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  • Niederländische Kolonisten in Ungarn in der Arpad-Ära

    Settlers from the Low Countries in the Árpád Age in Hungary
    In Hungarian documents from the 11th and 13th century we can frequently find the name “flandrenses”, which refers to the settlers coming from the Low Countries and from territories where the Low-Frankish dialect was spoken. They moved in a larger number to South-Transylvania in the middle of the 12th century, during the reign of King Géza II. In the 12th century a huge number of these settlers settled down along the southern borders, in Syrmia. The Byzantine chronicler, Nicetas Choniates, called this territory Frangokhorion: the Land of the Franks. Beside the Flemish-Low-Frankish speaking people, settlers from the neo-Latin territories came to Hungary in the Árpád Age, too. These people were called in the documents “latinus” or “gallicus”, just like the people coming from Italy or France. Above all, “latini” from Wallonia and Low-Lothringia came to Hungary. It is interesting that the neo-Latin speaking settlers settled down dispersed almost everywhere in the country, but the Flemish (German) people took root in bigger ethnical homogenic blocks in their new home. The main reason why people from the far Low Countries and their wider area came to Hungary in the Middle Ages was the existential crisis caused by extreme weather conditions in their old homeland, but the news about fertility of the ground and the wealth of natural resources also attracted them to Hungary.

  • Economische betrekkingen tussen Hongarije en de Lage Landen in de Middeleeuwen Abstract

    In spite of the remarkable distance and the expenses incurred in transportation through a number of go-betweens Hungarian (primary) commodities and products from the Low Countries found their way to each other’s markets. The present study makes an inquiry into these trade relations in which it was primarily Prussian and southern German traders, especially of Nuremberg, who played a dominant role. Copper and prescions metals were the most important commodities shipped to the markets ot Flanders from Hungary by Prussian tradesmen via Poland and the Baltic Sea. Hungary exported iron and zinc to the Low Countries and also beeswax and hides and furs. It was mainly cloth that was imported into Hungary from the markets in Flanders roughly along the same trade route as the one along which commodities from Hungary found their way to the Atlantic coastal areas, that is, via the Baltic Sea and Poland. The volume and value of the export goods from medieval Hungary surpassed that of the import goods from the Low Countries, for the latter was made up of finished products of high quality and high prices therefore targeted only a limited high-end range of customers and their volume was thus less remarkable. The products of the two areas reached their respective destinations by means of a chain of intermediaries.