Vol 4, No 1 (2021)

Published June 1, 2021

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Articles

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS MONITORING USING INVASIVE AND NON-INVASIVE METHODS IN ATHLETES

Introduction: The quality of performance is essential both in everyday life and in competition. In sports science (also), we have to think of the man in a complex way as a bio-psycho-social unit. In addition to changes in ECG HR and blood cortisol levels, gastrointestinal tract movements are also associated with stress management (FUKUNAGA ...et al., 2000) (VIANNA - TRANEL, 2006), which plays a crucial role in determining the quality of performance. Several preclinical trials have formed the basis of our research (SZŰCS et al., 2018).

Objective: Based on our earlier research and literature reviews, we would like to test and participate in validating a new method that can monitor the effects of stress on humans in real-time, in a non-invasive way, with quantitative results. In addition to GI monitoring, cortisol levels are measured invasively in the subjects, so we hope to obtain complex results.

Methods: n = 13, athletes, male = 11, female = 2, mean age 22 +/- 1,031 years. Our protocol was 115 minutes, in which we distinguished four stages (rest, stress, latency 1, latency 2). We use two methods to measure stress. One is the blood cortisol level (ELISA), and the other is the MDE Heidelberg Stress Holter (EGG), which is an innovative measurement tool capable of simultaneously examining several parameters (Small Intestine, Colon, Stomach, ECG HR). The VTS DT package was used as a stressor.

Result: Based on the complex results of the EGG, we can conclude that the Small Intestine, Colon, and Stomach motility, as assessed by the Power Spectrum (PS) Fold Change (FC) calculation, increased together under stress, and then latency decreased together over time. However, the rate of change in cortisol levels showed that most participants adapted the stressor as eustress so that its value decreased linearly.

Conclusions: Innovative measurement and evaluation methods are well utilized, as they can communicate many measurement data in a valid, real-time, non-invasive way, with a parallel display. These data and results will be used in athlete selection, mental training, elite sports, neuro-biofeedback, and health preservation.

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GROSS MOTOR SKILLS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL: IS THERE ANY GENDER DIFFERENCES IN NINE YEARS OLD CHILDREN?

Proper growth and development of young school children require mastering different skills, especially gross motor skills - basic locomotor and manipulative skills. It is essential to monitor the physical activity of nine-year-old children necessary for further proper development and healthy habits, which will continue into adulthood. This s...tudy aims to determine physical activity level, BMI, and gender differences in the performance of gross motor skills in children aged nine years (± six months). The study involved 40 participants (20 girls and 20 boys). Their body height, body weight,

and body mass index were 140.46 ± 5.72 cm; 37.84 ± 8.21 cm; and 19.09 ± 3.56, respectively. All participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children and performed the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2), and two sub-tests of BOT-2 (Speed and Agility and Upper-Limb Coordination). T-test for independent samples was used to compare groups according to physical activity level (physically active and inactive group) and explore interactions with gender and BMI, and gross motor skills variables. F-values, p-values, and partial eta squared (ɳ2) values were reported as MANOVA outcomes. The results showed a significant difference between physical activity level and locomotor skills but not in manipulative skills. Further research should focus on various exercise programs that contribute to developing skills and participation in organized physical activity of children of different ages.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DECISION-MAKING AND GAME INTELLIGENCE WITH BASKETBALL STATISTICS

Introduction: basketball is one of the most popular teams sports worldwide. It is generally regarded as the second most popular sport globally, with around 450 million registered players (RÁTGÉBER et al., 2019). The attention, decision-making, interaction with the participants, and recovery of a basketball player are complex. It can be in...fluenced by internal and external factors as well as by different stimuli. The current mental and physical state of athletes affects their performance. Experience, reception and adaptation of developmental stimuli determine performance during the game. Cognitive abilities, executive functions, and inhibition are all psychological processes that can help or hinder concentration. It is essential to assess and measure to enhance sports performance and provide objective support for our subjective assumptions. Many technical and tactical elements characterize basketball, but it is also essential to have relevant motor and affective skills when making decisions. Players need to adapt to sudden and varied stimuli and make the most intelligent and appropriate decision to achieve a positive outcome. Live statistics may indicate the effectiveness of decision-making during the game. In the present study, we analyzed the results of the Color-Word Interference Test and Trail Making Test prior to and after the games.

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BREAKABLE PERFORMANCE - THE ROLE OF MENTAL TOUGHNESS IN ELITE SPORT, INTERNATIONAL OUTLOOK

Our study aimed to analyze mental toughness and its relationship to sports performance. We reviewed 38 qualitative and quantitative international studies. We performed an in-depth investigation on mental toughness; we also focused on how to improve mental toughness. We hypothesized a significant difference in both genders, suggesting that coach...es substantially impact mental toughness. We primarily concentrate on valid, real-time assessments and psychological training in elite sports athletes. Sport psychologists, mental trainers play an essential role in elite sports performance.  Results of related studies demonstrated that these age and gender-specific mental training sessions are effective in improving performance. There is an increasing need for computer-based interactive testing methods to analyze cognitive and psychomotor skills under pressure. 

