenile growth of 12 micropropagated black locust clones in two plots series established at different dates were evaluated in central Hungary under marginal site conditions. At age of 7 the clone R. p. ‘Bácska’ (‘KH 56A2/5’), at age of 10 the clones R.p. ‘Homoki’ (‘MB17D3/4’) and ‘PV201E2/4’ appeared to be especially promising for mass production. Based on the data obtained from the performed trials, it can also be concluded that tissue culture can be considered as a suitable tool for propagating superior individuals and offers new prospects for the rapid cloning of selected genotypes used for plantation forestry.

  • A simplified growing model for mixed black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and poplar (Populus spp.) plantations in the Danube-Tisza Interfluve
    97-100
    Views:
    93

    This study presents a static model of mixed black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) plantation stand structures for inventory stand structures between 10 and 40 years of age. Due to its local character, the model can be advantageous in planning tending operations, making structural factor predictions for the standing stock (main stand) after tending cuts, and preparing local wood production and silvicultural models. The model data presented in this paper show that poplars account for 55–62 % of the volume per hectare due to their faster growth rate in mixed black locust and poplar plantations. Maintaining the black locust part of the stand necessitates harvesting the poplars by the age of 10 at the latest.

  • Investigation of the effects of biggame-preserves on forests with different species composition
    21-24
    Views:
    118

    Hungary is well known for its high level game management. In order to develop a concentrated and more profitable gamemanagement new game preserves were established in the last few years. According to the law, in the game-preserves the game bearing capacity is not the most important parameter, because in these areas the feeding is continuous. In practice it means that in gamepreserves we find a much higher density of games than in nature. This causes a relative big loading of the area (of the herbaceous and arboreal), where the game-preserves are located.
    Our aim is to study the ecological and management issues of forest- and game resources. The scene of these work is a gamepreserves related to the Nyírerdő Corporation (Nyíregyháza). We made forest structure survey to determine the main stand-forming tree species in the area of the game preserves as well as to estimate the number of the measuring points.

  • The effects of tending cuttings on yield and value changes in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands: a case study
    111-113
    Views:
    82

    Thinning experiments in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands have been carried out for many years in Hungary. This species has great economic importance in the timber supply of the country. This paper evaluates the effects of tending cuttings in two aspects: the effect on yield and stand value. The case study has proved that in black locust stands tending cuttings can not increase the periodic total production but the stem-quality index can be increased by 2%.

  • Yield and crown structure characteristics in a red oak (Quercus rubra L.) stand: Case study
    49-53
    Views:
    107

    The paper provides the results of a detailed analysis of timber volume and several important crown variables of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) based on an experimental plot in eastern Hungary. At the age 32 years the crop trees belonged to different height classes. If the volume of the mean tree from height class I was considered as 100%, the volume of the mean tree of class II was 59%, and the mean tree of class III was only 36%. It appeared that there was a significant correlation between crown indices and yield. For this reason, diameter at breast height showed a positive linear correlation with crown diameter (R2= 0.6211). Additionally, there was also positive linear relationship between crown diameter and volume (R2= 0.6908). The variation of crown indices is height even within the same stand and indicates the importance of following a selective thinning operation method.

  • Promising Leuce poplar clones in sandy ridges between the rivers Danube and Tisza in Hungary: a case study
    111-113
    Views:
    212

    An intensive integrated research and development work has been carried out on the improvement of Leuce poplars including primarily the native white poplar (Populus alba L.) and its natural hybrid grey poplar (Populus × canescens). More than 70 percent of the Leuce poplar stands can be found on calcareous sandy sites in the Danube–Tisza region, so they play a significant role in the poplar management of this part of the country. The most important task ahead of Hungarian poplar growers is to improve the quality of poplar stands and plantations based on selecting new clones and cultivars. The growth and yield of four promising Leuce poplar clones was evaluated on a marginal site in central Hungary. The clones ‘H 425-4’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L.), and ‘H 758’ (Populus alba L. Mosonmagyaróvár 124) seem to be suitable for wood production, while the ‘H 427-3’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L. cv. Bolleana) and ‘H 422-9’ (Populus alba L. × Populus grandidentata (Michx)) clones (with decorative stem form) could be better used for tree lines and ornamental plantations.

