No 11 (2003)

Published September 15, 2003



Information Technology Supports for Student-Centered Language Education

With the development of computer-mediated communication, the definition of literacy has gained broader dimensions (Murray, 1991). The ability to use new technologies to access, adapt and make intelligent use of information and knowledge is by now viewed as an additional and essential component of literacy. Today’s interpretation of literacy (...often referred to as “multiliteracy”) must incorporate the communication that takes place through a growing variety of text forms associated with information and multimedia technologies.
Since it is fast becoming a basic instrument for building the literacies required for success in academic and workforce environments, used as a tool, information technology needs to become a critical component of student-centered English language education.

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Untersuchungen zur Phosphataufnahme von Zwischenfrüchten bei unterschiedlicher P-Versorgung des Bodens (Investigation of P Uptake of Catch Crops under Different P Supply)

The P uptakes of 11 different catch crops on four soils were estimated and compared with changes of double lactate soluble Phosphorus (P(DL)) in soil within a vessel trial. Additionally a model trial with quartz sand was carried out for investigations of the influence of P supply on root parameters. The differences of P uptake in dependence of ...the proofed variants were significant. Under a sufficient P supply Buckwheat, Maize and Oil radish had the highest P uptake on sandy soils, on loamy soil also Buckwheat and Maize but Serradella too. Under P deficiency the withdrawals of Phosphorus for Buckwheat, Maize and Oil radish were found to be the highest. In contrast to the sandy soils for the loamy soils no significant relation between the P uptake by plants and changes in the P-DL amount in soil could be found. For all variants the P uptake by plants were higher than the reduction of the P-DL amount in soil. The rate of P-DL content on the total P content in soil reduced while the two trial years only in sandy but not in loamy soils. The P uptake, the root length and the root/shoot relationship depends significantly on the cultivated crop and the added P compound. The added water soluble KH2PO4 caused a higher P uptake but a lower root/shoot-relationship than the water insoluble P compounds.

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Some Practical and Biotechnological Methods for Improving Reproduction Traits in Sheep

However, reproduction in sheep is seasonal, many breeds of sheep are able to mate not only in autumn, but out-of-season as well. The main factor determining seasonality is the photoperiod, but other factors can influence reproductive pattern, such as genetics, management practices and social cues. The fertility of spring and early summer is usually lower; this imposes the need for alternative methods (e.g. hormonal treatments, biotechnological practice), to increase the conception rate.
The author summarize the main practical techniques and biotechnological methods for controlling reproduction completed with some own experimental results in connection with different topics.

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Field Tests on the Herbicide Tolerance of Various Maize Genotypes

Investigations were made in Martonvásár on the herbicide tolerance of 22 inbred maize lines and 3 parental single crosses when treated with one herbicide applied after sowing, prior to emergence, and with seven applied post-emergence in the 6-8-leaf stage. Visible damage was scored 14 days after the treatment.
An analysis of the phytotoxic... effects led to the conclusion that a single dose of the tested herbicides did not cause any damage to the genotypes investigated, with the exception of one inbred line, which was extremely sensitive to herbicides of the sulphonyl carbamide type and moderately sensitive to both rates of dicamba. In many cases, a double dose of the herbicides caused mild or moderate symptoms on the maize lines.

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Grain Moisture of Maize Hybrids in Different Maturity Groups at Various Harvesting Dates

The experiments were designed to determine the extent to which late harvesting helped to achieve low grain moisture content. The grain moisture contents of 24 hybrids from each of four different maturity groups were recorded during the last decade of September and the first decade of November over a period of three years (1999-2001).
The dat...a indicated that late harvesting led to a substantially smaller difference between the hybrids. While in late September the difference between the grain moisture content of the earliest (FAO 200) and latest (FAO 500) hybrids was 8.9%, this value dropped to 1.5% over the average of three years when measurements were made in early November. With the exception of the earliest group, the grain moisture content in all the maturity groups declined during October. The later the hybrid, the greater the decline.
This change in the grain moisture content during October exhibited a considerable year effect. When the weather in October was warm, with little rain, the decrease was greater, while in cool, wet years the grain moisture content declined to a lesser extent, or in some cases even increased.

