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  • Genetic diversity study of Hungarian honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies – Previous announcement

    In Hungary, the Apismelliferacarnica is the native breed which is the only recognised and breedable honey bee in the country. It is assumed that there are a number of non-native and hybrid honey bee breeds in Hungary. The microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA surveys applied here will be utilised to easily and accurately identify the various sprads, and open up new ways in the research of honey bees. The isolation of the genomial DNS from 5 to 7 day old larvae samples was successfully carried out. In the future the plan is to carry out the measure with microsatellite markers. As an initial step the optimal annealing temperature was identified. In the mitochondrial DNA survey the COI-COII mytochonrial regional primer due to its low anneling temperature cannot be used with any normal sequencing methods. By using these method the aim of this research is the measurement of genetic variance.

  • The impact of population management on urban and rural Hooded Crow populations

    Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), originally native to agricultural areas, has become widespread in urban areas in recent decades. However, this process has negative consequences on urban animals and humans. Due to these problems, the control of urban crow populations is needed. Crows also cause significant damage to wildlife management, and are constantly being controlled in rural areas as well. In this study, we compare rural and urban populations to find out whether hunting activities have a population reduction effect. In the rural population, the reduction is carried out by weapons and traps, while the urban crows are controlled using traps only. In both sample areas, crow nests were surveyed during the nesting period. 29 active nests were monitored in the rural area in 2021, and 39 in 2022. In the urban area, 44 nests were recorded in 2021 and 35 nests in 2022. In 2021, 30 individuals were removed in the rural area, and 84 in 2022. In the urban area, 223 individuals were removed in 2021 and 144 in 2022. Results show that the number of crows removed follows the number of active nests, so that the reduction of a given year is likely to have an effect on the following year's nesting population. Because traps mostly capture juvenile birds, reducing the breeding population in the city can only be achieved in the long-term. Considering this, it is likely that increased attention to population control can effectively maintain crow populations and reduce the problems they cause.

  • Micropropagation of Leuce-poplar clones and its role in selection breeding
    Leuce-poplars (mostly white poplar and its natural hybrid grey poplar) are native tree species trough Hungary. They are covering more than 4.0 per cent of the Hungarian forested area (77 000 ha). The white (grey) poplars play a significant role in the forestation under sandy soil site conditions as well as they are of importance from nature conservation point of view as well.
    Long-term selection breeding work is going on at the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre Forest Research Institute (NARIC FRI), involving selection of fast-growing Leuce-poplar clones under dry site conditions.
    Micropropagation technology is relatively quickly spreading in forestry. In vitro multiplication of trees is applied mainly in fruit growing in Hungary, in case of forestry it is used mainly for selection breeding.
    This paper presents a short overview on the micropropagation trials with different Leuce-poplar clones and the early evaluation of the seedlings growing of the micropropagated clones/varieties.
  • The relationship between silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) and fish poulations of natural waters

    The fisheries management on inland waters is very complicated. Often the unclear propriety rights make the normal management difficult, and other times the stocking of the waters is problematic. In the last hundred years a lot of new fish species have been introduced to Hungary. Lot of them have found their place in the Hungarian fishfauna, till others have caused big problems for the fish farmers, and the anglers too. The biggest problem was caused by the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Schlegel, 1842) brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus LeSueur, 1819) and the silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, 1782). In this article I show what kind of problems were caused by the silver crucian carp, because it seems that this fish is the most harmful.The damage caused by silver crucian carpposesa complex question. To get into the ponds and rivers, the crucian carps occupy the territory form the native fishspeciesandthesilvercrucian carp competes with these fishes for food, too.The silver crucian carphasa special reproduction method and because of this the speciesis expand rapidly. The silver crucian carp is able to reproduce with other cyprinids, and because the female silver crucian carps are triploids every fingerlings will be silver crucian carp.This fish is a vectorfora lot of diseases, which can easily spread over for other species.

  • Study the correlation of morphological and production traits of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (Review

    There are several morphological differences among the honey bee subspecies, which proofs that they adapted different way to the environmental factors of the given area. Morphological observations are not the only way to separate subspecies, it is possible on their genetic speciality as well. The authors’s aim in this present study was to examine morphological characteristics of subspecies, furthermore looking for correlation between morphological parameters and honey yield. According to their results, among the most important parameters considered by Hungarian breeders, in the case of the native Apismelliferacarnica subspecies, the proboscis length could be the indirect tool for honey-productivity focused selection.

