Modern animal husbandry has drastically changed the genetic structure of some domestic species. The varieties, genotypes that we think we do not need at the moment can only be saved from extinction with the help of gene conservation. Traditional Hungarian horse breeds have a long history (more than 200 years) and a demonstrably different ge...netic structure from other horse breeds in Europe and the rest of the world. Consequently, their enormous genetic value is undoubted. The subject of our research was to study the structure of the mare families found in the population of the Lipizzan horse breed and the genetic structure of the Hungarian population. Out of the total 61 mare families in the world, 35 are present in Hungary. There are 11 Hungarian, 12 families of Fogaras, 7 original, 4 Croatian and 1 Slovenian mare families in the Hungarian population. The proportion of mare families in Hungary and Fogaras is almost the same. The proportion of Croatian and Slovenian families is negligible. In terms of their number, they are not significant in Hungary. For this reason they have little effect on the Hungarian Lipizzan population. Except one of the original mare families are in the same situation as the Croatian and Slovenian families. The Presciana / Bradamanta mare family is the most populous of all families due to their long stay in Hungary. The proportion of families is unbalanced. Seven mare families accounting for 56.36% of the total population. Given the basic requirements of gene conservation work, this condition is far from optimal.
Population genetic indicators of the Hungarian Hucul population were calculated taking also into account the effect of imported horses.The birth year of the examined 3002 individuals ranged between 1871–2015. The last year involved in the examination was 2015, when the research was conducted on the stock under stud book control. The calculati...ons on the population were made using the statistic indicators in the Endog programme, with and without the imported Polish horses. Figures were depicted using R software. Number of offspring of the Polish individuals was presented in tables; the distribution of the offspring per stud and per mare family, as well as the Nei’s genetic distance,were presented graphically.
The traditional Hungarian horse breed, Gidran has been close to the edge of extinction several times. Despite the multiple bottleneck effect, the breed has retained a part of its genetic variability, and performed prominently in carriage driving and show-jumping competitions. Maintaining of the Gidran breed is important in the point of view of...world heritage; because besides Hungary, smaller Gidran populations exist only in Bulgaria and Romania. Taking advantage of the special inheritance features of mtDNA, our study focused on two mtDNA regions of Gidran mares. Altogether, 251 hair samples from various Hungarian studs were examined. The analysis was successfully made in case of 251 samples of the cytochrome b and in case of 246 samples of D-loop regions. Because of the distinct mutation rates of the two mtDNA markers, the number of the haplotypes and the way of grouping samples into haplotypes was different. Our key finding was that most haplotypes may be compatible with mare families of the stud book; however incidental mistakes in stud book have occurred only in a few cases. Our results indicate the importance of the preservation and breeding those mare families, which are molecular genetically more diverse than the others, and are in the edge of extinction.