Hungary’s new national sustainable development strategy is expected to be drawn up by 2012 and social debate for discussion has already been under way. This document provides the basis of all other strategies, programs and plans. I prepared a survey by the method of structured in-depth interviews to explore the opinion of experts engaged in e...nvironmental issues and strategy development about sustainable development, the situation of the Hungarian strategy adopted in 2007 and applied indicators. The picture is highly diverse: there is a lack of unified viewpoint even about the concept of sustainability. However, the definition of a common, jointly adopted concept is the first stage in strategy development. Precisely formulated objectives and their related indicators are required for a strategy to fulfill its role – this is the theoretical part of strategic thinking.
The aim of organic farming is not to maximize income, but to achieve optimal product quality. It is completed by the tightest possible material, and energy flow within the farm. Organic agriculture significantly reduces external inputs by avoiding the use of chemo-synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead it works with natu...re to increase both agricultural yields and disease resistance. Total independence of external resources can not be achieved in Hungary due to the small-scale of organic animal husbandry. Some materials in limited quantities can be purchased from external resources, though the group of these materials is strictly regulated. Organic farming harmonizes with the concept of European multifunctional agriculture, because besides farming, it includes social considerations, as it helps to maintain natural resources and the relationship between people and their environment, and provides a living for those living in the region.
As regards organic farming the fertility of the soil and the health of vegetation can be influenced in various ways. Farmers have to be highly skilled and able to manage a farm with great expertise. Generally it can be stated that as the use of non-organically produced products is limited, the opportunities to correct failures made by the farmer are minimal, contrary to conventional farming. Farmers must be intent on developing the tightest material- and energy flow. This means that organic farms ideally have both animal husbandry and crop production. This energy and skill demanding system of farming is compensated by state subsidies, growing market share and relatively high prices for organic products.
Agriculture has traditionally an important role in Hungarian economy and rural development. About 75 % of Hungary’s total territory
is under agricultural land use. Because of ecological conditions and production traditions cereals (wheat, maize etc) have the greatest
importance in Hungarian crop production. In the 1980’s the country-a
crop production-model). In the 1990’s the yields of wheat dropped to 4,0 t ha-1 because of low input-using and wide application of the issues
of environmental protection and sustainability. Winter wheat production for quality has a decisive role in certain regions of Hungary
(eastern and middle-parts).
The quality of wheat is complex and different. Three major growing factor groups determine the quality of winter wheat: genotype,
agroecological conditions and agrotechnical factors. In wheat production for quality the selection of the variety is the most important
element. Our long-term experiments proved that the quality traits of a variety means the highest (maximum) limit of quality which could not
be exceeded in fact. During the vegetation period of wheat the different ecological and agrotechnical factors could help or on the contrary
could demage the quality parameters of wheat.
The agrotechnical factors determining the baking quality of wheat can be divided into two groups: the first group means the factors with
direct effects on quality (fertilization, irrigation, harvest); the second group contains the elements with indirect effects on quality (crop
rotation, tillage, planting, crop protection).
Appropriate fertilization could help to manifest the maximum of quality parameters of a wheat genotype and could reduce the qualityfluctuation
in unfavourable ecological and agrotechnical conditions.
Foods are composed of numerous chemicals, each of them work individually or synergistically inside the living organism for a specific reaction supporting the life processes. To date, the efficacy of these chemicals in industrial processes has been explored to a limited extent. In fact, chemicals derived from food have great potential to be used... in multi-disciplinary sciences and in numerous applications. Synthetic chemicals might be replaced by the natural resources in the future which will also reduce the environmental impact of hazardous and toxic chemicals. The present article gathers a few examples of chemicals derived from food or related materials and shows how worthy they are in various fields, ranging from radiopharmaceuticals to alternative mining of precious metals. In a nutshell, the article puts forward a few simple ways through which research may adjoin the greener mandates and help in maintaining the sustainability of our environment.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector and agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural innovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on own databases and case studies.
Sustainability and multifunctionality look to be crucial points of the future of developed agriculture. Energy utilization of a part of the available biomass perfectly fits in these expectations. Bioethanol production allows for the substitution of the most expensive and most pollutable energy source, gasoline, by agricultural materials. This a...rticle contains a complex evaluation of economic characteristics of this method and calculations for the expectable economic effects of a would-be Hungarian bioethanol program. This essay includes the most important technological knowledge, a comparison between bioethanol and the competitive energy sources (gasoline, biodiesel, MTBE) and the most interesting elements of bioethanol programs operating in foreign countries. Introduced are which participants in the bioethanol chain have financial interests and counter-interests under present economic conditions in the spread of bioethanol by the enumerazation of macro- and micro-economic factors. The statements and consequences are based on my own calculatiosn so I am truly interested in any professional opinion.
The consumption of insect protein, as well as its use in animal feeding, has become a trend. This trend is particularly receiving a lot of attention in animal nutrition because the current protein source of the highest quality in animal feeding which is fishmeal is unsustainable, expensive and its demand is higher than supply. Insect protei...n can be of great potential in combating world hunger as the world population continues to increase. The potential of insect protein is wide-ranging, it could improve the economics of feed production, lead to cleaner production due to its low environmental footprint.
This review focuses on the need, (nutritional and environmental) advantages of insect protein in feed production, as well as previous research findings.
The unanimous conclusion of the reviewed papers is that insect protein has a great potential in feed production in terms of nutritional value, environmental implication, sustainability as well as economic implication.
However, there is a need for the intensification of research on this alternative protein source in Europe, especially in aquaculture due to the approval of 7 insect species in aquafeeds by the European Union. Another reason for the intensification is that there is still much to be done as a result of past research which shows that growth effects vary based on species and inclusion level.
Never has the need been greater for an ecosystem approach to agriculture. As our global population exceeds 9 billion in the next 30 years, with a concomitant demand for agricultural products, ever more pressure will be placed on our agricultural systems. Meanwhile, climate change is altering the ecological settings in which agriculture is pract...iced, demanding adaptation. Knowledge generated by long-term research will help to address one of the grand challenges of our time: how to meet sustainably the growing world demand for agricultural products – in a way that minimizes environmental harm and enhances the delivery of a diverse array of ecosystem services.
Sustainable development is a very popular conception since many years. In practice there could be many difficulties.
Economic, social and ecological systems are too complex to see all the consequences clearly. After all, sustainable criteria are indispensable for responsible planning.
Tourism is one of the world’s dynamically developing
In today’s fast-paced world, the sanctity of nature, a soundproof environment, clean air and rural life have become increasingly important. With the growth of demand and tourism globalized, these values can damage or disappear in a short time. So, in tourism, it is vital to project development plans with sustainable principles.
Just as other countries, in Hungary, the development of sustainable tourism is slowly becoming a priority. Fortunately, in plans for the next few years, there appear more concrete ideas on ways to make sustainable tourism grow.
In my study, I assess Hungary’s position in sustainable tourism, examining how sustainable tourism indicators fit in sustainable development indicators and how can we measure aims of sustainable tourism.