Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 depending on the circumstances of the travel disruption, requires air carriers to: provide passengers with assistance, such as meals, refreshments, telephone calls and hotel accommodation; offer re-routing and refunds; pay a flat-rate compensation of up to €600 per passenger, depending on the flight distance; and proactively inform passengers about their rights.
Under the Montreal Convention (as translated by Regulation (EC) No 2027/97 into EU law), a passenger may be entitled to compensation in case of mishandled baggage (but with a limit of about €1200), except if the airline can demonstrate it has taken all reasonable measures to avoid the damages or it was impossible to take such measures. Airlines often fail to offer passengers the rights to which they are entitled in instances of denied boarding, long delays, cancellations or mishandled baggage, in particular under Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 ("the Regulation") and Regulation (EC) No 2027/97. Case law has had a decisive impact on the interpretation of the Regulation. The Commission Communication of 11 April 2011 reported on the varying interpretation being taken on the provisions of Regulation (EC) No 261/2004, due to grey zones and gaps in the current text, and the non-uniform enforcement across Member States. Furthermore, it is difficult for passengers to enforce their individual rights. With regard to Regulation (EC) No 261/2004, the European Parliament asks the Commission to propose a clarification of the passengers' rights, in particular the notion of ‘extraordinary circumstances’. On 13 March 2013, the European Commission made a proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 establishing
common rules on compensation and assistance to passengers in the event of denied boarding and of cancellation or long delay of flights and Regulation (EC) No 2027/97 on air carrier liability in respect of the carriage of passengers and their baggage by air. This paper takes a closer look at this proposal. The proposal aims to improve enforcement by clarifying key principles and implicit passenger rights that have given rise to many disputes between airlines and passengers in the past; and by enhancing and better coordinating the enforcement policies carried out on a national level. Issues covered by the proposal are the following.
Definition of "extraordinary circumstances"
Right to compensation in case of long delays
Right to rerouting
Right to care
Missed connecting flight
Rescheduling Tarmac delays
Partial ban of the "no show" policy
Right to information
Handling of individual claims and complaints
Better take into account the financial capacities of the air carriers
Ensure better enforcement of passenger rights with regard to mishandled baggage
Adapt liability limits in accordance to general price inflation
Among the tools of including the concerned elements of society into the decision making processes the government operating since 2010 rather prefers the non-legal ones (i.e. those which do not constitute direct obligations for the government); rather solutions outside of the legal system are put into focus. Therefore the so-called national consultation, which – among others, such as sectoral, professional and other negotiating forums – introduced in Hungary a previously unknown political technique: within two years – in ordinary mail – each citizen received two surveys with possible answers to choose from, furthermore, – as a method not really used before in Hungary – an information booklet was sent to all citizens with the right to vote which presented the newest pieces of legislation.
Looking beyond political slogans and pathetic forms it may be well observed that the government expects from the method of crowdsourcing – which may be considered traditional in other countries – as well as from different online consultations and the introduction of new means (surfaces) of information the establishment and deepening of discussion (cooperation) with society. Among the new means of information we shall mention that the government of Hungary created its websites civil.kormany.hu and kozhasznusag.kormany.hu related to the civil sector (in broader sense about legislation related to the civil sector). The websites – according to the intentions of the government– are part of the process of changing the attitude aimed at with the new act on the civil sector (Act CLXXV of 2011 on right of association, non-profit status, operation and support of NGOs), through which the government wishes to establish transparent connections with the civil sector.
In Article 7 of the new Act CXXX of 2010 on legislation the two basic form of social compromise are described, general negotiation and direct negotiation. The former one provides opportunity for sharing opinion on the website of the organisation publishing concepts, drafts (in a way which obliges the organisation which asks for the opinion, e.g. through confirmation obligation or through preparing summaries on the merits), while the latter one allows the concerned minister to directly request persons and organisations to give opinion. A specific form of direct negotiation – creating obligations on the side of the minister – is the institution of strategic partnership, the framework of which is settled in a thorough agreement. One material weakness of the regulation, however, is that Article 13 paragraph (2) of the act only lists in an exemplary way those with whom such partnership may be concluded, by mentioning forms of organisations (e.g. church, trade union, civil organisation).
The European Parliament and the Council adopted new rules for passengers traveling by buses. The 181/2011/EU Regulation concerning the rights of passengers in bus and coach transport developed a strict liability of bus carriers in cases of delay and cancellation. It deals with accidents, the meaning of right to information, handling of complaints, and the non-discrimination and mandatory assistance for disabled persons and persons with reduced mobility.The Regulation is entered into force on March 21st 2013. The article is about to analyze the content and the meaning of these new rules and rights passengers have when they use bus transportation.
Geschichte über eine Gemeinschaft und ihr Los. Die, einen schweren Weg zurücklegen haben, trotzdem sind sie nie nach Hause angekommen und haben nie ihre Heimat gefunden. Geschichte über die, wir so wenig wissen, aber alles glauben. Über die, die meisten denken, dass sie nur durch Unterstützung und Kriminalität leben, scheuen die Arbeit und geben die meisten Aufgaben den Polizisten. Es ist die Geschichte von den Zigeunern. In meiner Artikel möchte ich die Antwort suchen, warum verbindet man die Zigeuner mit der Kriminalität wohl oder übel. In dieser Hinsicht der Vorurteile versuchte ich das Thema durch die Historie der Zigeuner beleuchten, natürlich nur die wesentliche Tatsachen erwähnt. Das Thema ist sehr weit, und heutzutage allgemein beliebt. Das Problem interessiert viele Menschen, und viele probieren es lösen. An Hand von dieser strebte ich mich eine Vorstellung zu machen, welche diese Vorurteile sind, wie die öffentliche Meinung beeinflussen, sowie einige Lösungen empfehlen, natürlich objektiv.