  • Volume of Paulownia Shan Tong (Paulownia fortunei × Paulownia tomentosa) plantation in Eastern Hungary: a case study
    43-46
    Views:
    122

    Volume tables for tree plantations are not unknown in international practice. In many places, this is due to the uniqueness of the species or variety composition of the plantations and the cultivation technology used. In most cases, this is also justified by specific soil (ecological) conditions. In Hungary, publications on Paulownia have not yet included a volume table. This is the first one we are publishing, thus it can be considered as a gap-filler. The research was conducted in Monostorpályi, a 1.8 hectare, 8-year-old municipal plantation. 8 trees were selected randomly and their parameters were studied.

  • Yield table for selected black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) cultivars
    193-198
    Views:
    150

    In Hungary, the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) can be considered as the most important fast-growing, stand-forming introduced tree species. Due to its positive growing technological characteristics as well as wood utilization possibilities, at the present, black locust is the most widely planted tree species in Hungary, covering 25% of the country’s total forest area. One of the important tasks ahead of Hungarian black locust growers is to improve the quality of black locust stands with introducing selected cultivars. For the estimation of the growth rate and yield a numerical yield table has been constructed on the basis of surveys of the experimental plots established in pure,managed ’Nyirségi’ ,’Üllői’ and ’Jászkiséri’ black locust cultivars’ plantations which can be suitable for sawlogs production. In the course of 56 stand surveys the key stand characteristics were measured, and then, were reconsidered the average height, diameter (DBH), volume, basal area and stem number given separately for the main (remaining), secondary (removal) and total stands per hectare. The programmable editing procedure allows to extention and formal change of information content of the yield table according to different demands.

  • Productivity of thinned black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands in Hungary: case studies
    181-186
    Views:
    93

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important introduced tree species in Hungary, covering more than 24% of the stocked area and providing approximately 20% of the country’s annual timber cut. Consequently, the research and development activities related to the improvement of the growing technology of black locust are also important, especially in mitigating the negative effects of climate change. The aim of this study was to quantify growth and yield, responses of even-aged 12–31–year–old black locust stand to thinning in Hungary. The study has proved that irrespective of the yield class, age and thinning intensity, thinning could not increase effectively the cumulative volume production. As percentage of the control it has changed between +0.6 and -8.4%. On the other hand, it could increase the stand value based on stem quality index by 10–21%.

  • A partial botanical survey of a gamepreserve
    27-30
    Views:
    173

    Hungary is internationally well known for its high level game management. An important part of game management is indoor game keeping. In Hungary more and more game preserves were founded all over the country. The role of these game preserves to retain forest stands outside of the closed area. According to the law, in the game-preserves the game bearing capacity is not the most important parameter, because in these areas the feeding is continuous. In practice it means that in game-preserves we find a much higher density of games than in nature. This causes a relative big loading of the area (of the herbaceous and arboreal), where the game-preserves are located. Our aim is to study the ecological and management issues of forest- and game resources. The scene of these work is a game-preserve related to the Nyírerdő Corporation (Nyíregyháza).
    We have done a botanical survey (plant coverage, life-form spectrum) in the three previous units and in the control area (outside of the game-preserve) as well. Our results show the difference in case of the state of herbaceous plants between areas with higher and lower game density.

  • Growth and yield patterns of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) sample trees affected by site conditions: case studies
    125-128
    Views:
    25

    The trees removed from the long-term experiment plots are available for the measurements as lying trees. Through the determination of the volume in sections along the stem, the stem form, the stem volume and other factors can be specified. The comparison of the stems of individual trees of first and third yield classes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands shows that site conditions have a main effect on the yield (mean tree volume). The difference can be as high as 53% at the age of 30 depending on the sites. To determine the growth patterns based on tree volume is rather a new approach in the light of the relevant literature. The obtained results also highlight the importance of choosing the appropriate tree species for a given site.

  • Angle-count sampling method for estimating forest stand volume – a practical approach
    99-102
    Views:
    140

    Point sampling, which is also known as angle-count sampling (ACS), can be considered an efficient way of estimating the basal area and volume of forest stands. It is possible to use it in forest management: providing more accurate estimates (precision <10%) of  site and stand characteristics needed for management planning. 20 black locust (Robinina pseudoacacia L.) stands were selected at final cutting age to determine the regeneration criteria based on their total volume. It was verified that at P=5% there was no difference between the main volume values of stands indicated in the relevant forest plans as well as calculated by the ACS method.