  • Untersuchungen mit 15N-Tracern in agrikulturchemischen Systemen

    Agricultural chemical states and processes are arranged in open and closed systems. Investigations of state are static systems independent of time, testing of process is dynamic systems dependent on time.
    In order to follow up special facts and occurrences the stable isotope 15N is suited. It is demarcated of native nitrogen of existing systems.
    In the report as well as results of experiments with 15N tracers in systems soil, fertilizer, plant and animal and too the path as brigde between soil and fertilizer, fertilizer and plant and soil and plant are represented.

  • Promising Leuce poplar clones in sandy ridges between the rivers Danube and Tisza in Hungary: a case study

    An intensive integrated research and development work has been carried out on the improvement of Leuce poplars including primarily the native white poplar (Populus alba L.) and its natural hybrid grey poplar (Populus × canescens). More than 70 percent of the Leuce poplar stands can be found on calcareous sandy sites in the Danube–Tisza region, so they play a significant role in the poplar management of this part of the country. The most important task ahead of Hungarian poplar growers is to improve the quality of poplar stands and plantations based on selecting new clones and cultivars. The growth and yield of four promising Leuce poplar clones was evaluated on a marginal site in central Hungary. The clones ‘H 425-4’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L.), and ‘H 758’ (Populus alba L. Mosonmagyaróvár 124) seem to be suitable for wood production, while the ‘H 427-3’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L. cv. Bolleana) and ‘H 422-9’ (Populus alba L. × Populus grandidentata (Michx)) clones (with decorative stem form) could be better used for tree lines and ornamental plantations.

  • Viticulture of Hungary

    For several thousand years, vine has been grown in the Carpathian basin, where the climatic and soil conditions are favourable for viticulture. During this long period, vine growing has been developing until it reached its current niveau. We grow propagation material, table grape and wine grape. The produced wine grape varieties are grown on the largest area, of which 72% is white wine and 25% is red wine. Only 3% remains for table grapes. The surface of vineyards is about 63 000 ha, which can be found in 22 wine regions. The biodiversity of vine is very rich in our country. There are a lot of native and valuable bred varieties and clones in cultivation. The resistant and winter frost resistant vine varieties have an important role in our continental climate. The in 75% of the vineyards is on hills and mountains, 25% of them is on the Great Hungarian Plain. High cordon with cane pruning dominates the training and pruning system.

    Unfortunately, vine stocks suffer from a lot of diseases and by using pesticides we pollute the nature. Viticulturists in Hungary produce excellent raw material and provide oenologists with them who make wine of excellent quality.

  • Influence of phytophagous mammals environment-forming activity on the soil invertase fermentative activity in conditions of mining impact region

    Excretorial and fossorial activity of mammals is an important part of environment-forming activity. Mammals have influences on important biogeocenotic processes, especially on the soil processes. Determination the maintenance of soil invertase as one of diagnostic description the ecological state allowed defining limits of oscillation index in dump areas and in clean (control) native areas. The obtained results of the investigation indicate the soil depth, duration of experiment and type of area influence on soil invertase activity with the high statistical level of significance. Positive influence is revealed on invertase activity changing on dump areas, where an active excretorial and fossorial activity of phytophagous mammals was observed.

  • The use of essential trace elements in the juvenile rearing of barramundi (Lates calcarifer

    Barramundi (Lates calcarifer L.) is a predatory fish species native in Southeast Asia and Australia. Based on the geothermal potentiality of Hungary the warm-water fish can be reared successfully. Zooplankton in the wild contains minerals in a higher concentration than the usually fed newly hatched Artemia nauplii, therefore essential trace elements, such as cobalt, zinc and manganese play an important role in the larviculture of barramundi. Cobalt is vital in trace amount for many living functions of vertebrates, however, lower number of papers are available considering the nutritional aspects. Nevertheless. improved growth performance was observed in cases of some fish species when diet was supplemented with CoCl2. Zinc and manganese are also vital for optimal growth and accordingly are investigated and applied diet supplements in aquaculture.

    The main aim of the recent study is to investigate the effects of cobalt, manganese and zinc on the growth performance and homogeneity of fish when a commercially available dry diet is supplemented with trace elements individually and in combined treatments. A total of 6 treatments were set in a randomized blocked design where the concentrations of the applied elements were 50 mg kg-1 for CoCl2, for ZnSO4 and for MnCl2 individually, as well as for CoCl2 along with ZnSO4 and for CoCl2 along with MnCl2 in combination. Although the production parameters of larval barramundi were positively affected by the addition of trace elements when the retention of minerals occurred through nourishment living organisms, statistically no differences were found between the treatments considering the growth performance of barramundi juveniles either when dry feed was supplemented with cobalt, manganese or zinc (p>0.05). While the use of cobalt and manganese in combined treatments produced a less uniform larvae in size and as a consequence of increased heterogeneity, survival was significantly reduced by the cannibalism, the sizes distribution of barramundi juveniles wasn’t affected by the dry diet supplementation of these elements.