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The Effect of Fertilization and Irrigation on Maize(Zea mays L.) Production

In a long-term field experiment set up at the Látókép experimental station of the Center of Agricultural Sciences of Debrecen University, the data of the last five years (1995-1999) were analyzed to determine the crop production factors with the greatest influence on maize production and the relationship and interactions between irrigation a...nd fertilization.
In the extremely dry year of 1995, fertilization was found to cause substantial yield depression in the absence of irrigation. According to results of analysis of variance, fertilization significantly reduced the maize yield by 40-90% compared to control plots. Under irrigated conditions, there was a considerable increase in the maize yield, the yield surplus being 4.4-9.4 t ha-1, depending on the nutrient supply level.
During the period from 1996-1999, when rainfall conditions were favorable for maize, fertilization significantly increased the maize yield even without irrigation over the average of the four years. The yield surplus due to fertilization was 3.9-4.6 t ha-1, depending on the fertilization rates. The maximum yield surplus was obtained on plots fertilized with 120 N kg ha-1, while at the rate of 240 N kg ha-1 the maize yield did not differ significantly from this value. During the period examined, corn yield was significantly higher at all three nutrient supply levels as the result of irrigation than in the non-irrigated treatment. As in the case of non-irrigated conditions, the highest fertilizer dose did not result in a substantial yield increase. An analysis of the interaction between fertilization and irrigation indicated that the yield-increasing effect of fertilization was not significantly different under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. The significant year x irrigation interaction was confirmed by the fact that the yield surplus (1.3-2.3 t ha-1) differed greatly from the irrigation effect recorded in 1995.

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Effect of Irrigation on Maize Yield (Zea mays L.)

We have been continually examining the fertilizer and irrigation reaction of commonly cultivated maize hybrids for nearly twenty years at the Látókép experimental station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University.
Upon evaluating the results, it can be established that year significantly influences the size of yield. Be...tween the years of 1999 and 2002, in the average of applied fertilizers the difference is 3,4 t/ha, but even in irrigated treatments it reaches 3 t/ha. This is more than the effect of irrigation. Of the applied agrotechnical elements, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is the greatest and can even be greater than the effect of year. The yield increasing effect of fertilization can be reliably detected with small and medium doses, but at higher doses a plateau section is reached, where it is not worth applying more nutrients. Cultivation with irrigation can only be done with appropriate nutrient supply, due to the positive correlation of the two factors. The positive correlation also means that if the water supply of the plant declines, less fertilizer is needed for safe production. The two factors (irrigation and fertilization) have to be increased or decreased at the same time.
According to the experiment, in unirrigated treatments, 90 kg/ha nitrogen and the related phosphorus and potassium are enough, while in irrigated treatments this was 120 kg.

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Role of Sowing Time in Maize Production (Review)

Many authors, both in Hungary and abroad, have reported on experiments carried out to determine the role of sowing time in maize, but the results are often contradictory. This is hardly surprising, since the maize plant exhibits enormous genetic variability and the hybrids created through selection and inbreeding may have very specific requirem...ents as to sowing date. The year effect, too, often complicates the efforts of scientists to provide clear guidance to farmers on the optimal sowing date for each hybrid.

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Effect of Ferilizer on the Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)

The effect of fertilization on the yield of maize was examined on chernoem soil with lime deposits at the experimental station at Látókép of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen. The yields of maize were evaluated using quadratic regression function, in three years – between 2000 and 2002 – in non-irrigated and ir...rigated treatments. After calculating the regression equations, by derivation of the functions, we have determined the amount of fertilizers needed for maximum yield.
In the non-irrigated treatments, maximum yield and the active substance amount of fertilizer was as it follows: in 2000, yield of 9,133 t/ha with the application of 384 kg/ha mixed active substance, while in 2002 a yield of 6,289 t/ha with the application 236 kg/ha NPK active substance was achieved. In 2001, due to the favourable precipitation, a yield of 9,864 t/ha was achieved with the application of 245 kg/ha fertilizer. In the case of maximum yield, compared to the unfertilized control, the yield increase was 2,5-5 t/ha. The average increase for 1 kg of NPK fertilizer was 13-19 kg.
We also determined the necessary fertilizer dosage for maximum yield in irrigated treatments. In 2000, 10,003 t/ha with a dosage of 423 kg/ha, in 2001, 11,542 t/ha with a dosage of 277 kg/ha and in 2002, 8,596 t/ha of maximum yield could be achieved with a fertilizer treatment of 277 kg/ha in the examined three years. The yield increase, in irrigated treatments, varied between 3,9-5,9 t/ha so it was greater than in the case of non-irrigated experimetal plots. The yield increase for 1 kg fertilizer varied between 12-21 kg.

