In an experiment, two types of compost were tested on natural grassland in order to improve the productivity of a natural sward on solonetz soil. Both composts were made of on-farm produced sheep manure, but the second one was enriched in phosphorus. These fertilizers/composts are officially authorized and can be applied in organic farming. Zer...o application and three rates of fertilizer were tested (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1, 30 t ha-1) on 30 m2 experimental plots wit four replications. Dry matter, crude protein and net energy content for maintenance were measured and determined and their yields per unit area were calculated. We found that all the treated plots produced significantly higher yield than the control ones, and in some cases the yields were almost three times higher. However, the optimal compost dose varied, depending on the examined parameter. Based on the evaluation of the experiment results along with rainfall data, it was concluded that, with higher precipitation, the positive effect of the compost application was bigger. The difference between the natural and enriched compost is remarkable, but it has to be mentioned that even the natural compost showed good results; therefore, it is also effective in improving the fertility of grassland.
A major part of the animal products are based on the grasslands, due to the fact that the grassland ecosystems can be found all over the globe. In places where economical and successful crop production cannot be realized, the grassland based animal husbandry can be an efficient way of food production. In addition these ecosystems have an import...ant role in carbon sequestration, and with their rich flora – and the fauna connected to it – in conservation of biodiversity. The protection of nature, and the sustainable agriculture is getting more and more attention in the European Union, but looking at the consumers’ needs, the production of healthy food cannot be neglected either. Because of these facts, the effects of two specific composts - which are officially authorized in organic farming, in Agri-environment Schemes and Natura 2000 programs – on grass yields and sward compositions were investigated in a field trial. The investigation took place in Hungary, on a natural grassland based on solonetz soil. The first type of compost was a natural one (N) without any additional material and the other one was enriched in phosphorus (E). Both was produced by the research institute, made of sheep manure. Three rates of compost (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1,30 t ha-1) were tested on 3 m×10 m experimental plots. Every treatments had four replications and both type of compost had four-four control plots too, this way 32 experimental plots were included in the investigations. The yield of the pasture was harvested two-times (in May and in September) and before cutting the plots measurements on botanical compositions were made. Samples for laboratory analysis were also taken. Dry matter yield and crude protein content was measured in laboratory and with the received data the yield per unit area was calculated. Based on the research results we can say that the application of compost in any dose inflicts higher dry material and crude protein yield. The changes were partly due to some positive changes in sward composition, because of the better nutrient conditions. The research results indicate, that use of organic compost can be an efficient way to increase grass yields in a sustainable way.
A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of manure with different origin (horse, cattle), various bedding materials (straw, sawdust) and diverse doses (30 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1) and the impact of food waste compost on the plant growth and the available plant nutrient content of soil. The study was condu...cted on humic sandy soil and consisted of 9 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown as the test crop. The treatments were: 1. unfertilized control; 2. horse manure with straw (30 t ha-1); 3. horse manure with sawdust (30 t ha-1); 4. cattle manure (30 t ha-1); 5 food waste compost (30 t ha-1); 6. horse manure with straw (60 t ha-1); 7. horse manure with sawdust (60 t ha-1); 8. cattle manure (60 t ha-1); 9. food waste compost (60 t ha-1). Plant growth was monitored for 4 weeks. Shoot and root weights per pot were measured, total biomass weight per pot were counted.
On the basis of the results it can be concluded, that among treatments the application of horse manure with straw enhanced spinach growth most significantly compared to other treatments and to the non-treated control, resulted the highest weights of leaves and roots of spinach. At the same time even small dose (30 t ha-1) of this fertilizer caused increased plant available nitrogen and phosphorus of soil and the higher dosage further increased these values. The horse manure with sawdust applied in lower dose did not alter the leaves and roots weights, but higher portion (60 t ha-1) caused significantly decreased plant biomass. The results proved that the bedding material may significantly alter the composition of manure and may change the plant nutrition effect of organic fertilizer. Cattle manure and food waste compost in both applied doses enhanced plant growth. Both fertilizers increased the plant available nitrogen forms and phosphorus content of soil, but cattle manure caused higher increase.
Satisfaction of the increasing needs of humanity causes large environmental load. To provide a livable environment for future generations we have to satisfy our needs with the use of sustainable management. This is one of the biggest challenges of nowadays.
The amount of wastes emitted in increasing volume can be decreased by the recycling o
These materials mostly with organic compounds could be the primary substrates of composts. Completed with suitable additives, and applied appropriate treating technology, composts are capable to supply horticultural plants with nutrients. Composting wastes and byproducts not just decreases the amounts of deposited waste materials, but increases the nutrient (macro- and micronutrients) content of soils, so this is an environmentally friendly and alternative way of nutrient management of plants.
Protection of natural resources and sustainable natural resources management are essential for the long-term survival of humanity. This makes necessary nowadays the development of environmentally conscious living and spread of that in the future. The amount of organic waste materials, produced during human activities, could be decreased by comp...osting instead of dispose them in landfills. Applying appropriate treatment technology and additives, the compost could be used as fertilizer for horticultural crops and it could increase the easily available nutrient content of soils. Compost utilization prevents nutrient deficiencies and by using the optimal rate, we could reach significant yield increases.