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  • Actuele benaderingen van literatuurdidactiek in het NVT-onderwijs in Hongarije: Voorstudie bij een empirisch onderzoek

    This article deals with current approaches of teaching literature in NVT studies in
    Hungary. The research examines the coherence of literature and foreign language teaching
    – in this case Dutch as a foreign language. The general question, which requires both
    theoretical and empirical research, is aimed at which methods exist with which foreign
    language skills can be developed through the teaching of literature and literary skills
    through foreign language pedagogy. The present article is the first step on this path: it
    describes the situation of literature and foreign language teaching in Hungary and those
    theoretical approaches that should act as the background of future didactic research.

  • Humanisten uit de Lage Landen in Hongarije in de 16de eeuw

    The early history of the connections between Netherlands and Hungary is connected with the catholic restoration in the Kingdom Hungary in the middle of 16-th Century. In this time came the famous humanist Nicasius Ellebodius to Hungary. He studied in Louvain and Rome in the Collegium Germanicum, and at the invitation of Miklós Oláh, Archbishop of Esztergom he arrived to Nagyszombat (today: Trnava in Slovakia), to the centre of Hungarian Catholicism. He taught there Greek and Latin language and literature in the newly-established college of the Society of Jesus. Another Netherlander, Guilelmus Sulenius de Flandria, studied likewise in Rom, and then came to Hungary. Archbishop Oláh invited himto teach at Pozsony (today:Bratislava in Slovakia), and he was granted a prebend in recognition of his work. Besides they other Netherlandish teachers and professors (e.g. Arnoldus Gerardus Laurentianus Flandrus, Jacobus Somalius etc.) took part in the reorganisation of the Catholic school-training and they played an very significant and important role in the intellectual life in early modern Hungary

  • Economische betrekkingen tussen Hongarije en de Lage Landen in de Middeleeuwen Abstract

    In spite of the remarkable distance and the expenses incurred in transportation through a number of go-betweens Hungarian (primary) commodities and products from the Low Countries found their way to each other’s markets. The present study makes an inquiry into these trade relations in which it was primarily Prussian and southern German traders, especially of Nuremberg, who played a dominant role. Copper and prescions metals were the most important commodities shipped to the markets ot Flanders from Hungary by Prussian tradesmen via Poland and the Baltic Sea. Hungary exported iron and zinc to the Low Countries and also beeswax and hides and furs. It was mainly cloth that was imported into Hungary from the markets in Flanders roughly along the same trade route as the one along which commodities from Hungary found their way to the Atlantic coastal areas, that is, via the Baltic Sea and Poland. The volume and value of the export goods from medieval Hungary surpassed that of the import goods from the Low Countries, for the latter was made up of finished products of high quality and high prices therefore targeted only a limited high-end range of customers and their volume was thus less remarkable. The products of the two areas reached their respective destinations by means of a chain of intermediaries.

  • Middelbaar eindexamen Nederlands als vreemde taal in Hongarije

    This article considers the examination methods for L2 learners in Hungary. A short history of past and current methods of examination for Dutch learners is covered in order to attest to the evolution in complexity and effectiveness that has taken place over the course of the years. The theoretical, statutory side of L2 examination is briefly taken into account, but the focus is on the practical aspect of L2 examination. The different elements of an ideal exam (reading, listening, writing and speaking proficiency, and correctness) are discussed with attention to detail and with the use of examples.

  • Een trouwe vriend van Hongarije: Ds. Han Munnik (1884–1969)

    From 1921 on, the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands had a study fund, especially for Hungarian students. Until the Second World War, about 40 students studied with funding from that scholarship, neatly distributed between the Free University and the Theological School in Kampen. The chairman of the fund was Prof. F.W. Grosheide (1881–1972) of the Free University, its secretary was Rev. H.A. Munnik (1884–1969), from Zwolle. Both were involved in the fund from 1921 on, Grosheide retired in 1952, Munnik a few years later. Munnik became an honorary member of the Association of Hungarian Pastors and Honorary Professor in Debrecen (1938), Grosheide became Honorary Doctor in Sárospatak (1931), Debrecen (1938), and Budapest (1946). This indicates their significance for the Hungarian ministerial corps and for the contacts between Hungary and the Netherlands in those years.

  • Koning Sigismund en zijn gevolg in de Lage Landen – Nederlanders in Hongarije*

    The 1378 Great Western Schism gave a new direction to the Luxemburgs’ traditional pro-Valois politics. The House of Luxemburg took an abrupt turn away from the French orientation, who adhered to the obedience to the Avignon pope and were seeking for new partners. At the beginning of the 15th century, even amidst the Orléans-Armagnac vs. Burgundy antagonism, Sigismund had quite good contacts with the duke of Burgundy, probably stemming from their co-operation of the crusade of Nicopolis in 1396, the Flemish participation of which the article also investigates. Sigismund came closer to Burgundy at the Council of Constance, even though they had taken an opposite stand in important issues such as the inheritance of Brabant and Luxemburg. The Luxemburgs themselves also had possessions in the Low Countries, because in the 14th century the dynasty, besides Luxemburg, also owned the Duchy of Brabant and Limburg. In the 15th century, partly because of the Burgundians gaining substantial territories, they partially opposed their rights, thereby bringing forth conflicts within the Low Countries. The article explores the relations of the House of Burgundy with the provinces of the Netherlands, especially the county of Flanders and the Flemish cities. When it comes to ‘Burgundian’ contacts, it is fundamentally taken as relations with the Low Countries, particularly Flanders. The study examines the relationships that Sigismund maintained with the political figures of the Low Countries, especially the counts of Holland and Zeeland from the House of Wittelsbach, the duke of Gelderland and Juliers/Jülich asd well as the bishops of Utrecht and Lüttich/Luik. I also wish to shed light upon contacts beyond the scene of ‘high politics’. Although we can not speak of daily relations between Hungary and the provinces of the Low Countries, there were complex contacts. Hundreds of Flemish knights took up the Cross against the Ottomans and fought at Nicopolis, the campaign of which was also funded by 24 Attila Bárány the citizens of Flanders. A range of cities embraced a rather independent political track when supplied the Emperor with ships. Flemish or Dutch craftsmen built a river flotilla for Sigismund. Relations can be come across in the clergy: Dutch masters of theology and medicine were active in Hungary, most peculiarly contributing to the development of the university in Óbuda.