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  • Comparative study of wold and lowland situated small watercourses from fishbiological aspect

    Fishbiological research was held on 10 small watercourses, especially on the streams of woldy region of the southern foot of the Bükk-mountains and on the creeks of the lowland Borsodi-Mezőség in 2004. 7475 specimens of 34 species were caught as the result of our surveys on 28 sampling sites. Significant differences were found between fish stocks living in wold and lowland situated sampling sites.Nevertheless on the border of the hilly and lowland regions continous transition observed in the composition of fishstocks. Using Ind Val 2.0 statistical software indicator species appointed of the stocks of wold situated samling sites in “natural” and in “disturbed” states, and of the lowland situated sampling sites.

  • Data on the Orthoptera fauna of characteristic agricultural landscape in the Carpathian Lowland

    Orthoptera fauna and assemblages of natural and semi-natural grasslands of the Hungarian Lowland are well-known, however, little is known about assemblages living in agricultural and anthropogenic habitats such as arable lands, roadsides, hedges, and riverbanks. Due to climate change, intensification of agriculture, and change of habitat use, these habitat types become increasingly important.

    To collect data on these mainly unknown habitat types, a three-year study was carried out on the Orthoptera fauna and assemblages of the firth region of the Tisza and Sajó rivers. This area was mainly unknown, and our research contributes to increasing knowledge and provides a base for further investigations.

    In the 40 sampling sites of the studied region, an occurrence of 30 Orthoptera species was recorded based on 2241 sampled individuals. In this study, we provide 540 new distribution data records of orthopterans that means an almost eightfold increase of the known data. Orthoptera assemblages of different agricultural habitat types showed significant differences considering both species richness and composition. Data suggested that non-cultivated habitat patches of dirt-roads, roadsides and stubble fields and even extensively used pastures, hayfields and alfalfa, red clover, and even wheat fields can preserve relatively species-rich Orthoptera assemblages. Contrary weedy sites of these cultivars and intensively used arable lands (maize, sunflower and rape fields) showed extremely low species diversity.

  • Folic acid content of beetroot leaf and root by different growing stages and genotypes

    An increasing interest has been observed of beetroot leaf as a salad component due to recent studies focusing on their nutritional value. The randomized field experiment was carried out on lowland chernozem soil with 6 varieties, 3 replications and 2 sowing dates. Sampling was performed on 23 of August 2018 at the stage of 30 and 50 days of vegetation, where leaf (30 and 50 days) and root (50 days) were collected. Total dry matter, folic acid and nitrate content were evaluated.

    The results of this investigation show that higher total dry matter content was measured in the root (8.47–10.30%) compared to the leaf in both developmental stages (6.47–9.20%). Nevertheless, higher folic acid content was found in the young leaves of 30 and 50 days of development (58.77–113.86 µg 100g-1). Among the examined varieties, Bonel has presented great amount of folic acid not only in the leaves (99.35–113.61 µg 100g-1), but also in the root (89.99 µg 100g-1). Finally, lower nitrate content was found in Libero (316.16 mg kg-1) at 30 days and in Akela (340.41 mg kg-1) at 50 days of development. Thereby, fresh consumption of beetroot leaves are highly recommended.

  • Nutritional disorders of arable crop growth in eastern Croatia

    Nutritional imbalances accompanied with growth retardation of crops at early growth stage were found since the last 40 years on certain arable lands in eastern Croatia. In this regard, phosphorus (P) deficiencies in maize and wheat were found mainly on acid soils of the western part of the region, potassium (K) deficiencies in maize, soybean on the hydromorphic neutral to alkaline calcaric drained gleysols of Sava valley lowland, while zinc (Zn) deficiencies were observed mainly in seed-maize and soybean on neutral calcaric eutric cambisols of the eastern part of the region. Cold and moist spring is factor promoting P deficiency symptoms. As oasis of normal crops existed on same arable land, comparison of plant and soil composition was possible from typical sites. P nutrition disorders were in connection with the lower P and the higher aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations in the top of plants and the lower soil pH values. K-deficiency as result of strong K fixation and imbalances with high levels of magnesium (Mg) were the main responsible factors of low maize and soybean yields on some drained gleysols. Chlorosis incidences typical for Zn deficiency in maize and soybean were in close connection with the higher soil pH, the lower quantities of mobile Zn, here and there the higher mobile P in soil, the lower concentrations of Zn and the higher levels of Al and Fe in plants. Overcoming the above mentioned disorders and normalization of yields were achieved using ameliorative fertilization either by K or P fertilizers and in case of Zn by foliar spraying of crops with 0.75% ZnSO4 solution. Also, alleviations are possible by selection of more tolerant genotypes of field crops to specific types of nutritional disorders. From this aspect, some practical solutions were recommended for maize with reference to K nutritional problems.

  • Evaluation of mineral element content of beetroot during the different stages of the growing season

    In modern nutrition, bioactive materials of different vegetables are especially important to be researched. The experiment was carried out on March 30, 2016 (sowing date). Mineral element content (B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Zn) was evaluated on the 60th, 85th and the 105th day of the vegetation period. The data are presented as the mean of five varieties which can give the real state of these parameters of beetroot grown on lowland chernozem soil.