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE ABILITIES STRESS TOLERANCE AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN NOVICE AND EXPERIENCED ATHLETES

Introduction: Cognitive skills are essential in team sports. Perception, decision-making (tactical thinking, learning, attention, thinking, emotions), stress tolerance, and even the level of motor and technical-tactical skills all affect performance.

Objective: We found a significant difference in stress tolerance of novic...e / young and experienced team sport players (BALOGH, DONKA 2020). Our results showed that experienced athletes have higher level of  stress tolerance.  However, as this was a descriptive study, we intended to support our statement involving more number of subjects, and an analysis of cognitive abilities.

Method: A cross-sectional experimental study was performed on 41 male and 13 female team sport (handball, volleyball and football) players. We used the VTS DT software package for cognitive abilities and the MDE Heidelberg StressHolter (gastro, HR, TH, GSR) for stress measurement. During the 35-minute measurement process, a state of rest was measured in the first stage, a response to a 10-minute stress situation (VTS-DT for the cognitive test) in the second stage, and a state of rest and latency in the third stage.

Results: We found a significant relationship between stress tolerance and the cognitive ability of female and male participants. Our results demonstrated that football players had a lower level of  stress tolerance than other team sport players. They also tent to make more mistakes in the VTS-DT test.

Conclusions: The classification into novice and experienced categories need to be done more uniformly in the future. We are aware of it, that the unequal number of participants by sports, is one of the limitations of our study. However, it is encouraging that significant results demonstrate a strong relationship between stress tolerance and the number of appropriate decisions. These results reveal other areas of research for us.

 

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THE ROLE OF DANCE AND MOVEMENT THERAPIES IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

A popular research topic these days is the relationship between health and physical activity. Countless health maintenance programs help an individual to achieve the benefits provided by physical activity. Numerous articles describe the benefits th...e physical activity. Still, the effect of dance and movement therapies on stress management for children, young adults, middle-aged, and elderly are less likely investigated.

We used English and Hungarian studies to analyze the relationship between stress, dance, and movement therapies for the systematic review. We used PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and Research Gate databases.

One of the major problems today is the stress of everyday life. Untreated pressure may be destructive to health. Thus, it is reported that incorporating dance as physical activity may trigger positive changes in the field of regaining the state of equilibrium (homeostasis). Related studies demonstrated that dance programs (either alone, in pairs, or groups) might help manage stress and the processing of stress responses.

Conclusions: Physical activity may effectively help in the management and processing of stress. While dancing, the individual may step out of one’s comfort zone, activating many coordination abilities and cognitive functions. Taking advantage of the positive effects of movement and music. Dancing may positively affect anxiety, depression, and isolation disorders. After all, dance may bring about many positive changes in the body and the brain. The individual may feel happier and balanced. The overall quality of life significantly improves. 

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THE EFFECT OF GOALS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE YOUTH BASKETBALL PLAYERS’ CONTROL PLACE AND THE SOURCE OF MOTIVATION

Our study conducted research on the motivation of the basketball players of the Debrecen Basketball Academy (U11 - 76 basketball players) and on which factors play and define it, especially the control sites and their goals are related to the assessment of performance development. For this purpose, the target studies were based on such a fo...llow-up procedure, which performs monitoring, and target studies on the development of physical endurance could be detected. Our results show that both the quality of choice (how complex tasks are undertaken with athletes in the study) and the evolution of the control site and the source of motivation are among the factors in developing athletes ’goals. The result showed that many objective measurement tools and test procedures are available to coaches and sport-psychologists to assess and evolve athletes’ peak performance. At the same time, further practical improvements can be made by changing training methods and introducing additional motivating factors.

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WITH THE APPEARANCE OF COVID-19 THE DETERMINATION OF THE „FINISHED” ICE HOCKEY CHAMPIONSHIPS’ FINAL RESULTS – FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE THEORIES OF JUSTICE

COVID-19 has long-term effects – solving (or trying to solve) these primary social problems attention can also be focused on sport as a social subsystem. The study examines the competitive sport, including the final results of championships in ice hockey. Most championships were going on when the COVID-19 pandemic broke out. As a result, ...the most of the championships were suspended – which were either continued after the restrictions, or ended the season. What about the ice hockey tournaments, where the season ended prematurely? In this case, was the final result determined as well? If so, on what basis? At determining the final results, the organizers tried to make the most just decision. However, on what basis is it just to determine the final results of these championships? The study examines several theories of justice which play a (key) role in determining the final result of ice hockey in different championships. The study confirms this theory in several case examples: the organizers (league association) really made a just decision. The only, but the most important question is: which theory of justice was (or theories of justice were) dominated in determining the final results? In each case examined, the principle of meritocracy appeared (at some level). In accordance to the nature (telos) of the competitive sports, at determining of the final results the idea of meritocracy dominated. However, there is also a difference within meritocracy: between the timeliness and actuality of the reached results. In addition to the achievements on the sports field, the egalitarianism has also appeared in many cases, as another theory of justice – as well as the utilitarianism (by Bentham and Mill).

 

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