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The effect of nickel-contamination, nitrogen-supply and liming on the chemical composition of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published October 10, 2008
85-92

Plant-production is determined by many production-factors. Each of these factors became subject of research-works through the years, still we state, that studying their interaction is even more important. For studying these interactions we set up a potexperiment, within that the direct effect and the interactions of four factors was inspected: ...soil, nitrogen-supply, nickel-loading and liming. Experiments were carried out on two soil types with extremely different characters: one was a chernozem soil with good fertility and buffering capacity, the other was a shifting sand soil with low humus-content and buffering capacity. Nitrogensupply and liming was added on two levels, while nickel on three within 12 combinations on each soil types. Plant production was cut two times within the vegetation period. The amount of production and dry matter was weighted, fractured and their element-content was measured by an ICP-detector.
Ca-content on the shifting sand soil was determined by all three factors, however the interaction between nickel-loading and liming was also significant. Nitrogen and liming increased Cauptake, that is due to appropriate nutrient-supply and improvement of a better pH-value. On the chernozem soil nitrogen and CaCO3 also increased the Ca-content. This is caused by a better nutrient supply and a higher amount of available Ca-ions.
On the shifting sand soil nickel content was increasing parallel to higher nitrogen-dosages. In presence of higher nickelamount the nickel-content of plants was also increasing, still according to liming, this increment was different. On the chernozem soil nitrogen a nickel increased Ni-uptake. However, liming also had a positive effect on Ni-content, that can be explained by the high amount on colloids in the soil, the adsorption of Ni-ions on them and in presence of liming material the replacement of Ca-and Ni-ions. 
The potassium-content on the shifting sand soil was different in each liming-combination. In combinations without nickel the potassium-content of limed and not limed combinations was on the same level. In not limed combinations by adding nickel potassiumcontent was increasing, while in limed combinations no change was observed. On the chernozem soil by adding liming material the amount of uptaken potassium was decreasing, that is due to the antagonism between Ca- and K-ions. 

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A szervetlen-C és a szerves-C mennyiségének változása egy homoktalajban, meszezés hatására
Published March 27, 2002
8-10

The effect of liming on different organic and inorganic carbon forms in soil was studied in a pot experiment on acidic sandy soil (pH(H2O)=4.38; pH(KCl)=3.42). We used three kinds of liming doses (which were signed M1, M2, M3,). M1 was half of the M2 dose; M2 was the calculated lime dose and M3 was one and the half dose of M2. Lime (CaCO3) was ...mixed into the soil in powdery form. In addition to liming treatments, a uniform N, P and K treatment (1-1-1g N, P2O5 and K2O per pot) was given. Water supply was set up to 75% field water capacity of soil. Pots were watered daily. During the vegetation period soil and plant (oats; Avena sativa L.) samples were taken from each treatment three times (after 6-10-15 weeks). We determined inorganic- and total-C of the soil by Vario EL element analyser (based on dry combustion method) and calculated the organic-C.
The conclusions can be summarized as follows:
– Liming treatments had a significant positive effect on the soil-pH and caused quantitative change of different carbon forms of soil.
– Increasing tendency of liming doses caused more intensive changes in inorganic- and organic-C forms of soil.
– A significant correlations was found between the soil pH and the inorganic-C fraction of soil.
– A decreasing correlation was found between the vegetation period and the organic-C fraction.

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Effects of long-term K fertilization and liming on the extractable and exchangeable K contents of a Haplic Phaeosem soil
Published October 5, 2010
141-145

Effects of regular K fertilization and liming on the easily extractable K content of a Haplic phaeosem soil determined in 0.01 M CaCl2
and AL (traditional method in Hungary) were examined in the B1740 type of the National Uniformed Long-Term Fertilization Experiments
at Karcag.
Close correlation (r=0.95) was found between the 0.01 M Ca...Cl2 and ammonium lactate - acetic acid (AL) extractable K contents of
soils.
K fertilization increased the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL extractable K significantly. Liming had different effects on the amounts of
K extracted by these two methods. Liming increased the amount of AL-K and decreased the amount of CaCl2-K. CaCl2 extractable K was in
close correlation with the relative amount of exchangeable K content of the soil (K%) and the agronomic K balance. The results of regression
analysis confirmed that the CaCl2-K characterized K% and the AL-K related to the absolute amount of exchangeable K.
On the basis of the presented results it can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to detect not just the increase of easily extractable K
caused by fertilization and liming but the changing of the rate of the relative amount of exchangeable K.

