A 2012-ben útjára indult Hallgatói Műhelytanulmányok sorozatunk ötödik részét tartja kezében az Olvasó. Kisebb jubileum tehát ez a kötet, amely reményeink szerint nemcsak a tanulmányok Szerzői számára jelent fontos állomást, de a szélesebb szakmai és laikus közönség részére is tartalmaz értékes és releváns újdonságokat.
Bán, Gergely Károly: City concepts in the perspective of various disciplines, modern age urban hierarchies
In today's era of interdisciplinarity – when the break-up of formal boundaries between disciplines is a common phenomenon – it is not easy to find a common language, set of concepts and methods for different disciplines to use in their common research fields. A great example to this is the research of urban history, especially the research into city hierarchy.
The complexity of this research topic is well illustrated by the fact that it is inherent in geography, history, sociology, statistics and economics. The different disciplines work with different definitions of the city, which are most definitely represented in research papers on urban history in the recent years. Legal (administrative), statistical, economic, sociological or geographic city concepts all have different understanding of the city. If we were to ask what discipline provides us with the most relevant, most fitting definition for the city as a settlement form then the answer would be: each of them.
Why should not we talk about the definition of the city in the context of these city concepts, that is, administrative, statistical, sociological, etc. urban hierarchies? The aim of my study is to provide a complex picture of the potential urban hierarchy of the modern age.
Debreczeni, Márk – Hegedűs, Zoltán: 20th century universal historical text collection – Interactive educational materials for secondary school and university in history education
Nowadays, Hungarian teachers and teacher trainees do not really use interactive teaching materials during their history lessons. However, in most school have the opportunity to use smartboards and other technical devices. They delay to make their lessons more interesting and more interactive. We need to change our teaching habits undoubtedly. In this study, we introduce our interactive online teaching material, which made for secondary school students and teachers. Teachers have to
adapt new methods, teaching and learning techniques to keep step with the students of the 21st century. Nevertheless, it will be hopefully useful in the teacher-training program at the universities as well. This research introduces the differences and needs of diverse generations and the features of the interactive history textbook. In the MOODLE system, online and digitalized text sources, videos, records, different types of tests are equally used, which are suitable to measure students’ knowledge
and skills. It is like an E-book, but other functions make the program more interactive. The whole material focus on the 20th century and divided into six periods. Each era have coherent textbooks and separated tests for practice. Moreover, the program offers multifarious and exciting ways of history learning and teaching.
Papp, László: Religion of soldiers stationed in Carnuntum in the light of their epigraphical memories
In my study I examine the roman soldiers’ religion stationing at Carnuntum based on their inscriptions. I am looking for the connection between the soldiers’ profession, origin, where they were formerly stationed and the cults. Soldiers stationing at Carnuntum just like the ones deployed in other parts of the empire often presented their loyalty to the emperor through inscriptions. Mithras and Iuppiter Dolichenus were usually the favourites of many soldiers, but not for the ones’ who were stationing at Carnuntum, according to the inscriptions they preferred Silvanus and Nemesis instead. Although many images on gravestones are referring to after-life, it is hard to decide whether these images carried symbolic meanings or they were only used as ornamentation.
Szilvássy, Zoltán: Some connections of the history of Sekler Division and the Hungarian Soviet Republic in the light of the collapse of the Transylvanian Front
On April 16, 1919, after a successful attack of Romanian intervention forces the counter-revolutionary Hungarian Székely Division and the Red Army were bot unable to hold the Eastern front line. Unfortunately, and as a result of this event, all the great cities of the Hungarian Plain were fallen, including Debrecen. The red terror, carried out by communists, resulted counter-revolution in Debrecen (18 April, 1919) which was crushed by local communist forces within a short time with the help of Austrian internationalists led by Leo Rothziegel. The loss of the city was especially painful for the Hungarian Soviet Republic because Debrecen was the "capital of the Southeast", a major industrial and agricultural center and an important transport hub. The fate of Debrecen, like the rest of the cities of the
Tisza region, was determined by the collapse of the Csucsa front line. In an open field, suffering from lack of munition, the Székely Division could not stop the advance of the Romanian intervention army, which reached the line of the River Tisza. The defense of the historic area of the Kingdom of Hungary was not included in the aims of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, which used Hungary as a springboard in
the process of spreading the world revolution. The betrayal of the effort for the territorial integrity of the country caused a huge gap between the Székely Division and the communist forces which resulted the collapse of the Transylvanian Front line.
Szűcs, Balázs: “The bond of bonds” – Identities in the early philosophical eork of Moses Hess and Karl Marx, with special reference to the economic philosophical interpretation of money
In my essay, I attempted to demonstrate the similarities between the two philosophers, Hess and Marx, especially regarding the essence of money. I present the effect of Hess on the young Marx. In the first section of the essay, a short biography of the French Jewish philosopher, Moses Hess is presented and a brief analysis of the most important works of Hess, like European Triarchy (1841), The Philosophy of Action (1843) and Rome and Jerusalem (1862) is given. In these works, there are a number of philosophical categories and definitions that appear in Marx’s works in similar formulation, for instance the determinism of activity, raw possession and the concept of an authority based (Autoritaten) and repressive state, which is the greatest barrier to free self-accomplishment (Selbstbestimmung). But another striking similarity is that Prometheus is regarded, by both philosophers, as the personification of freedom. The second part of the essay provides a detailed analysis of On the Essence of Money (1845). In this work, Hess gives a unique perspective on human history from its beginning to his own age, with many sharp and prophetic philosophical conclusions. Money has entered this system of philosophy, of history as a necessary evil and by staying for too long in the system, it causes alienation. At the end of the study, there is a comparison of the categories and their explanations that can be found in both philosophers’ works. Comparison of On the Essence of Money and Marx’s Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, where Hess’s influence on Marx is most evident.