    In the young beetroot leaves (60 days) the mineral element content was higher than in the older ones (85 days). The calcium and magnesium content of the leaves was much more favourable (10 times higher) than in the root. The potassium content of leaves has reached the amount of 5000 mg kg-1, but at the same time more than 3000 mg kg-1 was detected in the improved root. This value is favourable for the potassium supply of the human organism.

    The sulphur content (1300 mg kg-1) of the leaves was the highest on the 85th day of vegetation period. Similar tendency was detected for boron content (2.45 mg kg-1), while for iron content it was higher (28.23 mg kg-1) in the younger leaves (60 days).

    Finally, it can be concluded that the increased element content of beetroot leaves will be a favourable source of mineral element supply of the human organism.

  • Physiological plasticity of main tree species of lowland hornbeamoak forest as a results of forest gap regeneration

    Specific leaf area (SLA) of English oak (Quercus robur L.) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) as members of Querco robori-Carpinetum were investigated in two different habitat in terms of gap forest management: in the gap and in the inert forest. The artificial opening process of the forest resulted in more light for growing saplings and need for acclimatization. Photosynthesis is one of the most important ways for plant life and plant production basically influenced by altered light condition resulted in opening process. Efficient photosynthesis is important for plant life, plant production, but species-dependent plasticity of photosynthesis makes one species more tolerant, than others. The specific leaf area is acceptable parameters for characterising plant production, dry matter content and leaf structure. The dry matter content based on known leaf area is higher in oak both sun and shade leaves, than hornbeam. The different place of leaves in the canopy of trees did not influence the values of SLA.

  • Examination of the conditions of extreme water balance circumstances (water logging, drought) with environmental information technology tools

    The Carpathian Basin is characterized by varying hydrological extremes, both in space and time. Hungary's natural endowments are more favourable than average, especially for agricultural production, with 5,3 million hectares of land we have which is suitable for agricultural production. These extreme water management are often occur in the same year and mostly in the same region, which may become more frequent in the future, especially in the lowland regions. The negative impacts of extreme water management was influenced by the land use changes in recent years, which has modified the runoff processes of the affected regions.

    The aim of the study was to research the formation of inland water and drought circumstances in two sample areas the Great Plain (Szolnok-Túri flat and Nyírség) by geoinformatic tools. During the investigation in the first step we determined that areas which are susceptible to inland water and drought, based on the AGROTOPO database. In addition, land-use categories of characteristics of the sample areas are evaluated according to the Corine Land Cover. Furthermore, after defining characteristic of NDVI values between the period of 2003–2013, we evaluated the effect of drought whether can be detected in crop failures in respective areas.

    Based on our results, we concluded that the formation of inland water and drought circumstances can be investigated in a large spatial extension by geoinformatic tools and databases.

  • Effects of different groundcover matters on nutrient availability in an integrated apple orchard in Eastern-Hungary

    The aim of our study is to examine the effects of different groundcover methods on nutrient availability and uptake of apple orchard. The
    experiment was carried out at the orchard of TEDEJ Rt. at Hajdúnánás-Tedej, in Eastern Hungary. The orchard was set up on lowland chernozem soil in the Nyírség region. It was established in the autumn of 1999, using Idared cultivar grafted on MM106 rootstocks at a spacing of 3.8 x 1.1 m.
    The applied treatments were divided into two groups according to origins and effects. On the one hand, different livestock manures (cow,
    horse and pig), on the other hand different mulch-matters (straw, pine bark mulch, black foil) were used. The different manures and mulches
    were applied on the surface to test the effectiveness of these materials.
    The effectiveness of manure treatments was higher than the other treatments on AL soluble P content of soil. Mostly the manure treatments
    increased the AL soluble K of soil. Our all treatments increased 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble NO3 - -N content of the examined soil layers. The effect
    of manure treatments was the highest. From the results it was evident that the amount of easily soluble organic nitrogen fraction distributed
    more homogeneously than the other mineral N fractions examined.
    Our results can be summarized as follows:
    1. Our results pointed out that the used ground covering matters divided into several categories regarding its effect.
    2. The available N, P and K contents of soil were mostly increased by applying manures.
    3. The effectiveness of straw, mulch and mostly black foil was lower.
    4. Differences were found between nutrient supplying treatments and the treatments which did not supply nutrients.

  • The distribution of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855); Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the Northeast part of the Carpathian Lowland (West Ukraine)

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) spread rapidly during the last five years and became common and abundant in Central Europe, especially in the urban environment. In the Carpathian basin, the West Ukrainian Transcarpathia county was the last region where this species has not been found yet. The first specimens of this invasive pest were sampled in Velyka Dobron’ in 2018 and in 2019 it was found in another neighbouring village and cities of Chop, Berehove and Uzhhorod. The data provided here is the first for West Ukraine and the second for the country following the published record from Odessa (SE Ukraine). Although H. halys is still less abundant and occupied mainly urban habitats, it will certainly cause nuisance for peoples and damages for farmers in the near future.