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Comparative Vertical Migration of Three Different Strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and a Single Strain of Heterorhabditis megidis in Sand at 25°C

Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Heterorhabditis megidis) were tested for downward migration in 9.5 cm vertical sand columns at 25°C with and without a larva of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, at the bottom. The number of infective juveniles (IJs) in the upper section decreased since the IJs gradually migrated down toward the Galleria into the lower section of the shell vials. Only the isolate OH 25 behaved differently, because the number of IJs decreased this isolate in the lower section. This isolate was the quickest, since after 12 hrs, most IJs could be found in the lower section of the vials from this isolate. The number of IJs was so small in the lower section that 12 hrs after injection, only the isolates MHG 3 and OH 25 could kill the Galleria larvae.
Besides the fact that mortality occurred among the Galleria larvae with the above isolates, neither IJs nor adults could be detected in either living or dead Galleria larvae 12 hrs after IJ injection. It is noteworthy that the behavior of the isolate Megidis was different from the other isolates: the number of IJs was so negligible in the lower section of the vials that even after 36 hrs none of the Galleria died and, consequently, neither adults nor IJs could be detected after dissecting the Galleria larvae. Each isolate could reach the lower section of the vials, yet only the isolate Megidis could not infect and kill the host. After dissecting the larvae, most IJs and adults could be found in the isolate MHG 3 (95 IJs and adults altogether) 36 hrs after injection.

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Comparison of Scab Warning Systems in Integrated Apple Production

In the present study, the suggestions for infection risk and sprays of the most frequently used PC-based scab warning systems (RIMpro and WELTE) and the conventionally used Mills table as a reference were compared in integrated apple production. The efficacy of the spraying programs based on the three different warning systems was evaluated by ...assessment of apple scab incidences during primary infection periods.
13 and 11 Mills infection periods were detected in 2000 and 2001, respectively, during primary infection periods (from 15 March until 5 June). Taking into consideration the heaviness of Mills infection periods, 11 and 9 sprays were applied in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The two PC-based scab warning systems detected 1-4 less infection periods and suggested 1-3 less sprayings compared to the numbers of infection periods and sprays according to the Mills table. Our results proved that the 9-11 sprays according to the Mills table could be reduced to 7-9 sprays by RIMpro scab warning systems which did not reduce the efficacy and did not increase the symptoms of leaf and fruit scab significantly. The WELTE scab warning systems detected generally one or two more infection periods and suggested one additional spray compared to RIMpro warnings and sprays.

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Matériel et conditions de reproduction du ver à soie de chêne Antheraea pernyi Guer (Bombycidae)

In this study we highlighted the conditions that need to be fulfilled in order to have successful oak silkworm reproduction.
Thus, conditions for best cocoon hibernation should be as follows: strata of 10-15 cm with optimal temperature around 0oC, relative humidity of 60-70%. The cocoons must be moved every 10 days and must also be daily air...ed.
Butterfly mating should take place either the night of their coming out or the second day. It takes 14-15 hours; male butterflies outnumber females by 10%.
After mating, the optimal temperature for laying eggs is 18-20oC; relative humidity is 80%; egg laying takes place in the dark.