Varga, Róbert: Illegal emigration in Ung County at the turn of the 19–20th centuries
The most substantial topic to deal with today is migration, and their negative effects. This can be considered the biggest issue nowadays. An issue that affects all developing countries in the 21st century and it is indeed an old problem. One of the reasons for emigration was that some people were living in bad financial situation and the number of poor people were high at that time. Whichever era/century we examine, the head of the family’s primary concern was to take care of his wife and children. Because of hopelessness and poverty, people have embarked on bolder adventures, for stories have been told that wealthy countries lie beyond the ocean. The illegal emigration was also a problem in Ung county. The cause of this emigration was poverty and the business opportunity of it was soon recognized by criminal organizations. In order to stop illegal migration, countries established agencies. There were two law enforcement organizations: The Royal Gendarmerie and the Uzhorod city police. The task of the gendarmerie was to take actions against human smuggling in the country, while their colleagues had to contend with migration in the city of Uzhorod.
Vas, István: Video games in the Education of History– An Analysis of a University
The needs of reforming the current educational methodology is in the focus of research during the past few years both in international researchers (Prensky 2006; Gee 2012) and in Hungarian researchers (Fegyverneki 2016; Prievara 2015, 2018)
as well. According to the results the sphere of the current curriculum and methodology are extended with digital practices, meanwhile one has been trying to integrate videogames in the educational system (Squire 2003; Radetich 2005; Ellard
2012; Wainwright 2014). In Hungary, there is an undergoing research of using
video games in education since 2016 (Vas 2016, 2017, 2018). This article represents a research update, where according to the main concept, video games should be used in university education for the teacher training students to get acquainted
with the methodological possibilities in order to use them bravely in the future. As a pilot lecture for the further research a university course was kept in the second semester of 2017/2018 with the author’s supervisor in the University of Debrecen.
The article summarizes the experience of the lecture, the requirements and the syllabi of the course, and introduces the results of the three surveys, which were filled during the semester (N=82). The surveys investigated different approaches towards
video games like the gaming habits of the students, the platforms they use, their
opinions about the four categories based on using video games in History lessons
in high schools and how the students feel the lecture successful. The course was
taken by first- and second years students’, who use mainly laptops (52.4%), smart
phones (48.4%) and computers for playing video games. According to the different
styles of video games, they prefer mobile games (2.86); however, there are differences
between males and females. As for educational purposes, they would use grand strategic
video games (3.28) yet in terms of franchises, they would use the Assassin’s Creed-series
(3.69), while in classes they would use them in language sessions (26%).
According to the positive feedbacks of the lecture, using video games in the university f
or teacher training students is a motivational way of establishing a methodological
open-mindedness for their future profession.
Veres, Tünde: The management of the Regéc estate in the 17th century
We can consider the 17th century as the period of development of the allodium and large estate system. This was the result of a long process that meant change in the life of an estate not only in economic sense, but it brought along the necessary change of the administrative system and its modernization too. While the economic role of the castles had been significant in the previous centuries, this indicates
which role had mainly meant the leading of manorial yield. This system has come to an end gradually and a separation can be observed between the military and economic management by the 17th century. This decentralization and the gradual extension of the large estate system demanded a more divided, thus more professional economic apparatus. We can be faced with similar changes in the case of an estate in Regéc. The case of this demesne is interesting and the reason for this is that three eras can be
distinguished during the time of the Rákóczi family’s possession – 1646–1685: date of the Rákóczi family’s possession; 1686–1691: the period of the Chamber of Szepes’s management, Kollonich’s and Klobusiczky’s guardianship, 1692–1711: Francis II Rákóczi is the owner –, and these three eras left an impression, and were based on each other. The most significant period is the second one, when Francis
Klobusiczky kept an eye on the untroubled functioning of the Rákóczis’ whole estate-complex,
but the provisor was the one who carried out the direct economic leading on the level of single estates. However, it would be an inaccurate and sim plified statement emphasizing only the role of provisor from this point of view, as the management of an estate was carried out within a government system built in a
hierarchical way. In this complex system the duty of the employees, working on different levels, was the operation and maintenance of the former Rákóczi demesne. The aim of the study is to explore the government system and its working mechanism in the estate of Regéc based on the assignment and duty of the officials at the end of the 17th century. Since those persons who work in that employment
have a significant position in the estate of Regéc, it is essential to study those kinds of conventions and accounts that are in connection with them. Therefore, the research of these mentioned documents constitutes the other focal point of this study.
Virágh, Ágnes: Possible interpretations of an italian chronicle: Hungarian military leaders in the chronicle of Domenico da Gravina
This work examines what Domenico da Gravina’s attitude was towards the Hungarians fighting in the Kingdom of Naples. The analysis is based on the Chronicon de rebus in Apulia gestis, in which several Hungarian military leaders are presented. The following observations were made from the results: since Domenico knew the military leaders personally, his reports were much more detailed than those of the other chroniclers. He admired Stephen Lackfi, the Voivode of Transylvania the most. He commemorated his speech at the army muster, his mercy, his excellent strategic sense and the case when Louis of Taranto challenged Lackfi to a duel. Besides Lackfi, he praised the merits of John Csuz, whom he referred to as an expert in military action. Hungarians were regarded to be persistent warriors by him, who despite the hardships, successively defended the castles entrusted to them. He highlights the battlefield value of the Hungarian archery divisions and compares them with the Neapolitan cavalry that always suffered defeat in combat.