No 2 (2021)

Published December 8, 2021

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Articles

Water relations composition among Egyptian cotton genotypes under water deficit
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Background: water shortage is one of the major factor effects on growth characters and yield of most crops. Objective: this study was conducted to get to know the reactions of some Egyptian cotton genotypes to water deficit. Methods: The genetic materials used in this study included thirteen cotton genotypes belonging to Gossypium barbadens...e L., from the Cotton Research Institute (CRI), which was devoted to establishing the experimental materials for this investigation. Results: the ratio of GCA/SCA was less than unity for all studied indices, indicating predominance of non-additive gene action (dominance and epistasis), which is an important in exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding. Results: The data showed significant reduction in water relationship characters for all parental genotypes under stress conditions. The Egyptian variety Giza 68 gave high values for most water relationship characters. Data revealed that the greater the value of tolerance index is, the larger the yield reduction is under water deficit conditions and the higher the stress sensitivity is becoming. The parental genotypes Giza 96 showed the highest reduction in yield under water deficit conditions. At the same time, the cross combination Minufy x Australy showed higher values of yield reduction followed by the combinations Giza 67 x Australy. Of the male parents, the Russian genotype 10229 recorded the best GCA values for most water relationship characters. At the same time, the female parents, the old Egyptian genotype Giza 67 recorded the best values and exhibited good general combined for most water relationship characters. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Pima S6, Giza 77 x Pima S6, Giza 94 x Dandra and Giza 96 x Australy showed significant desirable SCA effect for most characters. Conclusion: relative water content %, osmotic pressure, chlorophyll and carotenoids content indicates better availability of water in the cell, which increases the photosynthetic rate. Also, the higher level of proline accumulation in the leaves which was recorded under deficit water suggests that the production of proline is probably a common response of plant under water deficit conditions.

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Estimation of direct and maternal genetic parameters for weaning weight in Hungarian Simmental cattle
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The aim of the current research was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters of weaning weight in Hungarian Simmental cattle. Weaning weight records were obtained from the Association of Hungarian Simmental Breeders. The dataset comprised of 44,278 animals born from 1975 to 2020. The data was analyzed using the restricted maxi...mum likelihood methodology of the Wombat software. We fitted a total of six models to the weaning weight data of Hungarian Simmental cattle. Models ranged from a simple model with animals as the only random effect to a model that had maternal environmental effects as additional random effects as well as direct maternal genetic covariance. Fixed effects in the model comprised of herd, birth year, calving order and sex. Likelihood ratio test was used to determine the best fit model for the data. Results indicated that allowing for direct-maternal genetic covariance increases the direct and maternal effect dramatically. The best fit model had direct and maternal genetic effects as the only random effect with non-zero direct-maternal genetic correlation. Direct heritability, maternal heritability and direct maternal correlation of the best fit model was 0.57, 0.16 and -0.78 respectively. The result indicates that problem of (co-)sampling variation occurs when attempting to partition additive genetic variance into direct and maternal components.

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Fast neutron irradiation long term effect on Ocimum basilicum germination and initial vegetative parameters
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The goal of this study is to assess the long-term (3-year) effects of rapid neutron irradiation using an Americium-Beryllium source on two generations (M0 and M1) of Ocimum basilicum commercial trait. Seeds of each variety and generation were irradiated with 0, 7.5, 20, 40, and 50 Gray in 2018, and then seeded in 2021 – with their corresp...onding controls – to see how the different irradiation treatments affected germination and early vegetative metrics three years after irradiation. In the first generation, no significant changes between the treatments were seen. Increased irradiation dosage resulted in a significant decrease in germination % in the second generation (M1), but a significant increase in seedling height. The M0 generation seedlings, on the other hand, were substantially shorter than controls. In the M0 generation, the higher dosages (40 and 50 Gray) were deadly, and seedlings were terminated 7–10 days after germination. The irradiation dose of 20 Gray was shown to be the most successful in inducing viable and beneficial alterations for phenotypic characteristics in basil. When compared to control plants, the lower (7.5 and 20 Gray) bombardment generated leaf anomalies such as smaller leaves and internodes, a split apex, and a ribbon-like stem.

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Preliminary test: Evaluation and selection of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties resistant to drought and powdery mildew
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Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) and (Oidium neolycopersici) are two harmful fungi that invade the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plant and grow in dry conditions. Under the influence of polyethylene glycol 6000 at a concentration of 12%, the total seedlings fresh weight, total seedlings dry weight, seedling growth rate ...of one seedling, seedling length, and tissue water content percentage for three tomato varieties were assessed. Despite the superiority of the (Mobil) tomato variety in terms of numerical values, the results revealed no significant differences between varieties. As a result, (Mobil) has greater vigor under environmental drought stress of lower osmotic stress than other tomato varieties. More work is required to evaluate the research selection of varieties resistant to biotic stresses in dry areas, such as powdery mildew disease.

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Effect of arginine, putrescine and spermidine on the polyamine, proline and chlorophyll content of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)
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Polyamines, such as spermidine (Spd) spermine (Spm) and their direct precursor, the diamine putrescine (Put) are vital and essential aliphatic amines which are also present in plants. Although ethylene and polyamines are also involved in fruit ripening, the genes coding them must also take part in other biosynthetic pathways. In the ethylen...e and polyamines play an important role in development of salt stress tolerance, and in responses for biotic and abiotic stresses. Exogenous application of all three main polyamines (Put, Spd, Spm) increase salt tolerance of plants, but, accordingly to previous experiments, spermidine has the main effect on the enhancement of salt tolerance. Nicotiana tabacum L. plants were grown in vitro on MS medium, the treatments were as follows: arginine (150 mg l-1), putrescine (10 mg l-1), spermidine (10
mg l-1). Proline, chlorophyll a, b and polyamine contents were measured. The obtained results show that the arginine decarboxylase and the spermidine synthase genes involved in polyamine metabolism, cannot be enhanced by exogenous addition of their precursor molecules. On the contrary, the spermine synthase gene has a positive effect to the lower-class forms of polyamines.

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Different ideas on the pathogenesis and treatment of swine edema-disease
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Although literature data associate the reason of swine edema-disease with certain serotypes of Escherichia coli bacteria, the authors assume that the primary cause of edema is more different. Susceptible agents and factors, mostly of feed compound are involved. During the digestion of some feed-origin protein opiate-like metabolites, exorph...ins arise, simultaneously arrest the release of acetylcholine. Consequences of acetylcholine shortage are spasm of sphincters (mostly pylorus), intestine-dilatation, contraction of bladder-sphincter, and urine retention. The endorphins and exorphins intensify the insulin release from the pancreas, hypoglycemia evolves, which is associated with loss of balance. According to the authors in edema-disease piglet dies because of hypoglycemia.

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Yield and crown structure characteristics in a red oak (Quercus rubra L.) stand: Case study
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The paper provides the results of a detailed analysis of timber volume and several important crown variables of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) based on an experimental plot in eastern Hungary. At the age 32 years the crop trees belonged to different height classes. If the volume of the mean tree from height class I was considered as 100%, the v...olume of the mean tree of class II was 59%, and the mean tree of class III was only 36%. It appeared that there was a significant correlation between crown indices and yield. For this reason, diameter at breast height showed a positive linear correlation with crown diameter (R2= 0.6211). Additionally, there was also positive linear relationship between crown diameter and volume (R2= 0.6908). The variation of crown indices is height even within the same stand and indicates the importance of following a selective thinning operation method.

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