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Fertilisation Effect on Quantity of 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble N-Forms in a Long-Term-Small-Plot Experiment
Published May 11, 2003
166-170

long-term experiments have an opportunity to investigate the effects of fertilization and plant nutrition. The paper reports the results achieved in the 39th years of a long-term-small-plot fertilisation and liming experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil in the Nyírség region. From the 32 treatment, four replications, altogether 1...28 plot experiments with 10 treatments are summarized. We took samples after harvest of triticale, in August.
We used a reliable method (segmented continuous flow analysis) to determine different (easily mobilized - 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble) N-forms of soil. The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble inorganic and total N content and the UV digestable organic-N form of soil were determined by this method.
The results are summarized below:
– The mineralized-N (Nmin.) content of soil increased with dose of nitrogen treatment. Liming treatments increase the amount of Nmin.
– The maximum content of easily mobilize organic-N-fraction was found in the upper (0-20 cm) layer. This fact due to the large amount of crop and roots.
– Changing of content of 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble total-N-forms due to N doses.
– The ratios of these N forms are variable. It is very important that the content of organic N fraction is not negligible and this fraction plays a main role in the plant nutrition.

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Study of factors controlling the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable Norg fraction
Published September 5, 2018
437-449
The use of new methods describing the “readily available” nutrient content of the soil is spreading on a global scale. The 0.01 M CaCl2 extractant is a dilute salt solution in which the easily soluble inorganic (nitrate-N and ammonium-N) and organic N fractions, P, K and micronutrients are also measurable. The 0.01 M CaCl2 has been tested... in the University of Debrecen, Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Sciences since the 90’s. The results of the researches related to organic N fraction, performed in the last decades, and the results of the present study (originating from the long-term experiment of Karcag, 2007–2009) can be concluded as follows:
The measurement of easily soluble and oxidizable organic nitrogen (Norg), besides inorganic fractions, could improve the nutrient management.
The amount of the Norg fraction is determined by the soil conditions, therefore it is considered to be a site-specific parameter.
Management practices and cropyear affect the amount of Norg as well. The present research confirmed that, the effect of fertilization on the amount of Norg can be explained by the changing of the yield (related to total biomass production), while the effect of cropyear is related to the differences in mineralization circumstances and yield as well.
The measurement of the Norg fraction is increases the accuracy of N-supply, therefore it could prevent the environmentally harmful excess N application as well.
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Role of living bacteria and other amendment in early development of maize
Published April 23, 2014
53-56

Different bacteria and wood ash, as a possible micro-nutrient, and liming material, was examined in our experiment on the early growth of corn seedlings.

The development of renewing energy resources includes the use of energy grasses and energy forests. The intensive land use in forestry and in agriculture may cause the acidification of... soils due to the harvest, or leaching of cations. To maintain the sustainability of soils necessary to maintain it’s the buffer capacity, and pH. Beside the lime the wood ash can is one of the most effective sources to provide the sustainability of intensive land use. The soil born micro organisms play a significant role in the maintenance of soil quality. The bio fertilizer, that contains soil originated bacteria (Azotobacter, and Bacillus sp.), was used in the experiments. The plants release several organic acids by their roots lowering the soil pH, and make more available the sparingly soluble minerals. The amounts of released organic matter depend on stress intensity, as the high pH is. The soil life has a significant role to keep the soil conditions on sustainable level, since there are several similarities in nutrient uptake mechanism between the bacteria and higher plants. Advantageous effects of bio-fertilizer were observed in our experiments.

We came to the conclusion that the use of wood ash is recommended instead of lime for the improvement of acidic soils, on the evidence of its pH increasing effect. The wood ash contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants. The solubility of heavy metals is very low; therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture by our experiments. The retardation of growth at higher ash doses can be explained by the modification effect to the soil pH, as far as the original soil pH was pH 6.8, and when ash was given to the soil, the pH increases to 7.8 pH, that is unfavourable for the uptake of most nutrients.

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