  • Dimensionality Expressed by Caseendings and Spatial Prepositions

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate some of the uses of English prepositions and Hungarian case endings employed to express spatial relations. The observation of invariant mistakes Hungarian native speakers learning English make initiated the investigation. The questions raised are: (a) where do the two systems match and where do mismatches lie, (b) how do language users perceive the world, and (c) do speakers observe spatial relations as two-dimensional or three-dimensional cognitive models? Do different languages see the same thing as either three-dimensional, or two-dimensional?
    Abondolo (1988) gives an adequate morphological analysis of ten Hungarian case-endings (inessive, illative, elative, superessive, delative, sublative adessive, ablative, allative and terminative) used in spatial reference, which give a closed set in references made to factors, such as (1) location which can be broken down as interior vs. exterior location with the latter being further analysable as superficial and proximal, and (2) orientation which can be analysed as zero orientation (position), source and goal. In addition to those in this list, two other case endings (genetive/dative and locative) are also used for expressing spatial relations but the last is only a variant of the inessive and superessive case-endings and is only used with place-names. The set is closed in the sense that the same item is meant to refer to the same sort of spatial relation in every case. Language textbooks, c.f. Benkő (1972) seem to suggest a neat match between the above Hungarian case endings and their English prepositional counterparts, e.g. London-ban (inessive) = in London.
    The picture, however, is far from being so clear-cut. The data, which were taken from various dictionaries and textbooks, show that the choices of both the prepositions and the case endings listed above depend on how the speaker considers factors (1) and (2) and that proximity is very important. Instead of a one-to-one match between the prepositions and the case endings, we rather find that the above case endings will match a dual, and in some cases a tripartite system of prepositions with the correspondences found in the two languages, which yield the following chart:

    We suggest that languages may view or map the same physical entities in different ways, for example along surface vs. volume or goal vs. passage, etc.
    Furthermore, we also find it possible that it is the language specific, inherent coding of the nominal phrase that decides – in many cases – upon the choice of prepositions and case endings.

  • 75 years of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr in Europe

    The chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is a native pathogen in East Asia and has been introduced into North America and Europe. Historical records and population genetic studies revealed at least three major introduction events from Asia into Europe.

    Nowadays, chestnut blight is present in almost the entire distribution range of European chestnut, i.e. from the Iberian Peninsula to the Caucasus. The C. parasitica population in most countries has been studied in respect to the diversity of vegetative compatibility (vc) types and the occurrence of hypovirulence. The vc type diversity of the different populations varied considerably. Typically, a high diversity of vc types has been found in areas with a long history of chestnut blight and where sexual recombination between divergent genotypes commonly has occurred. On the other hand, newly established populations often showed a low diversity with only one, or a few vc types present.

    Hypovirulence, i.e. the occurrence of C. parasitica isolates infected by Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 has been found widespread in Europe. Natural dissemination and active biological control applications have lead to a high prevalence of the hypovirus and to the recovery of many chestnut stands. Virulent cankers became hypovirus-infected within a short time and ceased expansion. There is concern that the diversity of vegetative compatibility types could increase in Europe through sexual reproduction between C. parasitica genotypes originating from different introductions. A higher level of vegetative incompatibility would not only hamper hypovirus spread within a population but could also select for lower virulence in CHV-1 and subsequently lead to an erosion of biological control. Recent studies, however, indicate that the vc type barriers are not so restrictive than previously assumed and that so far no evidence for an erosion of biological control system in high diversity populations can be observed.

  • Examining the production parameters of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles under different lighting conditions

