In lakes and wetlands, leaf litter input from the coastal vegetation represents a major nutrient load and plays a basic structural and functional role in several ecosystems. In Hungary, at the banks of lakes and wetlands, Salix and Populus trees are the most common species. In an experiment in Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland between 16 Nov...ember 2017 to and 3 June 2018, the decomposition rates and leaching dynamics of Salix, Populus and mixed leaves (50% Salix and 50% Populus) were investigated. Total nitrogen and phosphorus content of biomass samples were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment for the leaching dynamics experiment. We found that litter mass losses (Salix, Populus and mixed leaves) were not significantly different between the two mesh size litterbags and between Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland. Different amounts of the total nitrogen and phosphorus leaching from Salix, Populus and mixed leaves were detected. The total nitrogen contents of the plant samples were around 8-18% at the end of the investigated period. Slightly higher values were measured compared to phosphorous (27-29%).
Plant litter decomposition in inland waters contributes significantly to nutrient load, particularly in still waters, such as shallow lakes and wetlands. The decomposition rates of Salix alba and Populus tremula leaf litter was examined in Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland, using litter bag technique. Leaf litter was incubated in small (ᴓ=...3 mm) and large (ᴓ=900 μm) mesh size bags for the assessment of the relative contribution of macroinvertebrates to leaf litter decomposition. Dry mass, exponential decay coefficient and chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, NH4 +, NO3 -, SO4 2-, PO4 3-, Cl-) were determined. Leaf mass loss showed negative exponential pattern during the 168 days of the decomposition period. Leaf litter mass loss generally did not differ between the small and large mesh sizes, suggesting that macroinvertebrates generally have a negligible role in leaf decomposition in the winter period.
The plantation of willow varieties was established in 2009. The 40 different varieties and clones of Salix were planted at a research field in Kolíňany (Nitra district). The paper evaluates results from the first growing season in 2009. The survival rate of planted cuttings ranged from 55.56 % to 100.00 % after the first year. The lowest surv...ival rate was reached by Terra Nova variety. The stem numbers per plant ranged from 1.17 ±0.37 to 2.53 ±0.98. The average height of one-year old stem varied from 65.82 ±36.60 cm to 225.58 ±68.61 cm. The average stem diameter ranged from 6.90 ±2.63 mm to 14.34 ±3.39 mm. There were statistically very significant differences in parameters of stem height stem diameter and stem numbers per plant among studied varieties/clones. The statistic method used was analysis of variance ANOVA. The varieties were then divided into 6 groups according to their similarity in observed parameters after the first growing season by cluster analysis. The best results were reached by varieties/clones classified in the second group. The survival rate, stem diameter and stem height values of these varieties/clones were above average.
The world is in a continuous progress, as a result of which energy consumption and with this the release of gases with adverse impact show rapid increase. As a result of the survey conducted by the International Energy Agency, if the major economic powers do not initiate a change in their energy policy, the increase of energy consumption may as... well reach 40 % by 2030. This increased energy demand is getting more and more difficult to fulfill with the fossil energy resources, which is to lead to an increasing significance of renewable energy resources. In Hungary, these energy resources are the best to provide with biomass growth. Biomass growth for energetic purpose can mostly be provided by energy plants, out of which “energy willow” (Salix viminalis L.) is outstanding with its high yield and with its excellent burning technology characteristics of its timber. The willow’s cropping technology is being established in our country. One of our tasks is to work out an adequate weed control plan. The professional and safe use of herbicides can increase the success of production. In our paper, we discuss the weed flora data collected on treatments applied in the different fertilizer and compost. We started our survey in 2010. We examined twelve different fertilizer and compost treated areas. The dominant weeds were: Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli among annuals; Cirsium arvense and Agropyron repens among the perennials.
The primary purpose of our experiment was the solution of municipal excess sludge treatment by a renewable energy resource used willow (Salix viminalis L.) plantation. Tests were carried out to state whether the applied sewage sludge has caused any accumulation of the toxic elements in the studied soil layers, and - based on the results –to s...ee whether the plantation is suitable for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge.
The excess sludge (sludge before dewatering) is beneficial for the willow, because it contains a 3–5% dry matter and therefore, a lot of water, too. This high water content ensures the high water amount needed for the intensive growth of the willow. On the other hand, the wastewater treatment plant can save the dewatering cost which corresponds to about 30% of the water treatment process costs. The amounts of the sprinkled sewage sludge were calculated on the basis of its total nitrogen content. Treatments were the followings: control, 170 N kg ha-1 year-1 and 250 N kg ha-1 year-1. The mean values of the toxic element concentrations in the sewage sludge did not cross the permitted limits of the land accommodating.
The measured toxic element values of the soil were compared to the limits of the 50/2001. (IV.3.) Government Regulation.The sprinkled sewage sludge on the bases of the total N content did not cause accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and the treated plants were also healthy without any signs of toxicity.
In Spring 2005, the owner of the Szalka-Pig Ltd. of Mateszalka, decided to import the willow species Salix viminalis L. and to create a plantation for energy production purposes on the humid arable lands in his ownership. In 2006, he enlarged this area by 43 hectares. The owner further decided not only to plant this species on the more adherent... (KA 70), but also onto the incoherent structured sand (KA 30-35). His main argument was that the cost of coal tar derivatives as energy sources was rapidly increasing in Hungary, so he needed to find a cheaper energy source for the drying of his products and for the heating of his buildings. He also planned to change his gas and oil heating equipment.
The willow’s cropping technology is being established in our country. One of our tasks is to work out an adequate weed control plan. The professional and safe use of herbicides can increase the success of production. In our paper, we discuss the data collected on treatments applied in the pre-emergent stage. The applied herbicide combinations (terbutilazin+S-metolaklór, mezotrion+ S-metolaklór, pendimetalin+S-metolaklór, oxyfluorfen+ S-metolaklór) yielded good results in large scale experiments.