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L’incubation et l’éclosion des oeufs des vers à soie de chêne Antheraea pernyi Guer (Bombycidae)

In this paper we studied optimal conditions which need to be fulfilled in order to have successful incubation and hatching of eggs of the species Antheraea pernyi Guer.
The incubation of the eggs of this species implies a proper environment: temperature of 18-21oC, relative humidity of 80%, unvarying light, aeration 2 or 3 times a day and a ...density of 50 g eggs for a 20/50 cm area.
In these conditions, the incubation of the first generation lasts 10-12 days and of the second generation up to 8-10 days. The second generation needs higher temperatures (22-26oC) and higher humidity (optimal value 90%).
In this species, hatching lasts 6-7 days, with a maximum during the second day; it takes place especially early in the morning.

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Changes in Managerial Functions in Agriculture

Managerial activity is a process constituted by well separable functions, tasks. The functions and the content of managerial activity are influenced by several factors.
This multi-sided affectedness focused our attention on the analysis of management tasks. We aimed to formulate responses for the questions how and to what extent the and tasks of organizations define the tasks and functions at the given organization. On the basis of interview surveys, we analyzed the following managerial tasks: functions concerning information, communication, planning, decision-making, organization, control. The interviewed had to rank the factors influencing management tasks on a scale ranging from one to five. On the basis of the activities and tasks of organizations, we defined three types. The scope of this study does not allow us to publish all the results related to the above-mentioned managerial functions, so we can only present some, which are of interest.
Our findings suggest that the realization of certain management functions is influenced by several factors. Without striving for completeness, we could only evaluate 9-11 factors per function. The evaluation of information sources is considerably differentiated in terms of the activities, tasks of organizations. In the assessment of plans, the potentials for realization and repetition were judged differently, whereas non-organization changes and individual planning similarly. The findings of impact factors in decision making are largely different, as well in terms of organizational activities, but all the interviewed ranked the interests of the organization high. Analysis on control indicated that managers attributed higher importance to issues of content than to methodological ones.
Our investigations follow Fayol’s classical groups based on managerial tasks. We studied the following five tasks in the process of management: information tasks, planning, decision-making, instructions and control. We performed our studies with the inclusion of agricultural organization managers, with questionnaire surveys. The interviewed were asked to qualify the impact factors on the five investigated management tasks on a scale ranging from 1-5. We identified the following company groups: small company, medium company and large company.
We performed our analysis on the basis of company sizes as well, seeking to formulate responses on how size influences the qualification of the investigated factors.
Our findings suggest that the interviewed company managers attribute higher than average roles to the tasks of the management process. The qualification, ranking of management tasks are considerably influenced by company sizes. Relationships and venues are important in the implementation of information tasks, whereas the viability of plans is essential in the process of planning. Usefulness and company interests are highlighted in decision-making. In the case of instructions and decision-making, we stressed the significance of content elements as opposed to formal ones.

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Measuring Development of Settlements by Using Category Numbers

Several approaches are used to define the development and disparities of settlements. The investigation of four settlements in the County of Hajdú-Bihar, such as Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek, suggests that previous methods using few indicators are not suitable enough to measure economic, social and ecological development. ...My starting point was the complex index of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO). I examined the economic, ecological and social development of the communities by separating the 19 indicators and determined that complex indexes or indicators hide the real consideration of the main functions of rural development and opportunities for comparison in a community level. Furthermore, I established that the 19 indicators were not enough to analyse the situation, in this way I raised the number of indicators. I used more indicators, altogether 116 ones, than the previous research. I handled these indicators from economic, ecological and social aspects and carried out a method development. While only Egyek and Tiszacsege were considered to be backward according to the complex index of the HCSO, even Balmazújváros and Hortobágy proved to be lagged behind from economic and social aspects on the basis of my calculations. The methodical development justified the hypothesis that few indicators are not suitable for establishing decisions objectively. New developmental ranges evolved. Using this method this method, determining development may be more realistic and may contribute to strengthening decisions in rural development and help in spreading financial subsidies.

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The Role of Multimedia in General and Economic Vocational Training

The subject of my study is the methodological question of one of the topics of operation research as an application field of mathematics. The mathematics and operation research team of our institute aims to provide up to date knowledge to our students of both regular and distance education courses. Each topic has been allotted to a different te...acher, thus my responsibilities include Networks and their economic application, and my ambition is to achieve increasingly good results teaching this subject. The distance education course of our college provides the opportunity to try a wide range of methodological methods.

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