    European perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a native predatory fish in Hungary, and a promising new species of fresh water aquaculture nowadays. The European perch can be characterized by a high stress sensitivity during the intensive rearing, thus the optimization of environmental conditions has significant importance in the early life stages of fish. The aim of our study was to determine whether the light intensity and darkening of the water by humic acid affect the survival and growth performance of European perch juveniles. The experiment lasted for 28 days. Rectangular aquariums were arranged in 3 lines, the test environment consisted of 24 units. The experiment was set up with 10–10 fish per aquarium, total of 240 individuals. The average wet body weight of the fish at the start of the experiment was 1.69 grams. During the experiment, 6 treatments in 4 replicates were set up. In the first row, we set up 305.6±66.0 LUX (L), in the second row 118.0±24.4 LUX (C), and in the third row (D) 17.0±8.6 LUX illumination was set up. In each row the water of four aquariums were darkened by the addition of humic acid (H) (L, LH, C, CH, D, and DH). At the end of the experiment high survival rate was observed in all treatments. Examining the survival rate, the best results were found in the strongly illuminated treatments (L; LH- SR%=100±0.00). The observed mortality was caused by cannibalism. Regarding the individual body weight, the best results were shown by the treatments where the aquariums were illuminated with lower light intensity (C: 4.66±0.33 grams) and the aquarium water was darkened by humic acid (CH: 4.93±0.15 grams). The results of the C and CH groups were significantly better compared to the other treatments, however, they did not differ statistically from each other. The darkening of the water had a positive effect on the individual body weight of fish reared under full light (L: 3.73±0.28 grams; LH: 4.33±0.28 grams), whereas in the case of fish reared in the lowest illumination, the addition of humic acid did not affect the results (D: 3.78±0.15 grams; DH: 3.80±0.26 grams). In case of SGR (C: 3.64%/day and CH: 3.74%/day) and FCR (C: 0.84 g/g and CH: 0.78g/g) the best results were obtained by the C and CH treatments, also.

  • What has Harmonia axyridis to do with Dante's Divine Comedy

    The multicoloured Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773)), a former successful biological control agent in the USA and Western Europe became an invasive alien species threatening the diversity of native aphidophagous insects through competition and praying, a horticultural pest consuming various fruits and adversely affecting the wine quality and a human nuisance when occurring at high densities in buildings. Due to this dubious fame, attention has been paid to it also at national level which made inevitable to find for it a fitting name in different languages. In some cases and countries a version of the English name has been chosen however, regarding the meaning of this translated term in Hungarian, the try cannot be called fortunate. The objective of this contribution is to stress the function of common animal names in the Hungarian Sprachraum and to find a right and proper alternative with the help of etymology, mythology, classical literature, art (painting) and the experiences of Hungarian fruit and grape growers.

  • Life in two countries but one home land – Béla Lipthay (1892-1974) the entomologist

    Béla Lipthay lepidopterologist, entomologist, museologist, agriculturist, hussar lieutenant, life-saving Roman Catholic, descendant of the historical family Lipthay de Kisfalud et Lubelle did a long way from his home village Lovrin to Szécsény, the one-time land of his ancestors. His life coincided with the disintegration of the historical Hungary, and the most serious trials of the Hungarian society, culture and spirit. These changes affected him as a member of Hungarian aristocracy many times and in fact wanted to destroy him. The fortune of the ancestors have been swept away by the storms of the wars and confiscated but the human strength of character, the consciousness, the talent, the diligence, the sanctuary of faith have remained. All these made him possible to survive, to do his everyday hard creative work, which gained him affection and respect of the people living around him.

    Lipthay Béla was mainly lepidopterist and dealt with the the species of Hungary. Place of his collection was first his native country, the Banat, and the area of the Southern Carpatian Montain, and after 1944 Nógrád county (Szécsény, Balassagyarmat, Nógrádszakál, Ipolytarnóc, Rimóc, Ludányhalászi etc.). The collected species belonged to Macrolepidoptera but he dealt also with the moths. During his life time he prepared a collection of 60000 individuals and maintained them until his passing away. Great part of this collection can be found at the zoological cabinet of Natural History Museum in Budapest. He discovered many species new for the Hungarian fauna such as e.g. Cupido osiris (Meigen, 1829), and described a new species (Chamaesphecia sevenari Lipthay, 1961) which later proved to be a synonym of Chamaesphecia nigrifrons (Le Cerf, 1911). He knew well the most famous collectors and specialists of the age. After the first World War he worked together with Frigyes König, László Diószeghy, Jenő Teleki, Norman D. Riley (leading entomologist of the British Museum at London, secretary of the Royal Entomological Society), Brisbane C. S. Warren ( member of the Royal Entomological Society), Lionel W. Rothschild (the most important private collector) and many excellent lepidopterists. After the second World War he was well known and respected by the Hungarian entomologists and lepidopterists: he was a friend of Lajos Kovács, the distinguished lepidopterist and Zoltán Kaszab, the eminent entomologist. He had a good relationship with such renowned Hungarian zoologists and entomologists like Gyula Éhik, László Gozmány, László Issekutz, László Bezsilla and László Móczár. He colleted also Hymenoptera, Diptera and capricorn beetles to be found in Hungarian and foreign collections Natural History Museum, (London), a Szekler National Museum (Marosvásárhely). He dealt with agricultural entomology because he was an experienced agriculturist as far as he had the opportunity to do that. He painted wonderful agricultural entomology posters and organized expositions e.g. on the pests of industrial crops and hunting at Balassagyarmat and Salgótarján.