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Yearly change of Wheat dwarf virus infection rate during 1996-2010 in winter barley
Published November 10, 2010
22-28

Yearly change of the infection of Wheat dwarf virus was studied in winter barley during 1996-2010. Surveys were carried out at Kompolt (Rudolf Fleischmann Research Institute, Róbert Károly College), in winter barley breeding lines showing leaf yellowing and stunting symptoms. In 1996, 250 winter barley samples were tested. During the period o...f 1997–2005, 100 samples were collected in each year. In 2006, 490 winter barley samples were tested. In 2007 and 2008 the number of samples collected was 500 from winter barley. In 2009 year 100, and in 2010 year 100 winter barley samples were collected for virus testing. Virus diagnosis was carried out using DASELISA for the detection of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV-MAV, BYDV-PAV, BYDV-RMV, BYDV-SGV), and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV). During the ten of the last fifteen years, the occurrence of Wheat dwarf virus in infected samples exceeded those of other viruses causing leaf yellowing and dwarfing symptoms. There were years (1997, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2010) when only the Wheat dwarf virus played the main role in development of yirus symtoms. A contrasting tendency can be observed between the degrees of infection of WDV and BYDV. With a rise of infection in the WDV, the proportion of BYDV decreased and vice-versa. 

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Molybdenum - accumulation dynamics of cereals on calcareous chernozem soil
Published December 16, 2012
81-85

This work is about the molybdenum-accumulation of cereals analyzing soil and plant samples from a field experiment set in
Nagyhörcsök by Kádár et al. in 1991.
In this long-term field experiment different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected
from the experiment station to study... the behaviour of molybdenum.
In this report results of maize, winter wheat, winter barley and soil analysis are presented. The conclusions are as follows:
– Analysing soil samples from 1991 we have found that roughly half of the molybdenum dose applied is in the form of NH4-acetate+EDTA soluble
– Comparing element content of grain and leaf samples we have experienced that molybdenum accumulation is more considerable in the  vegetative plant parts
– Winter wheat accumulated less molybdenum then maize in its vegetative parts. Comparing molybdenum content of winter wheat to winter barley we found that the concentration of the element in wheat was lower by half than in the winter barley. It seemed that molybdenum accumulated to the least degree in winter wheat.

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Effect of N, P and K fertilisers and their interactions in a long-term experiment on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Published October 24, 2016
87-92

The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of K, P and N supplies on the yield of winter barley in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment with clearly distinct soil nutrient supply levels in order to develop fertilisation guidelines for winter barley growers. The experiment was set up in 1989 on a chernozem meadow soil calcareous in t...he deeper layers, applying all possible combinations of 4 levels each of N, P and K fertiliser, giving a total of 64 treatments.

The results of analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 can be summarised as follows:

  1. In 2011, when rainfall supplies were deficient in the shooting phase, improved K supplies (324 mg kg-1 AL-K2O) increased the grain yield, but in 2012, when rainfall supplies were more evenly distributed, K supply levels in the range 210–335 mg kg-1 AL-K2O had no significant influence on the yield of winter barley.
  2. An analysis of the P treatments revealed that, compared to the 119–133 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 level (P0), better P supplies (186–251 mg kg-1) led to a significant increase in the grain yield.
  3. In both years rising N rates significantly increased the yield up to an annual N rate of 160 kg ha-1.

      4. A K×N interaction could only be detected in the nutrient supplies of winter barley in 2011. The yield-increasing effect of N fertiliser was more    pronounced at better K supply levels, while K fertiliser led to higher yields in the case of better N supplies.

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The Effect of Drought on the Yield of Winter Barley Lines in the Great Cumania Region
Published May 4, 2004
127-129

Winter barley is the third most important fodder plant in Hungary after winter wheat and maize.
Its accommodation to the changing climatic conditions – mainly to drought in Great Cumania, the driest region of our country is of great importance from the point of view of plant breeding and growing.
The vegetation period of 2002/2003 can b...e considered to have been very droughty with 247.5 mm precipitation.
According to our results six- rowed barley lines have better drought tolerance than two-rowed lines. The average yields of the six-rowed barley lines were 12-25 per cent higher than the yields of the two rowed lines.
Due to the joint effect of delayed sowing and drought, significant yield depression was detected both in the case of the early and the medium maturity group, and assessable data could be gained only from 35 per cent of the total territory.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
Published November 2, 2014
51-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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Relation of availability and barley uptake of some potentially toxic elements
Published February 23, 2008
7-10

A small-plot microelement load field trial was set up on brown forest clay soil with eight elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), on 3 levels each (0/30, 90, 270 kg element ha-1). The soil was treated with soluble salts of elements once at initiation (1994). In the seventh year of the experiment (2001) winter barley was the test plant. The ...total element content was determined in plant samples (shoot, straw, grain) after microwave digestion using cc.HNO3+cc.H2O2. The element composition of the prepared samples was determined using ICP-MS technique. In the experiment toxic effects of treatments and yield loss could not be observed. Zn and As contents in barely shoots were only moderately increased by increasing microelement loads. Effects of Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Al treatments could not be observed. On the other hand, Cd accumulation was significant in the shoot. Cd content was also increased both in straw and grain. Results of this experiment prove that Cd remains mobile in the soil-plant system for a long time. Its accumulation can be observed both in vegetative and reproductive parts of plants without toxic symptoms and yield loss.

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The virus infection of South-Hungarian corn fields
Published October 30, 2011
52-55

The past years cereal diseases, including the virus diseases have been increased in Hungary as well as worldwide. The aim of our work was to survey the virus infection of South Hungarian wheat fields. Leaf samples were collected in Szeged at the experimental farm of Cereal Research Nonprofit Co., in April and Junes of 2009 and 2010. DAS ELISA t...ests were carried out using Loewe antisera of Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), Brome streak mosaic virus (BStMV), Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and measured with Labsystem Multiscan RC Elisa reader at 405nm. In the samples of 2009 the Wheat dwarf and Wheat streak mosaic viruses were dominated. It was also significant the appearance of the. Barley yellow dwarf virus. 2010. was favourable for the spread of the virus vectors, therefore the incidence of virus diseases increased.

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Effect of year and irrigation on yield and quantity of different potato varieties
Published May 23, 2006
7-14

dramatically in the last few decades. We are lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields. The ecological conditions are not favourable for potato, but the low yields other causes: the use of non-suitable seed, the low level of irrigation and nutrient supply and out of date machinery. The competitiveness of production is further ...decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption habit, and often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and selected quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2004 and 2005, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat (2004) and two rowed barley (2005) as a forecrop. The varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated. We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages and changes, and selected parameters of quality and chemical composition due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However, the impact of irrigation depends on the year effect.

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